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    the length of a rectangle is 7.1 cm and its breadth is 2.5 cm what is the area of the rectangle

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    The length of a rectangle is 7.1 cm and its breadth is 2.5 cm. Find its perimeter.

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ The length of a rectangle is 7.1 cm and its breadth is 2.5 cm. Find its perimeter.

    Question

    The length of a rectangle is 7.1 cm and its breadth is 2.5 cm. Find its perimeter.

    Easy Open in App Solution Verified by Toppr

    length of rectangle = 7.1 cm

    Breadth of rectangle = 2.5 cm

    Perimeter = 2(l+b)=2(7.1+2.5)

    =2(9.6)

    [perimeter = 19.2 cm]

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    Example 8

    Example 8 The length of a rectangle is 7.1 cm and its breadth is 2.5 cm. What is the area of the rectangle?Given, Length = 7.1 cm Breadth = 2.5 cm Area of rectangle = Length × Breadth = 7.1 cm × 2.5 cm = 71/10 × 25/10 × (cm × cm) = (71 × 25)/100 × 〖𝑐𝑚〗^2 = 1775/100 × 〖𝑐𝑚〗^2 = 17.75 〖𝑐𝑚〗

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    Example 8 - Chapter 2 Class 7 Fractions and Decimals

    Last updated at July 12, 2018 by Teachoo

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    Example 8 The length of a rectangle is 7.1 cm and its breadth is 2.5 cm. What is the area of the rectangle?Given, Length = 7.1 cm Breadth = 2.5 cm Area of rectangle = Length × Breadth = 7.1 cm × 2.5 cm = 71/10 × 25/10 × (cm × cm) = (71 × 25)/100 × 〖𝑐𝑚〗^2 = 1775/100 × 〖𝑐𝑚〗^2 = 17.75 〖𝑐𝑚〗^2 ∴ Area is 17.75 cm2

    Next: Example 9 Important →

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    Davneet Singh

    Davneet Singh has done his B.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He has been teaching from the past 12 years. He provides courses for Maths, Science, Social Science, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science at Teachoo.

    स्रोत : www.teachoo.com

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    स्रोत : brainly.in

    most of the people say that their indulgence in the unethical aspects happened due to time pressure.

    get most of the people say that their indulgence in the unethical aspects happened due to time pressure. from screen.

    Why Do Good People Make Unethical Choices

    Despite taking all the right steps for creating an ethical environment – providing ethics training, developing a code of conduct, implementing a reporting hotline, etc. – organizations are still not immune to inappropriate behavior. According to the most recent National Business Ethics Survey, approximately 41 percent of workers witnessed some form of unethical conduct within […]

    Why Do Good People Make Unethical Choices

    Edward Vesely April 18, 2019 Uncategorized

    Despite taking all the right steps for creating an ethical environment – providing ethics training, developing a code of conduct, implementing a reporting hotline, etc. – organizations are still not immune to inappropriate behavior. According to the most recent National Business Ethics Survey, approximately 41 percent of workers witnessed some form of unethical conduct within the previous 12 months.

    While many believe that it’s only a few “bad apples” who commit ethical breaches, the reality is that many violations occur due to lapses in judgment by honest individuals who end up making some very poor decisions. As former federal prosecutor Serina Vash told the Harvard Business Review, “When I first began prosecuting corruption, I expected to walk into rooms and find the vilest people. I was shocked to find ordinarily good people I could well have had coffee with that morning. And they were still good people who’d made terrible choices.”

    So why do seemingly honest, hard-working people who started out with the best of intentions commit unethical, or in some cases, illegal acts? What is it that leads them astray? The truth is that there is no one simple reason good employees turn bad – it is often the result of a combination of various cultural and personal factors.

    Cultural/Environmental Factors

    Organizations can set themselves up for an ethical disaster by unwittingly creating an environment where employees ultimately feel compelled to make unethical choices. This can occur in several ways:

    Pressure to achieve unrealistic objectives – The pressure to meet exceedingly high expectations, especially in numbers-driven functions such as sales and finance, can cause employees to cut corners or make compromising choices. Employees who feel they have no chance of hitting a target may attempt to falsify documents or lie about their progress, often due to the fear of being fired.Perception of unfair treatment – Good employees who feel that their efforts are not being adequately recognized or rewarded by the organization may resort to unethical behavior to retaliate for the slight, or to attain what they believe is rightly theirs. For example, an employee who was passed over for a promotion may decide to cheat on expense reports or take home company property. The sense of unfairness can permeate the organization – several disgruntled employees may band together to collude against the company on a wide scale.Lack of focus on ethics and compliance – There are still many organizations that do not make ethics and compliance a part of the routine conversation – they only address it after a serious event or ethical crisis occurs. By not making ethics a primary component of the everyday work environment, organizations are, in effect, encouraging unethical behavior – even the most honest employees may receive a message that “anything goes.” In addition, a lack of attention to ethics may result in employees not being able to recognize the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behavior.Misguided loyalty – Sometimes, employees who are doing something wrong may believe they are doing the right thing for their company. They may think if they fail to act in an unethical manner, they are being disloyal to the boss or the organization. Misplaced loyalty can also occur when employees do not speak up when witnessing misconduct because they do not want to get a friend into trouble.Poor example from leadership – Leadership is responsible for setting the ethical tone in any organization. If top executives fail to “do the right thing” when making key decisions or handling ethical dilemmas, it sends the wrong signal to the entire organization and opens the door for inappropriate behavior.

    Personal Factors

    Sometimes, it’s an individual’s personal situation that leads to misconduct. Research points to three behaviors that can make good people make unethical choices:

    Need – An employee may elect to take a bribe, cheat on an expense report or embezzle company funds to fulfill a major financial need like paying off debts or covering a medical bill. There can also be a psychological need such as a lust for the power that comes with money or a desire to own luxury items that would otherwise be unaffordable.Opportunity – Even good people are not always able to resist an opportunity to take advantage of a situation. We often hear about trusted employees in smaller organizations whose actions undergo little or no scrutiny – and eventually use this lack of oversight to steal funds or engage in other forms of unethical behavior to further their own interests.Rationalization – Many who commit unethical acts can justify their behavior in their own minds. For example, an employee who skims from the company’s accounts may convince himself that he is doing no harm because he tends to replace the missing funds at some point.

    Organization Solutions for Preventing Unethical Behavior

    Organizations can take several steps to limit the likelihood of good employees behaving inappropriately:

    Train employees to recognize the impact that misconduct has on their coworkers and the entire organization. Cite specific examples that link the behavior to the harm it causes.

    Ensure that all managers weigh the ethical consequences of their decisions – employees are quick to notice hypocrisy, and the failure to “walk the walk” will send a message that there is nothing wrong with unethical behavior.

    स्रोत : www.lighthouse-services.com

    Why Ethical People Make Unethical Choices

    Companies unintentionally provoke bad behavior.

    Business Ethics

    Why Ethical People Make Unethical Choices

    Companies unintentionally provoke bad behavior.

    by Ron Carucci by Ron Carucci December 16, 2016

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    Most companies have ethics and compliance policies that get reviewed and signed annually by all employees. “Employees are charged with conducting their business affairs in accordance with the highest ethical standards,” reads one such example. “Moral as well as legal obligations will be fulfilled in a manner which will reflect pride on the Company’s name.” Of course, that policy comes directly from Enron.  Clearly it takes more than a compliance policy or Values Statement to sustain a truly ethical workplace.

    Corporate ethical failures have become painfully common, and they aren’t cheap.  In the last decade, billions of dollars have been paid in fines by companies charged with ethical breaches. The most recent National Business Ethics Survey indicates progress as leaders make concerted efforts to pay holistic attention to their organization’s systems. But despite progress, 41% of workers reported seeing ethical misconduct in the previous 12 months, and 10% felt organizational pressure to compromise ethical standards. Wells Fargo’s recent debacle cost them $185 million in fines because 5300 employees opened up more than a million fraudulent accounts.  When all is said and done, we’ll likely learn that the choices of those employees resulted from deeply systemic issues.

    YOU AND YOUR TEAM SERIES

    Creating an Ethical Workplace

    Why It’s So Hard to Train Someone to Make an Ethical Decision

    Eugene Soltes

    Keep a List of Unethical Things You’ll Never Do

    Mark Chussil

    Don’t Try to Be the “Fun Boss” — and Other Lessons in Ethical Leadership

    Kimberly Nei and Darin Nei

    Despite good intentions, organizations set themselves up for ethical catastrophes by creating environments in which people feel forced to make choices they could never have imagined.  Former Federal Prosecutor Serina Vash says, “When I first began prosecuting corruption, I expected to walk into rooms and find the vilest people.  I was shocked to find ordinarily good people I could well have had coffee with that morning. And they were still good people who’d made terrible choices.”

    Here are five ways organizations needlessly provoke good people to make unethical choices.

    It is psychologically unsafe to speak up. Despite saying things like, “I have an open door policy,” some leadership actions may inhibit the courage needed to raise ethical concerns.  Creating a culture in which people freely speak up is vital to ensuring people don’t collude with, or incite, misconduct.  Elizabeth Morrison of New York University, in Encouraging a Speak Up Culture, says “You have to confront the two fundamental challenges preventing employees from speaking up.  The first is the natural feeling of futility — feeling like speaking up isn’t worth the effort or that on one wants to hear it.  The second is the natural fear that speaking up will lead to retribution or harsh reactions.” A manager’s reactions to an employee’s concerns sets the tone for whether or not people will raise future issues.  If a leader reacts with even the slightest bit of annoyance, they are signaling they don’t really want to hear concerns.There is excessive pressure to reach unrealistic performance targets. Significant research from Harvard Business School suggests unfettered goal setting can encourage people to make compromising choices in order to reach targets, especially if those targets seem unrealistic. Leaders may be inviting people to cheat in two ways.  They will cut corners on the way they reach a goal, or they will lie when reporting how much of the goal they actually achieved.  Says Lisa Ordonez, Vice Dean and professor at the University of Arizona, “Goals have a strong effect of causing tunnel vision, narrowly focusing people at the expense of seeing much else around them, including the potential consequences of compromised choices made to reach goals.”  Once people sense the risk of failure, they go into “loss prevention” mode, fearing the loss of job, status, or at-risk incentives. The Veterans Administration learned this lesson the hard way when trying to address the 115-day wait time in their Phoenix hospital. They set a new goal of reducing the wait to 14 days, which resulted in an alleged 24-day wait. But employees said they felt compelled to manipulate performance records to give the appearance of meeting these goals. As many as 40 veterans died waiting for care at the Phoenix center, some more than a year. Organizations must ensure people have the resources, timelines, skill and support they need to achieve targets they are given, especially ambitious stretch goals.Conflicting goals provoke a sense of unfairness. And once a sense of injustice is provoked, the stage is set for compromise.  Maureen Ambrose, Mark Seabright, and Marshall Schminke’s research on organizational injustice clearly shows a direct correlation between employees’ sense of fairness and their conscious choice to sabotage the organization.  Consider one organization I worked with whose pursuit of growth created conflicting goals. The head of Supply Chain was given a $3.5 million capital investment to overhaul a plant to triple its production. Some of that funding came from the 25% budget cut in marketing in the same division.  At the same time, Sales divided its quota territories to raise topline performance. The intensity of resentment in the salesforce at having to drive revenues with smaller territories was compounded by having fewer marketing dollars to sell more product. The conflicting goals created excess product capacity that was bottlenecked getting to market.  Two years later, the organization was indicted for channel stuffing.

    स्रोत : hbr.org

    Effects of Unethical Behaviour on Business

    Damaged reputation, no customers, employee attrition, lack of investors - just some of the effects of unethical behaviour on business. Worth the trouble?

    Effects of Unethical Behaviour on Business

    by Emily Newman | Nov 19, 2015 | Customer Service | 0 comments

    “Leadership that allows for mediocrity to first exist and then remain, rather than demand the highest level of conduct within a department, can create a climate ripe for misconduct.” – leb.fbi.gov

    Companies have probably never felt so compelled ever before to be customer-focused. Customers are more demanding, smart and know exactly how to get what they want. In the highly competitive and challenging business environment, companies have no choice but to comply. The challenges do not end with becoming oriented towards customer needs alone – customers must be able to trust that companies and their representatives are honest and ethical. Among the strongest pillars of any business relationship now, is trust, and customers prefer doing business with companies that have a reputation for being honest and transparent in their dealings. Research has shown that the effects of unethical behaviour on business are many and detrimental to a company and one incident that contradicts a customer’s belief in the company is often enough to destroy their trust. “Trust takes years to build, seconds to break, and forever to repair.”- SearchQuotes.com

    Despite the truth of the quote and the labour and investment required to gain customers, the harsh reality is that almost every company will have some ‘malefactors’ who are not ashamed to indulge in dishonesty. They completely ignore the effects of unethical behaviour on the business of their company. Unethical behaviour could be a range of things – using company property for personal gains, dishonesty in financial dealings, accepting and giving bribes and possibly the worst – insider trading. Some companies do not hesitate to offer huge ‘incentives’ to land lucrative contracts, government deals and other such transactions that will optimize their profits – irrespective of the damage they may cause to others. These companies, as they become stronger from building ‘associations’ care less and less for their employees and customers. Their only aim is to gain profits through whatever means possible.

    The effects of unethical behaviour on business begin to tell with time – as the line between right and wrong begins to blur. People within the organization that conduct themselves with high standards feel helpless and annoyed with the dishonest behaviour of their co-workers and or leaders. This frustration is compounded further by the fact that the company does not take action given that there may not be any legal implications or great financial damage. The honest employees then either look for alternative employment or if they are unable to find another suitable opportunity often end up with high stress and health related problems – thereby affecting the overall productivity of the company.

    While the unethical behaviour and practices may succeed for a while, they are soon found out. Persons and companies found guilty of such practices would then be scrutinized and publicly shamed. Companies often end up losing their license to conduct business and their reputation is damaged forever. Even if a company does not immediately get ‘found out’, customers and employees begin to perceive unethical behaviour.  The result would be that they would stop doing business with the company and leave the employment respectively.  Customers would most certainly let others know about the poor practices of the company, leading others to stay away from such a company – further damaging the chances of the company.

    Among the worst effects of unethical behaviour on business is that a company is unable to forge or maintain any long-term relationships with customers. In addition, it becomes vulnerable to long and expensive litigations. The fact is that even one such instance can make the company vulnerable to further accusations, many of which could be false, made by people and competitors seeking to harm the company’s reputation. While customers do have access to a lot of information by way of the internet and other market intelligence, they do rely heavily on the company and its representatives for accurate information and structured guidance on a number of aspects. Therefore, as the business environment becomes more competitive, companies must make the decision to act ethically or else face the highly damaging effects of unethical behaviour on their business and the representatives. It would be extremely immature and imprudent on the part of companies to believe that customers are naïve and would not find out eventually about the company’s malpractices.

    Another of the effects of unethical behaviour on business is that customers would completely shun the company’s products and start a campaign inciting others to follow. A drop in sales means a dip in profits and a fall in the company’s share prices, which eventually would drive investors and other stakeholders away from the company since no one would want to put their hard-earned money in a failing company. The company internally too would have an environment of confusion, distrust, stress and conflict since each person would doubt the intentions of the other. Such a poor work environment would lead to a drop in productivity, lowered morale and employee attrition, which would lead to the downfall of the company.

    The reason that unethical behaviour rises and survives is because people within a company are afraid and hesitant to ‘tell on’ their co-workers since they would be unsure of whom they can speak. If the culture seems to tolerate unethical behaviour, the fear of reprimand or being made an ‘outcast’ often leads people to remain silent. In order to counter the effects of unethical behaviour on business, the company must have strict rules and regulations in place that every employee must be aware and there should be no-tolerance policy for anyone that flouts the norms. Many companies have such guidelines in document form that is provided to each person that joins the company and they are expected to read and sign the document as acknowledgement of having understood the consequences in case they default.

    स्रोत : corp.yonyx.com

    the value of universal gravitational constant g was first experimentally determined by

    get the value of universal gravitational constant g was first experimentally determined by from screen.

    The value of universal gravitational constant 'G' was first experimentally determined by :

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ The value of universal gravitational constant 'G' was first experimentally determined by :

    The value of universal gravitational constant

    Question ′ G ′

    was first experimentally determined by : 

    A

    Galileo

    B

    Newton

    C

    Cavendish

    D

    Kelvin

    Medium Open in App

    Updated on : 2022-09-05

    Solution Verified by Toppr

    Correct option is C)

    Cavendish experiment . The Cavendish experiment , performed in 1797–1798 by British scientist Henry Cavendish, was the first experiment to measure the force of gravity between masses in the laboratory and the first to yield accurate value for the gravitational constant

    Hence,

    option C is correct answer.

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    The value of gravitational constant G was first experimentally class 11 physics CBSE

    The value of gravitational constant G was first experimentally determined by A Galileo B Newton C Cavendish D Kelvin

    The value of gravitational constant G was first experimentally determined by:

    A) Galileo B) Newton C) Cavendish D) Kelvin Answer Verified 223.8k+ views 2 likes

    Hint: The value of gravitational constant, G first determined was

    6.75× 10 −11 N m 2 k g −2 6.75×10−11Nm2kg−2 .

    Complete step by step answer:

    After nearly a century in 1798, Lord Henry Cavendish came to determine the value for that constant G by the experiment of torsional balance.

    He attached the two small lead spheres in each side of the rod and the rod was suspended by a thin wire. When the rod is twisted, the torsion of the wire begins to exert the torsional force which is proportional to the angle of rotation. Then the more twisting leads the system to restore itself backward more. By this, Cavendish calculated the relationship between the angle of rotation to the amount of torsional force.

    And then he brought two large spheres near to the small lead spheres connected to the rod. The large spheres exert the gravitational force on the small spheres which causes the rod to twist. Once the torsional force equals the gravitational force, the twisting stops. The rod comes to rest. Using this, Cavendish calculated the force of attraction. Then finally he determined the value of G.

    Cavendish determined G as

    6.75× 10 −11 N m 2 k g −2 6.75×10−11Nm2kg−2

    . Now the accepted value is

    6.67× 10 −11 N m 2 k g −2 6.67×10−11Nm2kg−2 ∴ ∴

    The correct option is option (C).

    Additional information:

    (i)Sir Issac Newton in 1687, in his book philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica discovered the term Gravitational constant for the first time while explaining the gravitational force.

    (ii)Newton states that the gravitational force between any two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres.

    ∴ F grav α m 1 m 2 d 2 ∴Fgravαm1m2d2

    . To remove this proportionality he introduced the constant G.

    F grav =G m 1 m 2 d 2 Fgrav=Gm1m2d2

    (iii) After nearly a century in 1798, Lord Henry Cavendish came to determine the value for that constant G by the experiment of torsional balance.

    (vi) Cavendish determined G as

    6.75× 10 −11 N m 2 k g −2 6.75×10−11Nm2kg−2

    . Now the accepted value is

    6.67× 10 −11 N m 2 k g −2 6.67×10−11Nm2kg−2 .

    Note:

    The gravitational force is the weakest of all forces in the universe. It has an appreciable value only if it is between the two objects having large masses.

    स्रोत : www.vedantu.com

    [Solved] The value of ‘G’, the Universal Gravitational Co

    The correct answer is Cavendish. Key Points Cavendish experiment. The Cavendish experiment, performed in 1797–1798 by British scientist Hen

    Home Physics Gravitation The gravitational constant

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    The value of ‘G’, the Universal Gravitational Constant, was measured experimentally by:

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    Newton Cavendish Copernicus Kepler

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    The correct answer is Cavendish.

    Key PointsCavendish experiment.

    The Cavendish experiment, performed in 1797–1798 by British scientist Henry Cavendish.

    It was the first experiment to measure the force of gravity between masses in the laboratory and the first to yield an accurate value for the gravitational constant.

    Cavendish was the first to establish the value of the universal gravitational constant G through his experiment.

    The apparatus used by him included two small spheres made of lead attached to the ends of a bar of length L.

    The bar is suspended from rigid support by a fine wire.

    He noticed that, when two spheres were brought simultaneously on the opposite sides of the small spheres, the big spheres attract the nearby small ones by an equal and opposite gravitational force (F). This produced torque of magnitude FL.

    Due to this torque, the suspended wire gets twisted until the restoring torque of the wire equals the gravitational torque.

    If θ was the angle of twist of the wire, the restoring torque = τθ (Where τ is the restoring couple per unit angle of twist)

    On equating the equations,

    FL = τθ θ ⇒GMmd2L=τθ

    Where m is the mass of the small sphere, and M is the mass of the big sphere.

    Observation of θ thus enables one to calculate G from this equation.

    Additional Information 

    The Cavendish experiment determines the magnitude of gravitational attraction between two bodies.

    It is based on the principle that a suspended wire resists torsion with a force that is due to gravity.

    Hence, it is based on force-torque equilibrium.

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    Q1. The motion of the moon around the earth is due to ________-Q2. The value of 'g' is ________-Q3. The value of 'g' is less than the actual value of 'g' in ________.Q4. An object weighs 60 N when measured on the surface of the earth. Its weight on the surface of the Moon will be _______.Q5. The value of the universal gravitational constant in CGS system of units is equal to:Q6. The universal gravitational constant numerically equals-Q7. The value of the gravitational constant in the cgs unit is-Q8. The spheres used in Cavendish's experiment were made out of-Q9. Cavendish's experiment is based on the principle of-

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    a geographic region with a large amount of biodiversity that is threatened by human habitation is called

    get a geographic region with a large amount of biodiversity that is threatened by human habitation is called from screen.

    Biodiversity hotspot

    Biodiversity hotspot

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened by human habitation.[1][2]

    Norman Myers wrote about the concept in two articles in in 1988 [3] and 1990,[4] after which the concept was revised following thorough analysis by Myers and others into “Hotspots: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions”[5] and a paper published in the journal , both in 2000.[6]

    To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot on Myers' 2000 edition of the hotspot map, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 1,500 species of vascular plants (more than 0.5% of the world's total) as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70% of its primary vegetation.[6] Globally, 36 zones qualify under this definition.[7] These sites support nearly 60% of the world's plant, bird, mammal, reptile, and amphibian species, with a high share of those species as endemics. Some of these hotspots support up to 15,000 endemic plant species, and some have lost up to 95% of their natural habitat.[7]

    Biodiversity hotspots host their diverse ecosystems on just 2.4% of the planet's surface.[2] Ten hotspots were originally identified by Myer;[1] the current 36 used to cover more than 15.7% of all the land but have lost around 85% of their area.[8] This loss of habitat is why approximately 60% of the world's terrestrial life lives on only 2.4% of the land surface area. Caribbean Islands like Haiti and Jamaica are facing serious pressures on the populations of endemic plants and vertebrates as a result of rapid deforestation. Other areas include the Tropical Andes, Philippines, Mesoamerica, and Sundaland, which, under the current levels at which deforestation is occurring, will likely lose most of their plant and vertebrate species.[9]

    Contents

    1 Hotspot conservation initiatives

    2 Distribution by region

    3 Critiques of "Hotspots"

    4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

    Hotspot conservation initiatives[edit]

    Only a small percentage of the total land area within biodiversity hotspots is now protected. Several international organizations are working to conserve biodiversity hotspots.

    Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) is a global program that provides funding and technical assistance to nongovernmental organizations in order to protect the Earth's richest regions of plant and animal diversity, including biodiversity hotspots, high-biodiversity wilderness areas and important marine regions.

    The World Wide Fund for Nature has devised a system called the "Global 200 Ecoregions", the aim of which is to select priority ecoregions for conservation from fourteen terrestrial, three freshwater, and four marine habitat types. They are chosen for species richness, endemism, taxonomic uniqueness, unusual ecological or evolutionary phenomena, and global rarity. All biodiversity hotspots contain at least one Global 200 Ecoregion.

    Birdlife International has identified 218 “Endemic Bird Areas” (EBAs) each of which holds two or more bird species found nowhere else. Birdlife International has identified more than 11,000 Important Bird Areas[10] all over the world.

    Plant life International coordinates programs aiming to identify and manage Important Plant Areas.

    Alliance for Zero Extinction is an initiative of scientific organizations and conservation groups who co-operate to focus on the most threatened endemic species of the world. They have identified 595 sites, including many .

    The National Geographic Society has prepared a world map[11] of the hotspots and ArcView shapefile and metadata for the Biodiversity Hotspots[12] including details of the individual endangered fauna in each hotspot, which is available from Conservation International.[13]

    The Compensatory Afforestation Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) seeks to control the destruction of forests in India.

    Distribution by region[edit]

    Biodiversity hotspots. Original proposal in green, and added regions in blue.[14]

    North and Central America

    California Floristic Province (8)

    Madrean pine–oak woodlands (26)

    Mesoamerica (2)

    North American Coastal Plain (36)[15][16]

    The Caribbean

    Caribbean Islands (3)

    South America

    Atlantic Forest (4) Cerrado (6)

    Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests (7)

    Tumbes–Chocó–Magdalena (5)

    Tropical Andes (1)

    Europe

    Mediterranean Basin (14)

    Africa

    Cape Floristic Region (12)

    Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa (10)

    Eastern Afromontane (28)

    Guinean Forests of West Africa (11)

    Horn of Africa (29)

    Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands (9)

    Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (27)

    Succulent Karoo (13)

    Central Asia

    Mountains of Central Asia (31)

    South Asia

    Eastern Himalaya (32)

    Indo-Burma, India and Myanmar (19)

    Western Ghats and Sri Lanka (21)

    Southeast Asia and Asia-Pacific

    East Melanesian Islands (34)

    New Caledonia (23) New Zealand (24) Philippines (18)

    Polynesia-Micronesia (25)

    Eastern Australian temperate forests (35)

    Southwest Australia (22)

    Sundaland and Nicobar islands of India (16)

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Biodiversity Hotspots

    @[email protected]#=img=#

    BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS

    Targeted investment in nature’s most important places

    © FRANÇOIS TRON

    WHY ARE BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS IMPORTANT?

    There are places on Earth that are both biologically rich — and deeply threatened. For our own sake, we must work to protect them.

    Species are the building blocks of Earth's life-support systems. We all depend on them.

    But our planet’s “biodiversity,” the vast array of life on Earth, faces a crisis of historic proportions. Development, urbanization, pollution, disease — they’re all wreaking havoc on the tree of life. Today, species are going extinct at the fastest rate since the mass extinction of the dinosaurs.

    To stem this crisis, we must protect the places where biodiversity lives. But species aren’t evenly distributed around the planet. Certain areas have large numbers of endemic species — those found nowhere else. Many of these are heavily threatened by habitat loss and other human activities. These areas are the biodiversity hotspots, 36 regions where success in conserving species can have an enormous impact in securing our global biodiversity.

    The forests and other remnant habitats in hotspots represent just 2.5% of Earth’s land surface. But you’d be hard-pressed to find another 2.5% of the planet that’s more important.

    WHAT ARE BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS?

    © TROND LARSEN

    To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot, a region must meet two strict criteria:

    It must have at least 1,500 vascular plants as endemics — which is to say, it must have a high percentage of plant life found nowhere else on the planet. A hotspot, in other words, is irreplaceable.

    It must have 30% or less of its original natural vegetation. In other words, it must be threatened.

    What is a biodiversity hotspot?

    Around the world, 36 areas qualify as hotspots. Their intact habitats represent just 2.5% of Earth’s land surface, but they support more than half of the world’s plant species as endemics — i.e., species found no place else — and nearly 43% of bird, mammal, reptile and amphibian species as endemics.

    Map: Where are the world's biodiversity hotspots?

    WHY DO BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS MATTER?

    Conservation International was a pioneer in defining and promoting the concept of hotspots. In 1989, just one year after scientist Norman Myers wrote the paper that introduced the hotspots concept, Conservation International adopted the idea of protecting these incredible places as the guiding principle of our investments. For nearly two decades thereafter, hotspots were the blueprint for our work.

    Today, our mission has expanded beyond the protection of hotspots. We recognize that it is not enough to protect species and places; for humanity to survive and thrive, the protection of nature must be a fundamental part of every human society.

    Yet the hotspots remain important in our work for two important reasons:

    Biodiversity underpins all life on Earth. Without species, there would be no air to breathe, no food to eat, no water to drink. There would be no human society at all. And as the places on Earth where the most biodiversity is under the most threat, hotspots are critical to human survival.The map of hotspots overlaps extraordinarily well with the map of the natural places that most benefit people. That’s because hotspots are among the richest and most important ecosystems in the world — and they are home to many vulnerable populations who are directly dependent on nature to survive. By one estimate, despite comprising 2.5% of Earth’s land surface, the forests, wetlands and other ecosystems in hotspots account for 35% of the “ecosystem services” that vulnerable human populations depend on.

    @[email protected]#=img=#

    © BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL/ANDREW W. TORDOFF

    OUR PLAN

    From Indonesia to Madagascar, Brazil to southeast Asia, a majority of Conservation International’s global field offices are located in or near biodiversity hotspots. We continue to work to protect these places for the benefit of people around the world.

    What’s more, Conservation International is an investor in the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. CEPF is an alliance of leading conservation donors that provides grants to nonprofit and private-sector organizations that are working to protect the biodiversity hotspots and improve human well-being.

    To explore the world’s 36 hotspots, access GIS data and learn more about what CEPF and partners are doing to protect these vital places, visit CEPF’s website at the link below.

    VISIT CEPF WEBSITE

    BREAKING CONSERVATION NEWS

    Get the latest updates on breaking conservation news from around the world—delivered to your inbox.

    PROTECT NATURE

    When you donate to Conservation International, you protect the nature we can’t live without.

    DONATE NOW

    MORE ABOUT OUR WORK

    @[email protected]#=img=# © FLAVIO FORNER

    Irrecoverable carbon — the places we can't afford to lose

    @[email protected]#=img=# © BENJAMIN DRUMMOND

    How Conservation International innovates with science

    Our Priorities

    Stabilizing Our Climate by Protecting and Restoring Nature

    Doubling Ocean Protection

    स्रोत : www.conservation.org

    A biogeographic region with significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans is called as

    A biogeographic region with significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans is called as biodiversity hotspot.

    Home > English > Class 12 > Biology > Chapter > Botany >

    A biogeographic region with s...

    A biogeographic region with significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans is called as

    Text Solution Open Answer in App A

    bioendangered region

    B

    biodiversity hotspot

    C

    biodiversity reservoir

    D

    environmentally endangered region

    Answer

    The correct Answer is B

    Solution

    A biogeographic region with significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans is called as biodiversity hotspot.

    Question Details till 07/10/2022

    Question

    A biogeographic region with significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans is called as

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    those species that have a large contribution towards creating and maintaining habitats that support other species

    get those species that have a large contribution towards creating and maintaining habitats that support other species from screen.

    Keystone species in an ecosystem are those:

    Keystone species of an ecosystem is a species that exerts an important regulatory effect on other species in the community, i.e. contributes to ecosystems properties. It maintains higher species diversity in a community by reducing the densities of strong competitors.

    Home > English > Class 12 > Biology > Chapter >

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    Keystone species in an ecosyst...

    Keystone species in an ecosystem are those:

    Updated On: 27-06-2022

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    Text Solution Open Answer in App A

    are present in maximum number

    B are most frequent C

    attain a large biomass

    D

    contribute to major ecosystem functions

    Answer

    The correct Answer is D

    Solution

    Keystone species of an ecosystem is a species that exerts an important regulatory effect on other species in the community, i.e. contributes to ecosystems properties. It maintains higher species diversity in a community by reducing the densities of strong competitors.

    Answer

    Step by step video solution for [object Object] by Biology experts to help you in doubts & scoring excellent marks in Class 12 exams.

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    Keystone species in an ecosystem are those:

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    hello students the question is keystone species in an ecosystem are those species which have their options given here the first option says that these species are present in maximum number so this is not the right option these keystone species is a pain that the approximate present in maximum number of their most frequent this is also wrong and third one is 3018 a large Biomass Biomass is also connected to the number so this is also the wrong option because in case the number of the diversity of the population density is more in that case only the Biomass will be more so these three other wrong options while the right option for this question is that ki species are those species which contribute to the ecosystem functions now without a key species in the ecosystem this the ecosystem functions will not be able to be there will not be able to

    functions because they drive such major functions in the ecosystem that the ecosystem might even cease to exist without them so these two species in is the are removed from a habitat IT results in dramatic change in the habitat there so important that the removal can result in a lot of change the habitat and it affects the other species to an extent that other species will get extinct so if ki species are removed the other species will have a very adverse effect on their habitat are well are there the type species affect the structure Sokhi species are the ones which affect the structure as well as function of the ecosystem and plants in the animals residing in that

    ecosystem will be adversely affected on removal of the key pc so what are the examples which we can take is most of the ki species are basically into the Prey Predator relationship so it is one of the common examples of the keystone species the Predator that attacked a hobby for species prevent the animals from depleting the plant species from the ecosystem so set pieces are called as keystone species in the absence of these the population of herbivores will increase drastically and they would destroy all the plant species in that ecosystem so some of the example another example of this can be honey bees in the pollinators so I am is are the major party ki jansar to pollinator but increase honey bees are removed from the ecosystem when is a plant should also become extinct because Honey Bee is the major pollinator here and pollination process should not take rest of the class will get into the endangered

    list so here we see that the fourth option option number 4 is a right option for this question this is all about this query thank you

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    Role of Keystone Species in an Ecosystem

    A keystone species helps define an entire ecosystem. Without its keystone species, the ecosystem would be dramatically different or cease to exist altogether.

    RESOURCE LIBRARY

    ARTICLE

    Role of Keystone Species in an Ecosystem

    A keystone species helps define an entire ecosystem. Without its keystone species, the ecosystem would be dramatically different or cease to exist altogether.

    GRADES 3 - 12 SUBJECTS

    Biology, Earth Science, Ecology

    PHOTOGRAPH

    Ochre Sea Star

    A keystone species is an organism that helps define an entire ecosystem. By keeping populations of mussels and barnacles in check, this sea star helps ensure healthy populations of seaweeds and the communities that feed on them—sea urchins, sea snails, limpets, and bivalves. Pisaster ochraceus sea stars like this one were the first animals to be identified as keystone species.

    PHOTOGRAPH BY PAUL NICKLEN, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC

    1/9 Leveled by Selected text level

    A keystone species is an organism that helps define an entire ecosystem. Without its keystone species, the ecosystem would be dramatically different or cease to exist altogether.

    Keystone species have low functional redundancy. This means that if the species were to disappear from the ecosystem, no other species would be able to fill its ecological niche. The ecosystem would be forced to radically change, allowing new and possibly invasive species to populate the habitat.

    Any organism, from plants to fungi, may be a keystone species; they are not always the largest or most abundant species in an ecosystem. However, almost all examples of keystone species are animals that have a huge influence on food webs. The way these animals influence food webs varies from habitat to habitat.

    Carnivores, Herbivores, and Mutualists

    Predators

    A keystone species is often, but not always, a predator. Just a few predators can control the distribution and population of large numbers of prey species.

    The entire concept of keystone species was founded on research surrounding the influence of a marine predator on its environment. American zoology professor Robert T. Paine's research showed that removing a single species, the Pisaster ochraceus sea star, from a tidal plain on Tatoosh Island in the U.S. state of Washington, had a huge effect on the ecosystem. Pisaster ochraceus, commonly known as purple sea stars, are a major predator of mussels and barnacles on Tatoosh Island. With the sea stars gone, mussels took over the area and crowded out other species, including benthic algae that supported communities of sea snails, limpets, and bivalves. Lacking a keystone species, the tidal plain’s biodiversity was cut in half within a year.

    Another example of a predator acting as a keystone species is the presence of gray wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) is an enormous and diverse temperate ecosystem stretching across the boundaries of the U.S. states of Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho. The GYE includes active geothermal basins, mountains, forests, meadows, and freshwater habitats.

    The elk, bison, rabbit, and bird species in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are at least partly controlled by the presence of wolves. The feeding behavior of these prey species, as well as where they choose to make their nests and burrows, are largely a reaction to wolf activity. Scavenger species, such as vultures, are also controlled by the wolf activity.

    When the U.S. government designated land for Yellowstone National Park in the late 19th century, hundreds of wolves roamed the GYE, preying primarily on abundant herds of elk and bison. Fearing the wolves’ impact on those herds, as well as local livestock, governments at the local, state, and federal level worked to eradicate wolves from the GYE. The last remaining wolf pups in Yellowstone were killed in 1924.

    This started a top-down trophic cascade in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. A trophic cascade describes changes in an ecosystem due to the addition or removal of a predator. A top-down trophic cascade describes changes that result from the removal of an ecosystem’s top predator. (A bottom-up trophic cascade describes changes that result from the removal of a producer or primary consumer.)

    Lacking an apex predator, elk populations in Yellowstone exploded. Elk herds competed for food resources, and plants such as grasses, sedges, and reeds did not have time or space to grow. Overgrazing influenced the populations of other species, such as fish, beaver, and songbirds. These animals rely on plants and their products—roots, flowers, wood, seeds—for survival.

    The physical geography of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem was also impacted by the loss of wolves and subsequent elk overgrazing. Stream banks eroded as wetland plants failed to anchor valuable soil and sediments. Lake and river temperatures increased as trees and shrubs failed to provide shaded areas.

    Starting in the 1990s, the U.S. government began reintroducing wolves to the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The results have been noteworthy. Elk populations have shrunk, willow heights have increased, and beaver and songbird populations have recovered.

    Herbivores

    Herbivores can also be keystone species. Their consumption of plants helps control the physical and biological aspects of an ecosystem.

    स्रोत : education.nationalgeographic.org

    ESS Topic 3.4: Conservation of Biodiversity

    Life has existed on Earth for over 3.5 billion years. Over 95% of the species that ever existed have gone extinct. So why should we be concerned about current extinction rates and conserving...

    TOPIC 3.4: CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY

    Image from http://en.wikipedia.org

    Life has existed on Earth for over 3.5 billion years. Over 95% of the species that ever existed have gone extinct. So why should we be concerned about current extinction rates and conserving biodiversity?

    It has become clear that biodiversity is the cornerstone of our existence on Earth. It is also important to conserve biodiversity for the sake of our own curiosity and aesthetic appreciation.

    In this unit you will consider arguments for preserving species and habitats based on ethical, aesthetic, genetic resources and commercial considerations. You will also look at the activities of intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations in preserving and restoring ecosystems. This unit is a minimum of 4 hours.

    Significant Ideas:

    The impact of losing biodiversity drives conservation efforts.

    The variety of arguments given for the conservation of biodiversity will depend on EVSs.

    There are various approaches to the conservation of biodiversity, each with associated strengths and limitations

    Big Questions:

    To what extent have the solutions emerging from this topic been directed at preventing environmental impacts, limiting the extent of the environmental impacts, or restoring systems in which environmental impacts have already occurred?

    What value systems can you identify at play in the causes and approaches to resolving the issues addressed in this topic?

    How does your own value system compare with others you have encountered in the context of issues raised in this topic?

    In what ways might the solutions explored in this topic alter your predictions for the state of human societies and the biosphere some decades from now?

    How do different conservation measures (e.g. in situ and ex situ) prevent environmental impacts, limit the extent of the environmental impacts, or restore systems in which environmental impacts have already occurred?

    How would a technocentric view of biodiversity differ from an ecocentric one? Ho do different EVSs affect approaches to conservation?

    If you are from a MEDC, how would your EVS differ from that of someone from a LEDC, or from someone who relies on the preservation of natural ecosystems for survival?

    Do you think that the conservation measures being taken today will be sufficient of preserve the Earth's biodiversity for the future?

    Knowledge & Understanding:3.4.U1 Arguments about species and habitat preservation can be based on aesthetic, ecological, economic, ethical and social justifications.

    [Economic arguments for preservation often involve valuation of ecotourism, of the genetic resource, and commercial considerations of the natural capital. Ecological reasons may be related to the ecosystem. Ethical arguments are very broad, and can include the intrinsic value of the species or the utilitarian value.]​​

    image from epa.gov

    You should appreciate arguments based on ethical, aesthetic, genetic resource and commercial (including opportunity cost) considerations. You should also appreciate life support and ecosystem-support functions.

    Habitat conservation for wild species is one of the most important issues facing the environment today — both in the ocean and on land. As human populations increase, land use increases, and wild species have smaller spaces to call home. More than half of Earth's terrestrial surface has been altered due to human activity, resulting in drastic deforestation, erosion and loss of topsoil, biodiversity loss, and extinction. Species cannot survive outside of their natural habitat without human intervention, such as the habitats found in a zoo or aquarium, for example. Preserving habitats is essential to preserving biodiversity.

    Ecological

    Life-support service value e.g. stable climate

    Some species are keystone species, which if removed from the ecosystem can lead to many other species becoming extinct

    Economic

    Species and habitat are direct natural capital, e.g. ecotourism

    Unknown value in the potential of the species for agriculture, medicine, genetic diversity and biotechnology

    Aesthetic

    Nature can provide inspiration for all kinds of artworks

    Ethical

    The idea of good stewardship (looking after the environment) and sustainable development for the good of future generations

    Intrinsic value of the environment or right of individuals or species to exist

    The values of biodiversity can be classified as either direct values or indirect values

    Direct values - can be (relatively) easily calculated

    goods harvested & destroyed for consumption (eating) or sale in a market

    generally physical commodities of some sort

    private goods - value accrues to the owner of the resource

    Examples:

    food sources (‘heirloom varieties’ of many crops, i.e. corn/maize)

    natural products (medicines, textiles, fertilizers, pesticides, etc

    Indirect values - more difficult to calculate

    stabilize ecosystems (negative feedback cycles)

    स्रोत : www.mrgscience.com

    teaching or preaching values at the organisational level will invariably lead to a change in the behaviour of people in the organisation

    get teaching or preaching values at the organisational level will invariably lead to a change in the behaviour of people in the organisation from screen.

    Communicate to change behavior ahead of organizational values and culture

    Communicate to change behavior, including change resistance. ahead of organizational values and culture. This is a proven way approach.

    Communicate to change behavior ahead of organizational values and culture

    01 Jun, 2020 Change communication

    The ultimate objective of most communication activities is to change behavior. To achieve an employee behavior change, many communicators work on the principle that they need to change employee attitudes first, including their culture and values. But change experts say it is better to focus on attempting to directly change employees’ behavior. Therefore, you should communicate to change behavior ahead of organizational values and culture.

    Even if attitudes are changed, habits may be too strong to break and therefore behavior may not change. And if behavior does change, it may take a while to happen.

    This is especially important in communicating to reduce accidents or improve service quality. Communicators can provide information that directly affects behavior, eg about rules; company policies and practices; procedures and systems; rewards, recognition and incentives, etc.

    Since people like to be consistent with their attitudes and their behavior, their attitudes are likely to become consistent with their new behavior (or else they will change their job if they don’t believe in what they are now doing). The effectiveness of the communication can be evaluated by measuring behavior before and after the communication effort.

    Employee values and organizational culture are considered vital to organizational performance, but are difficult to come to grips with. Instead, it is more effective to change behavior first, and then the desired values and culture are likely to follow.

    But firstly, you need to ensure your change communication strategy first aligns with the external business environment. This conveys important authenticity to your employees. They can perceive these pressures for themselves, becoming aware of what is happening elsewhere. Otherwise, they will invariably have doubts about your messaging when you start communicating at the team and individual level.

    Changing values

    The personal values of employees are widely considered to influence their workplace behavior. Values are the conscious, emotional desires or wants of people that guide their behavior. Most employees’ values are generally consistent with the values of their peers.

    However, when it comes to change management, the focus should not be so much about corporate values but about the hard, day-to-day business of changing the behavior of frontline employees.

    Communication from senior executives doesn’t give values to employees. Instead, values emerge from the way employees do their work, which is a function of the way they are supervised. It takes thousands of repeated behavioral episodes for a particular value to be firmly established. The absolutely critical issue is not how to communicate a value, but to get the initial behavior change to occur among the frontline employees.

    To achieve this, supervisors can be targeted with face-to-face communication about the performance of the local work area, especially how their performance compares with other similar work areas. This is done by winning over the first-line supervisors. It requires constant vigilance to ensure employees are achieving the new behavior and over-riding the pressure from the old value. Employees will return to the old way instantly if the pressure is reduced. This pressure can only be maintained by the person close enough to do it – the first-line supervisor.

    Overwhelming corporate experience shows that values are not successfully imposed from the top down. Values are more likely to emerge from the bottom. For instance, attempts to use corporate slogans to emphasize new values imposed from above result in a cynical employee response: employees took ‘Quality in everything we make’ into ‘Quality is everything we fake’. A company’s product quality was so low, its employees mischievously changed their unofficial version of the corporate slogan from “We make it nice” to “We make it nice because we have to make it twice.”

    The most immediate and pragmatic approach is to start by getting some of that pressure working for management and not against it – by making the new behavior consistent with an already existing employee value. Their strongest values relate to their own local work area. The performance of the new behavior can be consistent with their concern, loyalty and respect for themselves and their co-workers. This can be accomplished by communicating how the performance of the new behavior compares with that achieved by other similar areas. 1 At the same time, the same set of values can be advocated and modeled by management. In this way, the values are reinforced and management and supervisors are seen to be aligned with the employees’ values.

    Changing the culture

    Senior managers in many organizations believe the key to good organizational performance is to have a good organizational culture in place. Culture comprises shared patterns of thinking. This is generally accepted, but the relationship is complex. For instance, a US study of the cultures and financial performance of 200 companies over 11 years showed that about half the time, strong cultures were associated with excellent performance – but half the time they were not. What’s more, the study found highly respected companies with strong cultures, but with poor financial performance. 2 The study showed that over the long term, corporate cultures associated with strong financial performance do share a recurring theme: they facilitate change.

    स्रोत : cuttingedgepr.com

    Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) with Answers on Organisational Behaviour

    21-Advise the management of ABC Ltd. about the various groups that can be created in an organisation. (A) Effective group,

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    21-Advise the management of ABC Ltd. about the various groups that can be created in an organisation.

    (A) Effective group, Formal group,  group

    (B) Reactive group, Formal group, Informal group

    (C) Effective group, Formal group, Informal group

    (D) Creative group, Formal group, Informal group

    22-What is the other name for vertical job loading?

    (A) Job analysis (B) Job enrichment (C) Job evaluation (D) Job enlargement

    23-Organizational culture includes:

    (A) Organizational rituals and ceremonies

    (B) Norms shared by the teams

    (C) Commonly used language

    (D) All of the above

    24-An aroused attitude consist of

    (A) Affective reaction

    (B) Cognition (C) Action tendency

    (D) All of the above

    25-Handling of crises by managers and employees reveals an organizational …………. .

    (A) Culture (B) Society (C) Environment (D) Structure

    26-To be efficient every manager must try to

    (A) Understand human behaviour

    (B) Predict human behaviour

    (C) Control human behaviour

    (D) All of the above

    27-The ________ teams are concerned with rotating tasks and assignments amongst its members.

    (A) Self-managed (B) Self styled (C) Self motivated (D) Self concerned

    28-To change organizational culture successfully we need to:

    (A) Find the most effective sub-culture and use it as an example

    (B) Practice what we preach

    (C) Both ‘A’ and ‘B’

    (D) None of the above

    29-Mismatch between personality and organization may lead to

    (A) Confusion and chaos

    (B) Loss of interest by members in organization

    (C) Low morale and job satisfaction

    (D) All of the above

    30-Cultural________are words, gestures and pictures or other physical objects that carry a particular meaning with the culture.

    (A) Symbols (B) Logos

    (C) Both ‘A’ and ‘B’

    (D) None of the above

    ANSWERS:

    21-(C). 22-(B), 23-(D), 24-(D), 25-(A), 26-(D), 27-(A), 28-(C), 29-(D), 30-(A)

    Pages: 1 2 3 4

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    स्रोत : scholarexpress.com

    Chapter 1: Introducing Organizational Communication – Organizational Communication

    1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCING ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION

    CCO Public Domain

    Effective communication is a building block of successful organizations, In other words, communication acts as organizational blood.

    All managers and employees need to be aware of how people behave in order to provide the best working environment. Organizational behavior is about how people may be motivated to work together in more effective ways. The interaction required to direct a group toward a set of common goals is called organizational communication.

    In each of these interactions, we are occasionally satisfied but sometimes frustrated by incompetence, insensitivity, lack of coordination, and red tape, all of which result from ineffective organizational communication. A deeper understanding of communication permits us to better comprehend the factors that contribute to a successful organization.

    It is difficult to come across a job advertisement which does not mention eligibility criteria such as “communicativeness” or “communication skills.” Concepts such as “organizational communication,” “corporate communication” or “business communication” long ago became key terms for management, entrepreneurship and human resources.

    What is meant by “organizational communication”? What are its major functions and types? What are the most important communication skills in the workplace? What are the most common barriers and obstacles to contemporary organizational communication? The answers to these and other questions throughout this course will give you a better understanding of the phenomenon and process of organizational communication.

    The importance of communication in an organization can be summarized as follows:

    Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark.

    Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps identifying and assessing alternative course of actions.

    Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individual’s attitudes, i.e., a well informed individual will have better attitude than a less-informed individual. Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in molding employee’s attitudes.

    Communication also helps in socializing. One cannot survive without communication.

    Communication also assists in controlling process. It helps controlling organizational member’s behavior in various ways. There are various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employees must follow in an organization. They must comply with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently and communicate any work problem and grievance to their superiors. Thus, communication helps in controlling function of management.

    An effective and efficient communication system requires managerial proficiency in delivering and receiving messages. A manager must discover various barriers to communication, analyze the reasons for their occurrence and take preventive steps to avoid those barriers. Thus, the primary responsibility of a manager is to develop and maintain an effective communication system in the organization.

    So, organizational communication refers to the forms and channels of communication among members of organizations such as corporations, nonprofits or small businesses. Studies have found a strong relationship between the levels of communication in an organization and job performance and satisfaction. Organizational communication can be formal or informal, flow in various directions and make use of various media.

    Directions of Communication

    Organizational communication takes place upward, downward and horizontally. Downward communication flows from the managerial and executive levels to the staff through formal channels such as policy manuals, rules and regulations and organizational charts. Upward communication is initiated by staff and directed at executives; it frequently takes the form of a complaint or a request. Horizontal communication occurs when colleagues meet to discuss issues of common interest, resolve problems and share information.

    Leading

    CCO Public Domain

    In the book “Organizational Communication: Challenges of Change, Diversity, and Continuity,” William Neher (1997) identifies the five primary functions of business communication as leading, rationalizing, problem-solving, conflict management and compliance gaining. The function of leading is important to enable management to issue instructions in a clear, specific manner so that workers are able to follow them without difficulty. This is generally downward communication.

    CONNECT: William Neher: Professor Emeritus at Butler University (LinkedIn)

    https://www.linkedin.com/in/william-neher-4742b41a/

    स्रोत : granite.pressbooks.pub

    if angle a and angle b are acute angles such that cos a is equal to cos b then show that angle a is equal to angle b

    get if angle a and angle b are acute angles such that cos a is equal to cos b then show that angle a is equal to angle b from screen.

    If angle A and angle B are acute angles such that cosA=cosB, then show that angleA=angle B.

    If angle A and angle B are acute angles such that cosA=cosB, then show that angleA=angle B.

    Home

    If angle A and angle B are acute angles such that cosA=cosB, then show that angleA=angle B.

    Question

    If angle A and angle B are acute angles such that cosA=cosB, then show that angleA=angle B.

    Open in App Solution

    Suggest Corrections 17 SIMILAR QUESTIONS

    Q.

    If ∠A and ∠B are acute angles such that cos A = cos B, then show that

    ∠A = ∠B.

    Q. If ∠A and ∠P are acute angles such that tan A = tan P, then show that ∠A = ∠P.Q. If

    ∠ A and ∠ B

    are acute angles such that

    cos A = cos B then prove that ∠ A = ∠ B .

    Q. Question 6

    If ∠ A and ∠

    B are acute angles such that cos A = cos B, then show that

    ∠ A = ∠ B.

    Q. In triangle ABC and triangle XYZ if angle A and angle X are acute angles such that cosA=cosX then show that angle A=angle X

    View More

    स्रोत : byjus.com

    If A and B are acute angles such that cos A = cos B then prove that A = B .

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ If A and B are acute angles such that cos A = cos B then prove that A = B .

    Question

    If ∠A and ∠B are acute angles such that cosA=cosB then prove that ∠A=∠B.

    Medium Open in App Solution Verified by Toppr

    According to the question:-

    Let cosA= Hypotenuse sideadjacentA ​ AB AC ​ Similarly, cosB= Hypotenuse sideadjacentB ​ = AB BC ​ Given that cosA=cosB AB AC ​ = AB BC ​ AC=BC In triangle,

    angles opposite equal side are equal

    ∠B=∠A

    Was this answer helpful?

    1078 57

    स्रोत : www.toppr.com

    If ∠A and ∠B are acute angles such that cos A = cos B, then show that ∠A = ∠B

    If ∠A and ∠B are acute angles such that cos A = cos B, then show that ∠A = ∠B. Using cos A and cos B, we can find ratio of the length of two sides of the right-angled triangle with respective angles.

    If ∠A and ∠B are acute angles such that cos A = cos B, then show that ∠A = ∠B

    Solution:

    Using the basic trigonometric ratios, we can solve this problem.

    In the right-angled triangle ABC as shown below, ∠A and ∠B are acute angles and ∠C is right angle.

    cos A = side adjacent to ∠A / hypotenuse = AC/AB

    cos B = side adjacent to ∠B / hypotenuse = BC/AB

    Given that cos A = cos B

    Therefore, AC/AB = BC/AB

    AC = BC

    Hence, ∠A = ∠B (angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal.)

    Let's look into an alternative approach to solve the question.

    Let us consider a triangle ABC in which CO ⊥ AB.

    It is given that cos A = cos B

    AO/AC = BO/BC AO/BO = AC/BC

    Let AO/BO = AC/BC = k

    AO = k × BO ...(i) AC = k × BC ...(ii)

    By applying Pythagoras theorem in ΔCAO and ΔCBO, we get

    AC2 = AO2 + CO2 (from ΔCAO)

    CO2 = AC2 - AO2 ...(iii)

    BC2 = BO2 + CO2 (from ΔCBO)

    CO2 = BC2 - BO2 ...(iv)

    From equation (iii) and equation (iv), we get

    AC2 - AO2 = BC2 - BO2

    (kBC)2 - (kBO)2 = BC2 - BO2 [From equation (i) and (ii)]

    k2BC2 - k2BO2 = BC2 - BO2

    k2 (BC2 - BO2) = BC2 - BO2

    k2 = (BC2 - BO2)/(BC2 - BO2) = 1

    k = 1

    Putting this value in equation (ii) we obtain,

    AC = BC

    Thus, ∠A = ∠B (angles opposite to equal sides of triangle are equal.)

    ☛ Check: NCERT Solutions Class 10 Maths Chapter 8Video Solution:

    If ∠A and ∠B are acute angles such that cos A = cos B, then show that ∠A = ∠B

    Maths NCERT Solutions Class 10  Chapter 8 Exercise 8.1 Question 6

    Summary:

    If ∠A and ∠B are acute angles such that cos A = cos B we have proved that ∠A = ∠B since AC = BC and angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal.

    ☛ Related Questions:

    If cotθ = 7/8, evaluate: (i) (1 + sinθ)(1 - sinθ) / (1 + cosθ)(1 - cosθ), (ii) cot2θ

    If 3 cot A = 4, check whether (1 - tan2 A) / (1 + tan2 A) = cos2 A - sin2 A or not.

    In the triangle ABC right-angled at B, if tan A = 1/√3 find the value of:(i) sin A cos C + cos A sin C(ii) cos A cos C - sin A sin C

    In ΔPQR, right-angled at Q, PR + QR = 25 cm and PQ = 5 cm. Determine the values of sin P, cos P and tan P.

    स्रोत : www.cuemath.com

    focal length of an equiconvex lens is 20 cm. if we cut it once perpendicular to principle axis, and then along principle axis. then focal length of each part will be

    get focal length of an equiconvex lens is 20 cm. if we cut it once perpendicular to principle axis, and then along principle axis. then focal length of each part will be from screen.

    There is an equiconvex lens of focal length of 20 cm . If the lens is cut into tow equal parts perpendicular to the optical axis, the focal length of each part will be

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ There is an equiconvex lens of focal length of 20 cm . If the lens is cut into tow equal parts perpendicular to the optical axis, the focal length of each part will be

    Question

    There is an equiconvex lens of focal length of 20cm. If the lens is cut into tow equal parts perpendicular to the optical axis, the focal length of each part will be

    A

    20 cm

    B

    10 cm

    C

    40 cm

    D

    15 cm

    Hard Open in App

    Updated on : 2022-09-05

    Solution Verified by Toppr

    Correct option is C)

    The focal length of equiconvex lens is 20 cm

    f 1 ​ =(μ−1)( R 1 ​ 1 ​ − R 2 ​ 1 ​ ) forequiconvexlensR 1 ​ =−R 2 ​ =R thus, 20 1 ​ =(μ−1)( R 1 ​ + R 1 ​ ) ⇒R=40(μ−1)

    when lens is cut into two equal parts perpendicular to optical axis

    then, R 1 ​ =∞,R 2 ​ =R thus f ′ 1 ​ =(μ−1)( R 1 ​ 1 ​ − R 2 ​ 1 ​ ) f ′ 1 ​ =(μ−1)( R 1 ​ )

    by putting value of R we get,

    f ′ 1 ​ =(μ−1)( 40(μ−1) 1 ​ ) ⇒f ′ =40cm

    new focal length of each part is 40 cm ,  becomes double

    Option C is correct.

    Solve any question of Ray Optics and Optical Instrument with:-

    Patterns of problems

    >

    Was this answer helpful?

    6 4

    स्रोत : www.toppr.com

    Focal length of an equiconvex lens is 20 cm. If we cut it once perpendicular to principal axis in and then along principal axis. Then, focal length of each part will be:

    Focal length of an equiconvex lens is 20 cm. If we cut it once perpendicular to principal axis in and then along principal axis. Then, focal length of each pa

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    Focal length of an equiconvex...

    Focal length of an equiconvex lens is 20 cm. If we cut it once perpendicular to principal axis in and then along principal axis. Then, focal length of each part will be:

    Updated On: 27-06-2022

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    Text Solution Open Answer in App A 20 cm B 10 cm C 40 cm D 5 cm Answer

    Step by step solution by experts to help you in doubt clearance & scoring excellent marks in exams.

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    there is an equiconvex lens of focal length of 20cm. If the lens is cut into two equal parts

    Click here 👆 to get an answer to your question ✍️ there is an equiconvex lens of focal length of 20cm. If the lens is cut into two equal parts perpendicular to…

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    a particle of mass m is projected with velocity v making an angle of 45 degree with the horizontal

    get a particle of mass m is projected with velocity v making an angle of 45 degree with the horizontal from screen.

    a particle of mass m is projected with velocity v making angle 45 with horizontal when the paetivle lands on the level of ground the magnitude of the change in its momentum will be

    a particle of mass m is projected with velocity v making angle 45 with horizontal when the paetivle lands on the level of ground the magnitude of the change in its momentum will be

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    a particle of mass m is projected with velocity v making angle 45 with horizontal when the paetivle lands on the level of ground the magnitude of the change in its momentum will be

    Question

    a particle of mass m is projected with velocity v making angle 45 with horizontal when the paetivle lands on the level of ground the magnitude of the change in its momentum will be

    Open in App Solution

    Suggest Corrections 11 SIMILAR QUESTIONS

    Q. A particle of mass m is projected with velocity v making an angle of

    45 ∘

    with the horizontal. When the particle lands on the level ground the magnitude of the change in its momentum will be

    Q. A particle of mass

    m

    is projected with velocity

    v making an angle of 45 o

    with the horizontal. When the particle lands on the level ground, the magnitude of the change in its momentum will be :

    Q.

    A particle of mass m is projected with a velocity v making an angle 45 degree with the horizontal. The magnitude of the angular momentum of the projectile about the pointof projection when the particle is at its max height h.

    Q.

    A particle of mass 'm' is projected with velocity 'v' making an angle of

    45 ∘

    with the horizontal. The magnitude of the angular momentum of the projectile about the point of projection when the particle is at its maximum height 'h' is

    Q. A particle of mass m is projected with velocity v making an angle of

    45 ∘

    with the horizontal. The magnitude of the angular momentum of the particle about the point of projection when the particle is at its maximum height is (where g = acceleration due to gravity)

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    स्रोत : byjus.com

    A particle of mass m is projected with velocity v making an angle of 45 with the horizontal from level ground. When the particle lands on the level ground the magnitude of the change in its momentum will be :

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ A particle of mass m is projected with velocity v making an angle of 45 with the horizontal from level ground. When the particle lands on the level ground the magnitude of the change in its momentum will be :

    Question

    A particle of mass m is projected with velocity v making an angle of 45 with the horizontal from level ground. When the particle lands on the level ground the magnitude of the change in its momentum will be :

    Amv

    2 ​

    B

    zero

    C

    2 mv

    D

    2 ​ mv ​ Easy Open in App

    Updated on : 2022-09-05

    Solution Verified by Toppr

    Correct option is A)

    Change in momentum =Δ

    P =ΔP x ​ i ^ +ΔP x ​ j ^ ​ , since ΔP x ​ =0 =ΔP y ​ j ^ ​ = P fy ​ − P iy ​ ; P iy ​ =mvsin45 ,P fy ​ =mvsin45 Δ P =−mvsin45 −mvsin45 =−2mvsin45 =− 2 ​ mv j ​ = ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ​ Δ P ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ​ = 2 ​ mv

    e sign shows the direction of change in

    momentum in e y-direction.

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    स्रोत : www.toppr.com

    A particle of mass m is projected with velocity making an angle of 45^(@) with the horizontal When the particle lands on the level ground the magnitude of the change in its momentum will be .

    |overlineDeltaoverlineP|=2mv sin theta =2xx mvxxsin4%^(@) =sqrt(2)mv

    Home > English > Class 12 > Physics > Chapter > Motion In A Palne >

    A particle of mass m is projec...

    A particle of mass m is projected with velocity making an angle of

    45 ∘ 45∘

    with the horizontal When the particle lands on the level ground the magnitude of the change in its momentum will be .

    Updated On: 27-06-2022

    UPLOAD PHOTO AND GET THE ANSWER NOW!

    Text Solution Open Answer in App A mv 2 – √ mv2 B zero C 2 mv D mv/ 2 – √ mv/2 Answer

    The correct Answer is A

    Solution ∣ ∣ Δ ¯ ¯ ¯ P ¯ ¯ ¯ ∣ ∣ =2mvsinθ |Δ¯P¯|=2mvsinθ =2×mv×sin4 % ∘ =2×mv×sin4%∘ = 2 – √ mv =2mv Answer

    Step by step solution by experts to help you in doubt clearance & scoring excellent marks in exams.

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    m द्रव्यमान का एक कण क्षैतिज से

    45 ∘ 45∘

    कोण बनाते हुए v वेग से प्रक्षेपित किया गया है | कण के समतल जमीन पर उतरने पर उसके संवेग में परिवर्तन का परिणाम होगा -

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    who among the following governor generals formed the triple alliance against tipu sultan

    get who among the following governor generals formed the triple alliance against tipu sultan from screen.

    Who among the following Governor General framed the triple alliance against Tipu Sultan?

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ Who among the following Governor General framed the triple alliance against Tipu Sultan?

    Question

    Who among the following Governor General framed the triple alliance against Tipu Sultan?

    A

    Warren Hastings

    B

    Lord Cornwallis

    C

    Lord Wellesley

    D

    Lord William Bentinck

    Medium Open in App

    Updated on : 2022-09-05

    Solution Verified by Toppr

    Correct option is C)

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    स्रोत : www.toppr.com

    Which of the following Governor Generals formed the Triple Alliance against Tipu Sultan?

    Lord Cornwallis Triple Alliance consisted of British Nizam and Marathas against Tipu sultan in 179192 It was formed by Lord Cornwallis Tipu Sultan also known as Tiger of Mysore was a pioneer of rocket artillery

    स्रोत : www.gktoday.in

    [Solved] Who among the following Governor Generals formed the Triple

    The correct answer is Lord Cornwallis. Key Points Triple Alliance It consisted of British, Nizam, and Marathas against Tipu sultan in 1791-92. It was

    Home General Knowledge Modern India (National Movement ) Viceroy and Governor

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    Who among the following Governor Generals formed the Triple Alliance against Tipu Sultan?

    This question was previously asked in

    Territorial Army Paper II : Official Practice Test Paper - 3

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    Warren Hastings Lord Cornwallis Lord Wellesley

    Lord William Bentinck

    Answer (Detailed Solution Below)

    Option 2 : Lord Cornwallis

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    The correct answer is Lord Cornwallis.

    Key PointsTriple Alliance It consisted of British, Nizam, and Marathas against Tipu sultan in 1791-92. It was formed by Lord Cornwallis. Hence, Option 2 is correct.

    Tipu Sultan also known as Tiger of Mysore was a pioneer of rocket artillery.

    On 1 September 1798, the Nizam of Hyderabad, Nizam Ali Khan (Asaf Jah II) entered into a subsidiary alliance with the English East India Company, thus making Hyderabad the first princely state to officially become a British protectorate.

    In 1790, the Nizam had allied with the Marathas and the East India Company to fight Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore in a Triple Alliance as part of the Third Anglo-Mysore War. Tipu was defeated in this war.

    Ali Khan had a French General in his command named Monsieur Raymond who provided training to the Nizam’s troops.

    The English were wary of the French influence on the Nizam. (Both the English and the French at this point were interfering in local politics to oust one another from the subcontinent and secure their own commercial interests).

    The British resident at Hyderabad, Captain Achilles Kirkpatrick exerted his pressure at the court of the Nizam and convinced him to enter into a subsidiary alliance with the Company in return for military aid.

    Accordingly, in 1798, Hyderabad became the first Indian princely state to enter into a subsidiary alliance with the British. In the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799, the Nizam supported the British against Tipu Sultan.

    Additional Information

    Warren Hastings

    He was an English statesman, was the first Governor of the Presidency of Fort William, the head of the Supreme Council of Bengal, and so the first de facto Governor-General of Bengal in 1772–1785.

    He and Robert Clive are credited with laying the foundation of the British Empire in India.

    Lord Wellesley (as Governor-General)

    He came to India in 1798 at a time when the British were locked in a life-and-death struggle with France all over the world.

    Lord Wellesley decided that the time was ripe for bringing as many Indian states as possible under British control.

    By 1797, the two strongest Indian powers, Mysore and the Marathas had declined in power.

    The Third Anglo-Mysore war had reduced Mysore to a mere shadow of its recent greatness and the Marathas were dissipating their strength in mutual intrigues and wars.

    Political conditions in India were propitious for a policy of (British) expansion: aggression was easy as well as profitable.

    Lord William Bentinck

    He served as Governor-General of India between 1828 to 1835.

    His tenure is known for the social reforms such as Abolition of Sati in 1829, Suppression of Thugi, and Suppression of Infanticide, etc.

    English was introduced as a medium of higher education on the advice of his council member, Thomas Babington Macaulay.

    A pact with Maharaja Ranjit Singh was made. Charter act 1833 was passed by which East India Company ceased to be a trading company.

    Some corrective measures in civil services were taken.

    This seven years period was an epoch for administrative reforms in India.

    It started a process by which the Indian population, which is furious of sudden changes, was made to obey the British rulers and administration slowly.

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    More Viceroy and Governor Questions

    Q1. Doctrine of lapse was adopted by ______ in India.Q2. Who of the following Governor-Generals Promulgated the policy of 'Subsidiary Alliance' ?

    स्रोत : testbook.com