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    governor appoints one member to the state legislative assembly from which community?

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    One Anglo

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ One Anglo - Indian member is nominated to the State Legislative Assembly by the .

    Question

    One Anglo-Indian member is nominated to the State Legislative Assembly by the ___________.

    A

    President

    B

    Governor

    C

    Prime Minister

    D

    Chief Minister

    Medium Open in App Solution Verified by Toppr

    Correct option is B)

    The Governor may feel that the Anglo-Indian community is not adequately represented in the Legislative Assembly. In such a case, Article 333 empowers the Governor to nominate one member of the Anglo-Indian community to the Legislative Assembly of the State.

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    Twenty

    Twenty-third Amendment of the Constitution of India

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    The Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Act, 1969

    Parliament of India hide

    Long title

    An Act further to amend the Constitution of India.

    Citation 23rd Amendment

    Territorial extent India

    Enacted by Lok Sabha

    Passed 9 December 1969

    Enacted by Rajya Sabha

    Passed 17 December 1969

    Assented to 23 January 1970

    Signed by V. V. Giri

    Commenced 23 January 1970

    Legislative history

    First chamber: Lok Sabha

    Bill title The Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Bill, 1969

    Bill published on 21 August 1969

    Introduced by Panampilly Govinda Menon

    Related legislation

    8th, 45th, 62nd, 79th and 95th Amendments

    Summary

    Discontinued reservation of seats for the Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, both in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assembly; stipulated that not more than one Anglo-Indian could be nominated by the Governor to any State Legislative Assembly; and extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies till 1980.

    Status: Amended

    The Twenty-third Amendment of the Constitution of India, officially known as The Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Act, 1969, discontinued reservation of seats for the Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, both in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assembly and stipulated that not more than one Anglo-Indian could be nominated by the Governor to any State Legislative Assembly. Prior to the amendment, the number of Anglo-Indians who could be nominated to the State Legislative Assemblies, was left to the discretion of the Governor of the State. The amendment also extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and representation of the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies for another ten years, i.e. up to 26 January 1980.

    Article 334 of the Constitution had originally required the reservation of seats to cease in 1960, but this was extended to 1970 by the 8th Amendment. The 23rd Amendment extended this period to 1980.[1] The period of reservation was extended to 1990, 2000, 2010, 2020 and 2030 by the 45th, 62nd, 79th, 95th and 104th Amendments respectively.

    Contents

    1 Text

    2 Proposal and enactment

    3 Ratification 4 See also 5 References

    Text[edit]

    BE it enacted by Parliament in the Twentieth Year of the Republic of India as follows:-

    1. This Act may be called the Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Act, 1969.2. In article 330 of the Constitution, in sub-clause (b) of clause (1), for the words "except the Scheduled Tribes in the tribal areas of Assam", the words "except the Scheduled Tribes in the tribal areas of Assam and in Nagaland" shall be substituted.3. In article 332 of the Constitution, in clause (1), for the words "except the Scheduled Tribes in the tribal areas of Assam", the words "except the Scheduled Tribes in the tribal areas of Assam and in Nagaland" shall be substituted.4. . (1) In article 333 of the Constitution, for the words "nominate such number of members of the community to the Assembly as he considers appropriate", the words "nominate one member of that community to the Assembly" shall be substituted.

    (2) Nothing contained in sub-section (1) shall affect any representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assembly of any State existing at the commencement of this Act until the dissolution of that Assembly.

    5. In article 334 of the Constitution, for the words "twenty years", the words "thirty years" shall be substituted.[2]

    The full text of Articles 333 and 334, and clause(1) of Article 330, after the 23rd Amendment, are given below:

    330. (1) Seats shall be reserved in the House of the People for—(a) the Scheduled Castes;(b) the Scheduled Tribes except the Scheduled Tribes in the tribal areas of Assam ; and(c) the Scheduled Tribes in the autonomous districts of Assam[3]333. Notwithstanding anything in article 170, the Governor or Rajpramukh of a State may, may, if he is of opinion that the Anglo-Indian community needs representation in the Legislative Assembly of the State and is not adequately represented therein, nominate such number of members of the community to the Assembly as he considers appropriate .[3]334. Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part [Part XVI], the provisions of this Constitution relating to—(a) the reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People and in the Legislative Assemblies of the States; and(b) the representation of the Anglo Indian community in the House of the People and in the Legislative Assemblies of the States by nomination,

    shall cease to have effect on the expiration of a period of twenty years from the commencement of this Constitution: Provided that nothing in this article shall affect any representation in the House of the People or in the legislative Assembly of a State until the dissolution of the then existing House or Assembly, as the case may be.[3]

    Part of a series on the

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    [Solved] How many members of the Anglo

    The correct answer is option 1,i.e. One. Only one member of the Anglo-Indian community can be appointed by the Governor in the state legislative assembl

    Home General Knowledge Polity Basics of Constitution

    Question

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    How many members of the Anglo-Indian community can be appointed by the Governor in the state legislative assembly?

    One Two Three None

    Answer (Detailed Solution Below)

    Option 1 : One

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    Detailed Solution

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    The correct answer is option 1,i.e. One.

    Only one member of the Anglo-Indian community can be appointed by the Governor in the state legislative assembly.

    The legislative assembly is the lower house of the state legislature in the different states and two union territories, Delhi and Pondicherry.

    Members of a Legislative assembly are the direct representative of the people of the state as they are directly elected.

    Term of the legislative assembly is five years.

    The maximum size of the legislative assembly is not more than 500 and not less than 60.

    In the states of Goa, Mizoram and Sikkim the members of the legislative assembly can be less than 60.

    Download Solution PDF

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    More Basics of Constitution Questions

    Q1. The enforcement of which of the following Fundamental Rights cannot be suspended when a Proclamation of Emergency (Article 352) is in operation?Q2. Which among the following statements is not correct with regard to the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 ?Q3. Which of the following word/s was/were added to the Preamble of the Indian Constitution in 1976 through the 42nd Amendment ? (a) Socialist (b) Sovereign (c) Democratic (d) Secular  Choose the correct option from the codes given below :Q4. Article 395 of the Indian Constitution which is also the final (last) Article of the Constitution states the provision related to which of the following ?Q5. Which among the following countries would be an example of 'coming together' federation? (a) India (b) U.S.A. (c) Australia (d) Spain Choose the correct option from the codes given below:Q6. Which among the following statements is/are correct with regard to the amendment of the Indian Constitution? (a) Parliament has the power to amend any part of the Constitution except for Part III. (b) A Constitutional Amendment Bill can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha. (c) The Constitutional Amendment Bill once passed needs the assent of the President. Choose the correct option from the codes given below:Q7. If the penalty imposed on designated officer who has failed to provide public service without sufficient and reasonable cause is not paid, the amount of penalty can be recovered from which of the following heads?Q8. As per the Right to Information Act, 2005, 'record' as per Section 2 (i) includes which of the below? a. Any document, manuscript and file. b. Any microfilm and facsimile copy of document. c. Any material produced by a computer or any other device.Q9. Where a request has been rejected for information, the Central or State Public Information Officer as the case may be, shall communicate to the person making the request ______. a. the reason for such rejection b. the particulars of the appellate authority c. copy of Right to Information Rules d. the period within which an appeal against such rejection may be preferred Which of the statement/s given above is/are correct?Q10. With respect to which of the following provisions under the Right to Information Act, 2005, the changes were brought in by Amendment Act, 2019?

    More Polity Questions

    Q1. 'National Research Centre on Camel' is located at ______.Q2. The headquarters of the North-Western Railway zone is located atQ3. What is a reserved constituency?Q4. The enforcement of which of the following Fundamental Rights cannot be suspended when a Proclamation of Emergency (Article 352) is in operation?Q5. What is the name of the international organization which facilitates cross-border police cooperation to combat international crime?Q6. In which year was the number of seats in the Haryana Vidhan Sabha increased to 90?Q7. When was the Jatayu Conservation Breeding Centre (JCBC), earlier known as the Vulture Care Centre (VCC), established?Q8. Which among the following statements is not correct with regard to the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 ?Q9. Which of the following word/s was/were added to the Preamble of the Indian Constitution in 1976 through the 42nd Amendment ? (a) Socialist (b) Sovereign (c) Democratic (d) Secular  Choose the correct option from the codes given below :Q10. Who is the first Lokayukta of Haryana ?

    स्रोत : testbook.com

    gather information about a power plant near your locality by visiting the plant

    get gather information about a power plant near your locality by visiting the plant from screen.

    Power plant

    Power plant

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    A power plant is an industrial facility that generates electricity from primary energy. Most power plants use one or more generators that convert mechanical energy into electrical energy[1] in order to supply power to the electrical grid for society's electrical needs. The exception is solar power plants, which use photovoltaic cells (instead of a turbine) to generate this electricity.

    Examples of Power Plants

    Coal-fired power plant.[2]

    Nuclear power plant.[3]

    Wind power farm.[4]

    The type of primary fuel or primary energy flow that provides a power plant its primary energy varies. The most common are coal, natural gas, and uranium (nuclear power). A substantially used primary energy for electricity generation is hydroelectricity (water). Other flows that are used to generate electricity include wind, solar, geothermal and tidal.

    Different countries get their electricity from different types of power plants. For example, in Canada, most electricity generation comes from hydroelectric power plants which accounts for about 60% of the total electricity generated in Canada.[5] Please see the data visualization below to explore how countries around the world get their electricity.

    Hydroelectric power plant.[6]

    Natural gas power plant.[7]

    Solar panel farm.[8]

    Types of Power Plants

    Thermal

    Most thermal power plants use fuel to heat up water from a reservoir, which generates steam(usually at a high pressure). The highly pressurized steam then travels through pipes to rotate the fan-like blades of a turbine (see Rankine cycle for more info). As the turbine begins to spin, it causes giant wire coils inside the generator to turn. This creates relative (continuos) motion between a coil of wire and a magnet, which pushes electrons and starts the flow of electricity.[9]

    Fossil fuel power plants burn their fuel in order to create the thermal energy to run their external heat engines. A simple cycle gas plant does like the others: it works similar to a jet engine where natural gas is ignited and burned and the heat creates pressure that turns the turbine. Combined cycle gas plants use both the heat and steam as well. Types of fossil fuel plants include coal-fired power plants and natural gas power plants—accounting for the largest producers of electricity around the world (see data visualization below).Nuclear power plants use fission processes to generate electricity. In these plants, uranium nuclei are split which creates the thermal energy needed to create steam. It then works just like fossil fuel power plants where the steam spins a turbine, generating electricity. The power plants require the use of nuclear reactors to carry out these fission processes. Some types of reactors include pressurized water reactors, CANDU reactors, RBMK reactors, and boiling water reactors.Solar thermal power plants use heat from the sun’s rays to create the steam that is needed to rotate the turbine.

    Figure 2. A boiling water nuclear power plant.[10]

    Renewable

    Renewable energy power plants get their energy directly from their respective flows in order to generate electricity. These primary energy sources replenish themselves eventually, but are limited in the amount of energy that is available at any given time or place. Therefore they are often intermittent and non-dispatchable.[9]

    Hydroelectric facilities use energy from falling water in rivers and reservoirs to spin a generator and create electricity. This energy source tends to be more reliable (dispatchable) than other renewable resources, especially when the facility runs off of a reservoir.[11]Wind turbines get their energy from wind, which upon contact slows down and transfers kinetic energy to the turbine. Air drag causes the turbine to spin, and the maximum efficiency of turbines is given by the Betz limit.Solar panels use photovoltaic cells in order to create electricity. The incoming photons from the Sun hit atoms inside the panel's semiconductors which causes electrons to flow. Solar energy is intermittent but combined with energy storage technology their power can be much more reliable.

    Transportation of electricity

    Once electricity is generated, transformers "step-up" the electric power to a higher voltage in order to travel long distances with minimal energy loss. It then travels through "pylons" along overhead power cables to its destination, where transformers subsequently "step-down" the electric power to safe voltages for houses and utilities. For a more complete story please see electrical transmission.

    स्रोत : energyeducation.ca

    Gather information about a power plant near your locality by visiting the plant.

    Solar light : A solar light (solar lamp) converts the solar radiation into electrical energy using the photovoltaic effect. It consists of an LED lamp , solar panel solar controller and a battery. Solar water heating system : As solar water heating system uses sunlight for water heating .It consists of a thermal collector which captures the heat from the sun and uses it to heat the water. Solar cooker : Solar cooker is a device which can into heat energy. It works on the principle that black surface absorbs more heat than white or a reflecting surface.

    Home > English > Class 10 > Physics > Chapter >

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    Text Solution Solution

    Solar light : A solar light (solar lamp) converts the solar radiation into electrical energy using the photovoltaic effect. It consists of an LED lamp , solar panel solar controller and a battery.

    Solar water heating system : As solar water heating system uses sunlight for water heating .It consists of a thermal collector which captures the heat from the sun and uses it to heat the water.

    Solar cooker : Solar cooker is a device which can into heat energy. It works on the principle that black surface absorbs more heat than white or a reflecting surface.

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    Information About the Various Types of Power Plants

    Electricity can be generated using the kinetic energy of water, heat energy of the sun and coal, or from the nuclear energy released from the fission of nuclear fuel. Read on to know about the various types of power plants that use one of the many resources available to generate electricity.

    Information About the Various Types of Power Plants

    Electricity can be generated using the kinetic energy of water, heat energy of the sun and coal, or from the nuclear energy released from the fission of nuclear fuel. Read on to know about the various types of power plants that use one of the many resources available to generate electricity.

    Home / Land / Information About the Various Types of Power Plants

    Electricity can be generated using the kinetic energy of water, heat energy of the sun and coal, or from the nuclear energy released from the fission of nuclear fuel. Read on to know about the various types of power plants that use one of the many resources available to generate electricity.

    Energy is an important requirement for us. From running our air conditioners to fueling our vehicles, our daily survival depends upon energy. Energy requirements have led countries to war and continues to be a bone of contention between many nations. Insufficient power (energy) supply is one of the main causes of crippling economies. Strong power generation industry indicates strong economic growth and prosperity for any nation.

    Energy comes in various forms. The most convenient of all of them is electrical energy. Not only is it easy to generate, but it can also be generated through a number of different ways with the help of different types of power plants. Although the word ‘generated’ is commonly used along with the term ‘energy’, it is a fact that energy cannot be generated or destroyed. We can just change the form of energy. At power plants too, energy that is available in a particular form is converted into another form.

    Different Types of Power Plants

    Nuclear Power Plants

    Nuclear power plants work on the chemical process of fission. Nuclear reactors are used to generate electricity. Fission is a type of nuclear reaction in which, when the atoms of certain elements called nuclear fuels absorb free neutrons, they split into two or more small nuclei and some free neutrons. In the process, large amount of energy is released. The free neutrons further strike the atoms of other fissile materials, thus setting off a chain reaction. The energy released from this chain reaction is harnessed to generate electricity.

    Nuclear power plants have ways to control or stop these reactions when they seem to go out of control and become threatening. The nuclear fuel used are Uranium-235 or Plutonium-239. Every country is in the race of becoming capable of harnessing nuclear energy. It is so because the free energy released by nuclear material is millions times more than that contained in an equal amount of any other traditional fuel. However, what raises the concern about these reactions is that a lot of radioactive material is created in the process. These substances remain radioactive for long. This raises the problem of managing nuclear waste.

    Records show that there are about 435 working nuclear power plants in the world. You must have heard and read about the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accidents. Managing the ‘used fuel’ at the plants and reducing the chances of threats involve high designing skills, extensive research and use of advanced technology. Moreover, nuclear power stations should be able to sustain a terrorist attack (large fires or explosions), as power stations are preferred targets of terrorist attacks. Thus, the operating cost or cost of setting up a new nuclear plant is likely to shoot up rapidly not only due to increasing costs of fuels but also due to the advanced technology required.

    Thermal Power Plants

    These power plants generate electrical energy from thermal energy (heat). Since heat is generated by burning fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, or natural gas, these are also collectively referred to as the fossil fueled power plants. Coal power plants were the earliest of the fossil power plants to have been built.

    Even today, coal is the most common fuel that is used by thermal power stations. The heat generated by burning the fossil fuels is used to turn a rotating machinery, most commonly a steam turbine or a gas turbine that changes the thermal energy into mechanical energy. The rotating turbine is attached to an alternator that coverts the mechanical energy of the rotating turbine into electrical energy. Handling and disposal of ash plays an important role in maintaining the environmental balance. These days, thermal power stations that use biomass or biofuel to generate electricity are being constructed.

    Hydro Power Plants

    These plants use the kinetic energy of flowing water to produce electrical energy. Hydro power plants store water in large reservoirs. Water in these reservoirs flow down the dam and rotate a turbine. As the blades of a turbine turn, so do the magnets inside the generator which is connected to the turbine. These magnets rotate past copper coils and with each rotation, electricity is produced.

    There are more than 2,000 hydro power plants in the US, making it the largest source of energy in the country. Despite their utility, their major drawback is that they are highly dependent on the hydrological cycle of the area where they are built. Less electricity is generated when the supply of water to the plant is insufficient. Some hydro power stations were shut down due to shortage of water.

    स्रोत : helpsavenature.com

    if 1st january 2008 is tuesday, then what day of the week lies on 1st january, 2009?

    get if 1st january 2008 is tuesday, then what day of the week lies on 1st january, 2009? from screen.

    January 1, 2008 is Tuesday. What day of the week lies on Jan 1, 2009?

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ January 1, 2008 is Tuesday. What day of the week lies on Jan 1, 2009?

    Question

    January 1, 2008 is Tuesday. What day of the week lies on Jan 1, 2009?

    A

    Monday

    B

    Wednesday

    C

    Thursday

    D

    Sunday

    Easy Open in App

    Updated on : 2022-09-05

    Solution Verified by Toppr

    Correct option is C)

    The year 2008 is a leap year. So, it has 2 odd days.

    1st day of the year 2008 is Tuesday (Given)

    So, 1st day of the year 2009 is 2 days beyond Tuesday.

    Hence, it will be Thursday.

    Was this answer helpful?

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    Calendar

    This is the aptitude questions and answers with discussion section on "Calendar" with explanation for various interview, competitive examination and entrance test. Solved examples with detailed answer description, explanation are given and it would be easy to understand - Discussion page for Q.626.

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    Aptitude :: Calendar - Discussion

    Home » Aptitude » Calendar » General Questions - Discussion

    Discussion :: Calendar - General Questions (Q.No.14)

    Calendar - Important Formulas

    «« Calendar - General Questions

    14.

    January 1, 2008 is Tuesday. What day of the week lies on Jan 1, 2009?

    [A]. Monday [B]. Wednesday [C]. Thursday [D]. Sunday Answer: Option C Explanation:

    The year 2008 is a leap year. So, it has 2 odd days.

    1st day of the year 2008 is Tuesday (Given)

    So, 1st day of the year 2009 is 2 days beyond Tuesday.

    Hence, it will be Thursday.

    Workspace Report

    Sorabh Khullar said: (Sep 21, 2011)

    If 21/09/2011 is wednesday then what will be the day on 21/9/2015.

    Give the proper solution to the question

    Suresh Ageeru said: (Sep 24, 2011)

    The year 2011 is not a leap year, so it has only 1 odd day.

    So, 1 day beyond wednesday, answer is thursday.

    Jiban Jyoti Parida said: (May 7, 2012)

    The year 2011is not a leap year but the 2012 is a leap year.

    So the odd day is 2.

    And the day will be 2 day beyond Wednesday is Monday.

    Rajan said: (Feb 4, 2014)

    2009-2008 = 1. And 1 leap year. So,1+1 = 2.

    Tuesday+2 = Thursday (correct).

    Bilal said: (Jun 24, 2016)

    That is completely incorrect. 2008 was a common year because it started on a Tuesday. That means January 1 2009 was a Wednesday.

    Bilal Mallick said: (Jun 24, 2016)

    All of you are incorrect. Look, the rule on the calendar is that when a year divisible by 4 starts on a Tuesday is NOT a leap year.

    January 1, 2008, was a Tuesday, Tuesday + 1= Wednesday. January 1, 2009, was a Wednesday (absolutely correct).

    Nana Yaw said: (Nov 1, 2016)

    @Bilal you are wrong.

    According to 2009 calender it's Thursday.

    KALIPRASAD said: (Oct 1, 2018)

    If 1st february, 2012 is wednesday, what was the day of the week on 1st february, 2011? Please explain the answer.

    Sumit Thappa said: (Sep 10, 2019)

    Simply,

    Divide this year by 4 i.e. 2008/4. It is divisible so we got to know that it is a leap year and leap year has 2 odd days as 366/4=52 weeks and 2 days. So the day will be 2 days ahead. So Tuesday + 2 = Thursday.

    Priyanka V said: (Oct 5, 2019)

    I had a doubt. From 1st Jan 2008 to 31st December 2008 is 366 days. So checking divisibility by 7, we get 2 odd days. So we can say that the last 2 days of the year (i.e. 30th and 31st Dec 2008) will be Wednesday and Thursday.

    So from the question, actually 1st-Jan-2009 should be the next day i.e. 'Friday' right?

    Please correct me if I am wrong!

    Matt said: (Jun 23, 2020)

    @Priyanka

    Don't add 1st Jan 2008 in your calculation. (2nd Jan 2008 to 1st Jan 2009) in total 366 days, hence 2 odd days.

    Divya Agrawal said: (Aug 28, 2020)

    Answer will be Wedesday.

    Pema Yangdon said: (Oct 30, 2020)

    Right @Divya Agrawal.

    I also got Wednesday as answer.

    Khader Hussain Sha said: (Dec 9, 2020)

    @All.

    The question in 1 Jan 2008, we know that 2008 is a leap year, assume that if 2008 was an non-leap year then it.

    Will have 365 days, so when you divide 365/7 = 1 odd day all right, the day will we Wednesday but as it is a leap year it has 366 days now 366/7 = 2 odd days, now add to the date of 1 Jan 2008 = Tuesday + 2 Thursday.

    If the question was like 1 Jan 2008 in Tuesday then what is 1 Jan 2007, the answer would be Monday, as 2007 is the simple year.

    Shreya said: (Jan 6, 2022)

    the answer should be friday according to me because 2008 odd days are 2 and 1 of 1st jan 2009 so it should be 2+1=3 tues +3 i.e friday

    Dawa Gyaltshen said: (Jul 24, 2022)

    09-last two digit of the given year.

    09/4=2[quoteint]. 1-date given.

    0-number of month (JFM=033, AMJ=614, JAS =625 and OND= 035).

    6-no.of year (1600-1699=6, 1700-1799=4, 1800-1899=2,1900-1999=0, and 2000-2099=6).

    Sum of all=18.

    Sum/7= 4(remainder).

    4 = Thursday (0=Sunday......,.6 = saturday).

    D R Mishra said: (Nov 20, 2022)

    Yes, Thursday is the right Answer.

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    January 1, 2008 is Tuesday. What day of the week lies on Jan 1, 2009?

    Answer (1 of 5): The first day and the last day of a general year is always same. But the last day of a leap year is always one day more. Example: 2019 is a general year. The first day of 2019 is Tuesday and the last day as well. 2020 is a leap year. If the first day of 2020 is Wednesday then ...

    January 1, 2008 is Tuesday. What day of the week lies on Jan 1, 2009?

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    Sort Vikrant Singh

    B.Tech (CS) from Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University (Graduated 2016)3y

    The first day and the last day of a general year is always same. But the last day of a leap year is always one day more.

    Example: 2019 is a general year.

    The first day of 2019 is Tuesday and the last day as well.

    2020 is a leap year. If the first day of 2020 is Wednesday then the last day will be Thursday.

    Now for your question,

    Since, 2008 is a leap year. (You can check by dividing the last two digits by 4), and the first day is Tuesday , the last day 31st December 2008 will be one more i.e Wednesday.

    So, on 1st January 2009 it will be Thursday.

    No formula. Only concept and common sense.

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    Aakash Kumar

    BS-MS from Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal (IISER-B) (Expected 2023)3y

    Since days of a week is a periodic event with a period of 7 days .It means that the same day of the week will come if you add 7 days to the same day.

    Let's understand with an example.

    As from above calender , Sunday is repeating at the date after adding 7 days to the previous date.

    Total days between 1 January 2008 to 1 January 2009=Jan+Feb+Mar+……+Dec.+1

    =30+29+31+30+31+30+31+31+30+31+30+31+1

    =366 days

    Therefore, 366/7 days =( 7*52 + 2 ) days .

    After division the remainder tells that the next Tuesday will come at 2 days before 1 January of 2009 i.e 30 December 2008 will be Tuesday. Then 1 January 200

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    2008 is a leap year, so no. of days between these two dates is 366, 52 weeks & 2 days, so Jan 1, 2009 is a Thursday

    Anjisha Mohan

    M.sc mathematics from University of Delhi (Graduated 2019)3y

    2008 is a leap year ..so 366 days

    1 week has 7 days ..so dividing 366 by 7

    366/7 = 52 weeks +2 days

    So jan1,2009 is Tuesday +2 days so THURSDAY.

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    Gap between these two days = 367 (2008 being leap year)

    On dividing 367 by 7, we get 52 with 3 as remainder.

    Hence there are 52 complete weeks and 3 supplementary days.

    1st supplementary day will be Tuesday (January 1 was Tuesday).

    Hence 3rd supplementary or January 1, 2009 was Thursday.

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    If 1st January 2008 is a Sunday, what day of the week will it be on 24th May 2008?

    1st January 2008 was actually a Tuesday. 24 May 2008 was a Saturday, but if 1st January was a Sunday, it would have been a Thursday.

    Harsh Vardhan

    MBBS from St. Kabir Public School, Chandigarh (Graduated 2018)6y

    Related

    If 4th january 2008 falls on friday, which day of the week is 4th january 2009?

    Your question has already been answered. And been answered correctly. So here is an advice or solution or help or whatever you wanna call it, on how to answer your question yourself.

    For every gain of year, the date also gains a day. Suppose 4th feb, 2009 is saturday then 4th feb 2010 will be sunday. Just add a day.

    Now the reverse of the above also holds true . That is, for every loss of year a day is lost. Suppose 4th February 2010 was a sunday then 4th February 2009 will be a saturday.

    Exception to the above rule is leap year. So if the time between the dates has gone through the date 29t

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    the ideas of liberty equality and fraternity of indian constitution borrowed from

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    The ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity (co

    The ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity (contained in the Preamble of the Constitution of India) are borrowed from the constitution of which country?

    Question SSC CHSL 2020

    The ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity (contained in the Preamble of the Constitution of India) are borrowed from the constitution of which country?

    Detailed Solution:

    The correct answer is France.

    The Indian Preamble borrowed its ideals of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity from the French Constitution.

    The Indian state came to be recognized as the ‘Republic of India’ in the lineage of the Constitution of France.

    Additional Information

    The Constitution of India is the backbone of democracy in our country.

    It is an umbrella of rights that gives the citizens an assurance of a free and fair society.

    The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26th November 1949 and it came into effect on 26th of January 1950.

    The Constitution of 1950 was a by-product of the legacy started by the Government of India Act 1935.

    This was the longest act passed by the British government with 321 sections and 10 schedules.

    This act had drawn its content from four sources – Report of the Simon Commission, discussions and deliberations at the Third Round Table Conference, the White Paper of 1933, and the reports of the Joint select committees.

    Important Questions from Constitution

    01)

    Part ______ of the Indian Constitution deals with the Citizenship of India.

    View Answer

    SSC Stenographer 2020

    02)

    The fundamental rights of citizens are embodied in which part of the Indian Constitution?

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    03)

    A ______ is a formal document containing an order of the court to the Government issued only by the High Court or the Supreme Court of India.

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    Any section of citizens with a distinct language or culture have a right to _______ it.

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    The ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity in the Preamble are borrowed from the Constitution of which country?

    French Constitution The principles of Republic and the ideals of liberty equality and fraternity in the Preamble of the Constitution of India are borrowed from the French Constitution These ideals were born during the French Revolution of 1789

    स्रोत : www.gktoday.in

    [Solved] The ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity (contained in

    The correct answer is France. The Indian Preamble borrowed its ideals of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity from the French Constitution. The I

    Home Law Officer Constitution

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    The ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity (contained in the Preamble of the Constitution of India) are borrowed from the constitution of which country?

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    Australia Canada Germany France

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    Option 4 : France

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    Detailed Solution

    Download Solution PDF

    The correct answer is France.

    The Indian Preamble borrowed its ideals of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity from the French Constitution.

    The Indian state came to be recognized as the ‘Republic of India’ in the lineage of the Constitution of France.

    Additional Information

    The Constitution of India is the backbone of democracy in our country.

    It is an umbrella of rights that gives the citizens an assurance of a free and fair society.

    The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26th November 1949 and it came into effect on 26th of January 1950.

    The Constitution of 1950 was a by-product of the legacy started by the Government of India Act 1935.

    This was the longest act passed by the British government with 321 sections and 10 schedules.

    This act had drawn its content from four sources – Report of the Simon Commission, discussions and deliberations at the Third Round Table Conference, the White Paper of 1933, and the reports of the Joint select committees.

    Download Solution PDF

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    Latest SSC CHSL Updates

    Last updated on Nov 4, 2022

    SSC CHSL 2021 Skill Test Announced! The exam will be taking place on 6th January. SSC CHSL 2022 notification will be released on 6th December 2022. Earlier, the notification was scheduled to be released on 5th November 2022. Candidates can log in to their profiles and check individual marks between 26th November 2022 to 16th November 2022. The SSC is going to release the SSC CHSL notification on 6th December 2022 as declared by SSC. Candidates who have completed Higher Secondary (10+2) can appear for this exam for recruitment to various posts like Postal Assistant, Lower Divisional Clerks, Court Clerk, Sorting Assistants, Data Entry Operators, etc. The SSC Selection Process consists of Computer Based Exam, Descriptive Test and Typing/Skill Test. Recently, the board has released the SSC CHSL Skill Test Result for the 2020 cycle. The candidates who are qualified are eligible to attend the document verification.

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    Q1. The famous saying "A GOVERNMENT OF LAWS, NOT OF MEN" is related to ______.Q2. With regard to the Fundamental Rights, find the INCORRECT option?Q3. Right to constitutional remedies comes under:Q4. Which article of the Indian Constitution deals with Citizenship?Q5. Which of the following fundamental rights is violated by the condition of a 13-year-old child working in a carpet manufacturing factory?Q6. Which article of the constitution also means that an Indian citizen or any other person will be treated differently in different circumstances.Q7. Which of the following information can be sought from the appropriate Public Information Officer under the Right to Information (RTI) Act? 1. Copies of the answer sheets from any examination conducting body (e.g. GAIT (GATE), IIM, UPSC, etc.). 2. Passport, driving license, ration card, Aadhaar card application status, etc.Q8. Under the Right to Education, it has been agreed to share the economic burden between the center and the state in the ratio of ______.Q9. Who can revoke fundamental rights during emergency?Q10. In which part of the Constitution are fundamental rights enshrined?

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    here are some words translated from an artificial language. migenlasan means cupboard lasanpoen means boardwalk cuopdansa means pullman which word could mean walkway?

    get here are some words translated from an artificial language. migenlasan means cupboard lasanpoen means boardwalk cuopdansa means pullman which word could mean walkway? from screen.

    Here are some words translated from an artificial language.migenlasan means cupboardlasanpoen means boardwalkcuopdansa means pullmanWhich word could mean \"walkway\"?

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ Here are some words translated from an artificial language.migenlasan means cupboardlasanpoen means boardwalkcuopdansa means pullmanWhich word could mean \"walkway\"?

    Here are some words translated from an artificial language.

    Question means cupboard means boardwalk means pullman

    Which word could mean "walkway"?

    A

    Poenmigen

    B

    Cuopeisel

    C

    Lasandansa

    D

    Poenforc

    Medium Open in App Solution Verified by Toppr

    Correct option is D)

     means cup;  means board;  means walk;  means pull; and  means man. The only possible choices, then, are choices a and d. Choice a can be ruled out because  means cup.

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    Artificial Language

    This is the logical reasoning questions and answers with discussion section on "Artificial Language" with explanation for various interview, competitive examination and entrance test. Solved examples with detailed answer description, explanation are given and it would be easy to understand - Discussion page for Q.308.

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    Logical Reasoning :: Artificial Language - Discussion

    Home » Logical Reasoning » Artificial Language » Type 1 - Discussion

    Discussion :: Artificial Language - Type 1 (Q.No.5)

    «« Artificial Language - Type 1

    Artificial Language - Type 2

    Directions to Solve

    First, you will be given a list of three "nonsense" words and their English word meanings. The question(s) that follow will ask you to reverse the process and translate an English word into the artificial language.

    5.

    Here are some words translated from an artificial language.

    means cupboard means boardwalk means pullman

    Which word could mean "walkway"?

    [A]. poenmigen [B]. cuopeisel [C]. lasandansa [D]. poenforc Answer: Option D Explanation:

    means cup; means board; means walk; means pull; and means man. The only possible choices, then, are choices a and d. Choice a can be ruled out because means cup.

    Workspace Report

    Ayushi Singh said: (Aug 26, 2016)

    I need a brief description for this. Please tell me.

    Ram said: (Jan 6, 2017)

    How can we know this type of codes? Is there any trick?

    Amar said: (Jul 26, 2018)

    Migen means cup; lasan means board; poen means walk; cuop means pull; and dansa means man. The only possible choices, then, are choices A and D. Choice A can be ruled out because migen means cup.

    Shaik Chandini said: (Aug 2, 2020)

    Here the word lasanpoen means boardwalk so here poen refers to walk. From the above choices, the suitable word matches with walkway is option D that is poenforc. In the word, poenforc poen means walk and forc means way.

    Haranna said: (May 3, 2021)

    Thanks for explaining.

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    Here are some words translated from an artificial language I migenlasan

    Here are some words translated from an artificial language. I. migenlasan means cupboard II.lasanpoen means boardwalk III. cuopdansa means pullman Which word could mean walkway ? a) poenmigen b) cuopeisel c) lasandansa d) poenforc

    Here are some words translated from an artificial language.

    Examveda

    I. migenlasan means cupboard

    II.lasanpoen means boardwalk

    III. cuopdansa means pullman

    Which word could mean "walkway"?

    A. poenmigen B. cuopeisel C. lasandansa D. poenforc

    Answer: Option D

    Solution(By Examveda Team)

    Migen means cup; lasan means board; poen means walk; cuop means pull; and dansa means man. The only possible choices, then, are choices a and d. Choice a can be ruled out because migen means cup.

    Click here to read 1000+ Related Questions on Artificial Language(Competitive Reasoning)

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    Here are some words translated from an artificial language.

    I. gorblflur means fan belt

    II. pixngorbl means ceiling fan

    III. arthtusl means tile roof

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    I. agnoscrenia means poisonous spider

    II. delanocrenia means poisonous snake

    III. agnosdeery means brown spider

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    all india medical association was formed during a conference in the city of

    get all india medical association was formed during a conference in the city of from screen.

    Our History

    Home / About Us / Our History

    History Of Indian Medical Association

    India’s first ever society of medical professionals was founded in Mumbai - the Bombay Medical Union. It was formed on 22nd December 1883 at a meeting held at the Great Western Hotel, Bombay. In the year 1895 the All India Body of Medical Men was formed in Calcutta. During 1895-1900 two medical conferences were held; one each in Bombay and Calcutta & provincial associations were formed in many cities.

    It was at the 5th All India Medical Conference held at Calcutta on 28th December 1928 under the Presidentship of Dr. G. V. Deshmukh of Bombay a resolution was adopted forming an All India Medical Association with the objects of promotion and advancement of medical and allied sciences in their different branches, improvement of public health and medical education in India and maintenance of honour and dignity of the medical profession. In year 1930, the All India Medical Association was renamed as the Indian Medical Association and the body was duly registered under the Societies Registration Act, XXI of 1860.

    The Association had come into being at a time of political unrest and the country was passing through a big turmoil. Yet it was a matter of great satisfaction that the stalwarts of the medical profession in those days like, Dr. K. S. Ray, Sir Nil Ratan Sircar, Dr. B. C. Roy, Dr. M. A. Ansari, Col. Bholanath. Major M. G. Naidu, Dr. B. N. Vyas. Dr. D. Silva, Dr. N. A. Ghosh, Dr. D. A. Chakravarthi, Dr. Vishwanathan and Capt. B. V. Mukharjee actively participated in the promotion of the Association.

    Some of these stalwarts were also active in the Indian National Congress and had their terms in the jail for participating in the struggle for Independence of the country.

    The Headquarters Office of IMA was originally located at Calcutta. At the suggestion of Dr. S. C. Sen supported by Dr. B. V. Mulay, Dr. Chamanlal C. Mehta and Maj. General Amirchand, the IMA Headquarters was shifted to Delhi in January 1949 after the attainment of Independence. The Journal of IMA continued to be published from Calcutta. Dr. S. C. Sen obtained a plot of land in Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi at a concessional rate from the Government and the project of construction of IMA Building was undertaken. The Foundation Stone of IMA House was laid by the First President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 19th September 1958, under supervision of Dr. P. C. Bhatia and with his untiring efforts, the building was completed and opened on 6th September 1964 by the President of India, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan.

    During the British Rule, some selected members of the profession were members the British Medical Association which had branches in India. The stalwarts of IMA succeeded in reaching an agreement with British Medical Association that they would have no branches in India and get mutually affiliated, which relationship continues till today. In the year 1946, IMA helped in the organization of the world body viz. the World Medical Association and thus became its Founder Member through the efforts of Dr. S. C. Sen. Dr. R. V. Sathe, the then President of IMA held the chair of President of WMA when they met in New Delhi in 1962. Another illustrious Past President, Dr. A. K. N. Sinha also held the office of WMA. However, due to admission of the Medical Association of South Africa in the World Medical Association, IMA withdrew from its membership in 1985 because of South Africa’s policy of apartheid. Later Indian Medical Association, after consideration of all aspects of the matter decided in February 1993 to again become a member of the World Medical Association. In pursuance of the above, 45th General Assembly of the World Medical Association at its meeting held on 25th October 1993 approved IMA’s membership of WMA. Past President of IMA Headquarters, Dr. Ketan Desai is the President of WMA at present (2009). IMA has continued to play an important role in the affairs of Commonwealth Medical Association and hosted the 3rd World Conference on Medical Education under the joint auspices of WMA and IMA, at New Delhi in 1966.

    Over the period of 81 years, IMA while maintaining its glorious tradition has secured a place of pride in the community through its over 1700 branches with a total membership of over 2.5 lakhs throughout the country.

    The Indian Medical Association is managed by the elected members of the Central Council and the Working Committee, which lay down the policies and deliberate on the day-to-day activities of the Association.

    The Indian Medical Association has adopted a constitution to function on a democratic pattern, with clearly defined objective laid down in the memorandum of the Association, as under:

    1. To promote and advance medical and allied sciences in all their different branches and to promote the improvement of public health and medical education in India

    2. To maintain the honour and dignity and to uphold the interests of the medical profession and to promote co-operation amongst the members there and

    3. To work for the abolition of compartmentalism in medical education, medical service and registration in the country and thus to achieve equality among all members of the profession.

    MEMBERSHIP AND FUNCTIONING

    The membership of the Association is open to all persons qualified in the modern system of medicine and registered under the Indian Medical Council Act 1956 as amended. Today, It has more than 2.5 lakhs members on its roll through 1700 branches controlled and managed by 28 states, territorial and direct branches throughout the country. Besides, there are about 86 overseas members who have either temporarily gone abroad for study and employment or permanently settled there. These members are kept in touch with the affairs of the Association through the monthly publication namely the “IMA News” and “Journal of the Indian Medical Association”.

    स्रोत : www.ima-mumbai.com

    Indian Medical Association

    Indian Medical Association

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to navigation Jump to search

    Indian Medical Association

    Abbreviation IMA Formation 1928

    Headquarters New Delhi

    Location

    Indian Medical Association, IMA House, I.P. Estate, Next to Vikas Minar, New Delhi - 110002

    Region served India

    Membership 317,458 as of November 30, 2019[1]

    National President Sahajanand Prasad Singh

    Website www.ima-india.org

    The Indian Medical Association (IMA) is a national voluntary organisation of physicians in India. It was established in 1928[2] as the All India Medical Association, and was renamed the Indian Medical Association in 1930. It is a society registered under The Societies Act of India.

    Contents

    1 Background 2 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

    Background[edit]

    The Indian Medical Association has approximately 350,000 member doctors[2] in 1,700 active local branches in 29 states and union territories in India.[3][4] It is the largest association of medical doctors in India.[5]

    Previously stationed out of Calcutta, the IMA is headquartered in New Delhi.[2] Local branches send representatives to a central council which meets annually.[6] The council delegates to a working committee that represents all state branches and meets at least three times a year.[6]

    The Indian Medical Association is one of the 27 founder members of the World Medical Association,[7] joining in 1948.[2] The IMA left the organization in 1985 due to the WMA's retention of South Africa, then a practitioner of apartheid. The IMA rejoined the WMA in 1993.[2] A Reuters investigative report from 2015 found that the IMA had incorrectly told the WMA that charges of corruption brought by the Central Bureau of Investigation against former IMA president Ketan Desai had been withdrawn.[8][9]

    The IMA has expressed opposition to integrated medicine or the mixing together of systems of medicine in curriculum, practice and research in India, often by using the term "mixopathy".[10][11][12] The IMA has held a number of nationwide protests.[13][14][15] These have included several protests between November 2016 and March 2017[16] that objected to bills raised toward the creation of the National Medical Commission[15][17] which replaced the Medical Council of India on 25 September 2020.[18] In December 2020, approximately one million doctors attended a day-long strike organized by the IMA to protest a federal government rule that allows practitioners of the Indian system of medicine Ayurveda to perform minor surgeries.[19] In early 2021, the IMA held a two-week nationwide hunger strike to protest the government's support for surgical training for postgraduate students of Ayurveda.[20]

    In 2022, Sahajanand Prasad Singh was listed as the national president for the organization.[11] Singh was preceded in the post by surgeon J. A. Jayalal from 2020-2021.[21] Longtime member and cardiologist K. K. Aggarwal held several posts within the IMA including president.[22][23] Ketan Desai served as the organization's head[24] from 2001-2003[25] following a period when he had been found guilty by Delhi High Court of corrupt practices and abuse of power.[26]

    [edit]

    The , (JIMA), is indexed in the Index Medicus. Published monthly, JIMA has over 240,000 subscribers for its electronic version and is also available in microfilm through Bell & Howels, US.[27] JIMA was founded in 1930 by Sir Nilratan Sircar, Bidhan Chandra Roy, Kumud Sankar Ray, and others in Calcutta.[27]

    See also[edit]

    Indian Council of Medical Research

    References[edit]

    ^ "Indian Medical Association". .

    ^ Jump up to:

    Ghosh, Abantika (2021-03-10). "'Voice of doctors' or 'den of politics'? Why some doctors swear by IMA, others don't care". . Retrieved 2022-04-06.

    ^ Rai, D. R. (2012). "Article on Indian Medical Association in Japan Medical association Journal" (PDF). . Retrieved 2020-10-11.^ Patel, Jitendra B.; Saini, Narendra (2014-08-01). "Indian Medical Association". . 57 (4): 238–244. ISSN 1346-8650. PMC 4375268. PMID 26005621.^ Singh, Prachi (August 12, 2020). "The Contest Between AYUSH and Allopathy Shouldn't Forget Public Health". . Retrieved 2022-05-01.

    ^ Jump up to:

    "What is IMA? And it's History". . Retrieved 2022-04-09.

    ^ "History of the World Medical Association". Archived from the original on 2016-06-09. Retrieved 2016-06-04.^ "WMA president Ketan Desai attends court hearing in corruption case". . 2016-11-05. Retrieved 2022-04-08.^ Stecklow, Steve; MacAskill, Andrew; Kalra, Aditya (July 30, 2015). "Indian doctor's legal troubles bedevil global medical-ethics body". . Retrieved 2022-04-07.^ "'Khichdi' medical system can put millions of lives at risk: IMA on integrated medicine proposal". . Retrieved 2022-03-23.

    ^ Jump up to:

    Sirur, Simrin (2022-02-19). "Don't call practitioners of Indian medicine 'quacks', have rights under law, says Commission". . Retrieved 2022-04-06.

    ^ Taskin, Bismee (2020-12-08). "'No point mixing all in one' — IMA to fight govt move to allow Ayurveda doctors to do surgery". . Retrieved 2022-04-06.^ "IMA holds nationwide protest seeking central law to protect doctors against violence". . June 18, 2021.^ "IMA's Call For Protest: Some Doctors Withdrew Services, Others Sported Black Ribbons". . PTI. 12 December 2020. Retrieved 2022-04-11.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    » History Indian Medical Association

    HISTORY OF IMA KUNNAMKULAM (prepared by Dr. Koshy George T.,MS., D.Orth., DNB, President IMA Kunnamkulam  from available records and submitted to the website on 16.02.2015 – to be updated at the en...

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    History

    HISTORY OF IMA KUNNAMKULAM

    (prepared by Dr. Koshy George T.,MS., D.Orth., DNB, President IMA Kunnamkulam  from available records and submitted to the website on 16.02.2015 – to be updated at the end of each IMA year by future office bearers)

    INDIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION

    IMA was started on 28 December 1928. IMA has to date 2,20,000 members including 10,000 life members IMA has 23 State Branches and 9 Territorial branches and 1650 local branches. IMA safeguards interest of its members and participates in all national health programmes. The original annual conference of the association was called All India Medical Conference and was always on 27th of December as part of the pre Independance movement.

    The Indian Medical Association celebrated its Diamond Jubilee in the year 1988 and  completed its 72nd year of glorious functioning on the occasion of the 76th All India Medical conference being held on the 28th December, 2000 at Calcutta. Prior to the formation of the Association, four All India Medical Conferences had been held the first at Calcutta in 1917 under the Presidency of Lt. Col. Raghavendra Rao, the second at Delhi in 1918 with Sir Nil Ratan Sircar as the President, the third in 1919 with Dr. M.. N. Odedar as its President and the Fourth at Nagpur in 1920 under the Presidency of Rao Bahadur Dr. Maharaj Krishnan Kapur. It was at the 5th conference held at Calcutta on 28 December 1928 under the Presidency of Dr. G. V. Deshmukh of Bombay, that a resolution was adopted forming an All India Medical Association with the objects of promotion and advancement of medical and allied sciences in their different branches, the improvement of public health and medical education in India and the maintenance of honor and dignity of the medical profession.. In the year 1930, the All Indian Medical Association was duly registered under the Societies Registration Act, XXI of 1860.

    The association had come in to being at a time when there was political unrest and the country was passing through big turmoil. Yet, it was a matter of great satisfaction that the stalwarts of the medical profession in those days like Dr. K. S. Ray, Sir Nil Ratan Sircar, Dr. B. C. Roy, Dr. M. A. Ansari, Col. Bhola Nath, Major M. G. Naidu, Dr. B.N. Vyas, Dr. D. Silva, Dr. N. A. Ghosh, Dr. D. A. Chakravarthi, Dr. Viswanathan, and Capt. B. V. Mukherjee actively participated in the promotion of the Association. Some of these stalwarts were also active in the Indian National Congress and had their terms in the jail for participating in the struggle for Independence of the country.

    The Association was formed with only 222 members. Yet even with this numerical strength, it could achieve its position of strength and command respect from the British rulers. It could prevent the appointment of a British IMS Officer as a Commissioner of Medical Education in 1929 and it could achieve to organize an all India Medical Register and include the licentiates in it. The Medical Council of India Act was amended to have an elected President in place of a nominated one and it was a matter of a pride that Dr. B. C. Roy, one of the most illustrious past Presidents of IMA, became the first elected President of Medical Council of India followed by many other illustrious presidents of IMA gracing the exalted chair including the past president of the Medical Council of India Late Dr. A. K. N. Sinha.

    The Headquarters Office of the IMA was originally located in Calcutta. At the suggestion of Dr. S. C. Sen supported by Dr. B. V. Mulay, Dr. Chamanlal C. Mehta and Maj. General Amirchand, the IMA Headquarters was shifted to Delhi in January 1949, after the attainment of Independence. The Journal of IMA continued to be published from Calcutta. Dr. S. C. Sen also obtained a plot of land in Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi at the concessional rates from the Government and the project of construction of IMA Building thereon was undertaken, supported by Dr. B. V. Mulay, Dr. Chamanlal Mehta, Dr. C.S.Thakar, Dr.A.P.Mitra, Dr. Ved Prakash, Dr. R.C.Goulatia, Dr. P.C. Bhatia and Dr. D.S. Mehra. The foundation stone of IMA House was laid by the first President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad on September 19, 1958 and the construction of the building was started under the supervision of Dr. P.C.Bhatia who supervised it brick by brick. With his untiring efforts, the building was completed and opened on September 6, 1964 by the then President of India, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan.

    During the British Rule, some selected members of the profession were members of the British Medical Association which had branches in India. The stalwarts of IMA ultimately succeeded in reaching an agreement with British Medical Association that they would have no branches in India and got mutually affiliated, which relationship continues even today. In the year 1964, IMA helped in the organization of the world body viz., the World Medical Association and thus became its founder member through the efforts of Dr. S.C.Sen, Dr. R.V.Sathe, the then President of IMA held the chair of the President of WMA when the WMA met in New Delhi in 1962. It’s a matter of pride that another illustrious Past President of IMA Dr. A.K.N. Sinha also held the office of the WMA. The IMA has been playing an important role in the deliberations of the World Medical Association at New Delhi in the year 1966.. Later developments, however, forced us to take decision to withdraw from World Medical Association in 1985, since the organization refused to expel South Africa despite its dismal record of racial discrimination. The Indian Medical Association after consideration of all aspects of the matter decided in February, 1993 that IMA may again become a member of the World Medical Association. In pursuance of the above, 45th General Assembly of the World Medical Association at its meeting held on October 2–5, 1993 approved IMA’s membership of the WMA. The IMA has continued to play an important role in the affairs of the Commonwealth Medical Association.

    स्रोत : imakunnamkulam.in

    the economic drain theory was put together by the grand old man of india in 1867 who was he

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    Dadabhai Naoroji

    Dadabhai Naoroji

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to navigation Jump to search The Honourable Dadabhai Naoroji MP

    Dadabhai Naoroji, c. 1889

    Member of Parliament (UK) for Finsbury Central

    In office

    1892–1895

    Preceded by Frederick Thomas Penton

    Succeeded by William Frederick Barton Massey-Mainwaring

    Majority 5

    2nd, 9th, and 22nd President of Indian National Congress

    In office

    1886–1887

    Preceded by Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee

    Succeeded by Badruddin Tyabji

    In office

    1893–1894

    Preceded by Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee

    Succeeded by Alfred Webb

    In office

    1906–1907

    Preceded by Gopal Krishna Gokhale

    Succeeded by Rashbihari Ghosh

    Personal details

    Born Dadabhai Naoroji Dordi

    4 September 1825

    Navsari, Bombay Presidency, British India

    Died 30 June 1917 (aged 91)

    Bombay, Bombay Presidency, British India

    Nationality British Indian subject

    Political party Liberal

    Other political

    affiliations Co-founder of Indian National Congress

    Spouse Gulbaai

    Alma mater University of Mumbai

    Occupation

    PoliticianMerchantScholarWriter

    Signature Part of a series on

    Liberalism

    show History show Ideas show Schools of thought show Thinkers show Politicians show Organizations show Regional variants show Related topics Liberalism portal Politics portal vte

    Dadabhai Naoroji (4 September 1825 – 30 June 1917) also known as the "Grand Old Man of India" and "Unofficial Ambassador of India", was an Indian political leader, merchant, scholar and writer who served as 2nd, 9th, and 22nd President of the Indian National Congress from 1886 to 1887, 1893 to 1894 & 1906 to 1907. He was a Liberal Party Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons, representing Finsbury Central between 1892 and 1895. He was the second person of Asian descent to be a British MP,[1][2] the first being Anglo-Indian MP David Ochterlony Dyce Sombre, who was disenfranchised for corruption after nine months in office.[3]

    His book [2] brought attention to his theory of the Indian "wealth drain" into Britain. He was also a member of the Second International along with Kautsky and Plekhanov. In 2014, Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg inaugurated the Dadabhai Naoroji Awards for services to UK-India relations.[4] India Post depicted Naoroji on stamps in 1963, 1997 and 2017.[5][6]

    Contents

    1 Biography

    2 Personal life and death

    3 Drain theory and poverty

    4 Views and legacy 5 Works

    6 Commemorative postage stamps

    7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

    Biography[edit]

    Naoroji was born in Navsari into a Gujarati-speaking Parsi Zoroastrian family, and educated at the Elphinstone Institute School.[7] His patron was the Maharaja of Baroda, Sayajirao Gaekwad III, and he started his career life as Dewan (Minister) to the Maharaja in 1874. Being an (ordained priest), Naoroji founded the Rahnumai Mazdayasan Sabha (Guides on the Mazdayasne Path) on 1 August 1851 to restore the Zoroastrian religion to its original purity and simplicity. In 1854, he also founded a Gujarati fortnightly publication, the (or The Truth Teller), to clarify Zoroastrian concepts and promote Parsi social reforms.[8]

    Around this time, he also published another newspaper called . In December 1855, he was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in Elphinstone College in Bombay,[9] becoming the first Indian to hold such an academic position. He travelled to London in 1855 to become a partner in Cama & Co, opening a Liverpool location for the first Indian company to be established in Britain. Within three years, he had resigned on ethical grounds. In 1859, he established his own cotton trading company, Dadabhai Naoroji & Co.

    Dadabhai Naoroji statue, near Flora Fountain, Mumbai

    In 1861, Naoroji founded The Zoroastrian Trust Funds of Europe alongside Muncherjee Hormusji Cama.[10]

    In 1865, Naoroji directed and launched the London Indian Society, the purpose of which was to discuss Indian political, social and literary subjects.[11] In 1867, he also helped to establish the East India Association, one of the predecessor organisations of the Indian National Congress with the aim of putting across the Indian point of view before the British public. The Association was instrumental in counter-acting the propaganda by the Ethnological Society of London which, in its session in 1866, had tried to prove the inferiority of the Asians to the Europeans. This Association soon won the support of eminent Englishmen and was able to exercise considerable influence in the British parliament. The organization soon had branches in Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.[12]

    In 1874, he became Prime Minister of Baroda and was a member of the Legislative Council of Bombay (1885–88). He was also a member of the Indian National Association founded by Sir Surendranath Banerjea from Calcutta a few years before the founding of the Indian National Congress in Bombay, with the same objectives and practices. The two groups later merged into the INC, and Naoroji was elected President of the Congress in 1886. Naoroji published in 1901.[3]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    The book written by Dadabhai Naoroji to expose the British exploitation of wealth in India was called .

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ The book written by Dadabhai Naoroji to expose the British exploitation of wealth in India was called .

    Question

    The book written by Dadabhai Naoroji to expose the British exploitation of wealth in India was called _______________.

    A

    Mooknayak

    B

    Samwad Kaumudi

    C

    Poverty and Wealth of India

    D

    Poverty and UnBritish Rule in India

    Medium Open in App Solution Verified by Toppr

    Correct option is D)

    In 1867, Dadabhai Naoroji put forward the ‘drain of wealth’ theory in which he stated that the Britain was completely draining India. He mentioned this theory in his book Poverty and Un-British Rule in India. He put forward the idea that Britain was draining and bleeding India and that, too, for nothing.

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    Dadabhai Naoroji and his Drain of Wealth Theory

    Dadabhai Naoroji and his economic Drain of Wealth Theory - He was the first person to say that British were draining the wealth of India and that was the major evil.

    Dadabhai Naoroji and His Drain of Wealth Theory

    By Ramandeep Kaur - June 14, 2013

    Dada Bhai Naoroji

    He was the first Asian to be a British MP and the first Indian to become a Professor at Elphinstone Institution in 1850. The ‘Grand Old Man of India’ and the ‘Father of Indian Nationalism’ are the epithets to explain the personality of this great man who was an educator, cotton trader and social leader. He is none other than Dadabhai Naoroji, who was born on 4th September 1825 at Khadak in Mumbai.

    He was a Member of Parliament (MP) in the United Kingdom House of Commons between 1892 and 1895. Dadabhai Naoroji played a crucial role in founding the Indian National Congress along with two other famous politicians of that time i.e. A.O. Hume and Dinshaw Edulji Wacha. Dadabhai Naoroji’s concept of wealth drain from India during British rule got huge attention. He mentioned the same concept in his book Poverty and Un-British Rule in India.

    After completing his schooling, Dadabhai Naoroji finished his Masters degree in Mathematics and worked as a professor in the same subject. He achieved many honors during his academic career and after completing his education from the Elphinstone Institution, he became a partner of the first Indian commercial company founded in Britain. So, he went to England for managing Cama and Co. While staying in England, he was very keen in exposing the wretchedness in India and what Indians were going through during British rule.  In 1866, he established the East India Association in England. This was a platform to put forward the grievances of Indians in Britain. To promote this further, branches of the association were also established in different parts of India.

     Dadabhai Naoroji’s theory of the Drain of Wealth

    Dadabhai Naoroji was the first man to say that internal factors were not the reasons of poverty in India but poverty was caused by the colonial rule that was draining the wealth and prosperity of India. In 1867, Dadabhai Naoroji put forward the ‘drain of wealth’ theory in which he stated that the Britain was completely draining India. He mentioned this theory in his book . Further in his book , he stated the loss of 200-300 million pounds of revenue to Britain. Dadabhai Naoroji considered it as a major evil of British in India. On the footsteps of Dadabhai Naoroji, R. C. Dutt also promoted the same theory by keeping it as a major theme of his book . The drain of wealth was the portion of India’s wealth and economy that was not available to Indians for consumption.

    Dadabhai Naoroji gave six factors that caused external drain. These are:

    External rule and administration in India.

    Funds and labour needed for economic development was brought in by immigrants but India did not draw immigrants.

    All the civil administration and army expenses of Britain were paid by India.

    India was bearing the burden of territory building both inside and outside India.

    India was further exploited by opening the country to free trade.

    Major earners in India during British rule were foreigners. The money they earned was never invested in India to buy anything. Moreover they left India with that money.

    Not only this, but through different services such as railways, India was giving a huge amount to Britain. On the other hand, trade as well as Indian labour was deeply undervalued. Along with this, the East India Company was buying products from India with Indian money and exporting it to Britain.

    Dadabhai Naoroji was respected both in Britain as well as India for his loyalty towards British and services for Indians. For this reason, he was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress, not once or twice but for three times i.e. in 1886, 1893 and 1906.

    Dadabhai Naoroji was a greater supporter of free education especially to women and children in India as his mother had to struggle a lot to provide the same to him. He was very keen in providing education and making it free. He also wanted to uplift the condition of women in India. For this, he laid the foundation of Jyan Prasarak Mandal, the only girls’ high school in Bombay (present day Mumbai).

    His contribution to politics were also immense. He was the founder of Bombay Association and established it in 1852. Further, the London Indian Society was established by him along with N.C. Banarjee for the betterment of relationships between Indian and Englishmen. His entire life was dedicated to the cause and betterment of India. Dadabhai Naoroji died in 1917 at the age of 92.

    Read More:

    Dadabhai Naoroji Biography

    Freedom Fighters of India

    Unsung Heroes of Indian Independence

    स्रोत : www.mapsofindia.com

    the authority to declare war or peace under the indian constitution is vested in

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    Who is legally competent under the Indian Constitution to declare war or conclude peace ?

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    Who is legally competent under the Indian Constitution to declare war or conclude peace ? 

    A

    The President

    B

    The Parliament

    C

    The Prime Minister

    D

    The Vice-President

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    [Solved] Who is legally competent to declare war or conclude peace?

    The correct answer is The President. Key Points The President is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. The President&n

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    Who is legally competent to declare war or conclude peace?

    The Parliament The President

    The Council of Ministers

    Prime Minister

    Answer (Detailed Solution Below)

    Option 2 : The President

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    Detailed Solution

    Download Solution PDF

    The correct answer is The President.

    Key PointsThe President is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces.

    The President can declare war or conclude peace, on the advice of the Union Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister.

    Additional Information

    Powers and Functions of the President:- The powers enjoyed and the functions performed by the President can be studied under the following heads:

    Executive powersLegislative powersFinancial powersJudicial powersDiplomatic powersMilitary powersEmergency powers

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    More Central Government Questions

    Q1. The main duty of the pro tem Speaker of Lok Sabha isQ2. Which of the following Articles of the Indian Constitution deals with the 'Contingency Fund of India'?Q3. How many members are nominated to the Rajya Sabha by the President?Q4. According to the 10th schedule, any question regarding disqualification arising out of defection is to be decided by:Q5. The Speaker of Assembly submits his resignation toQ6. Who among the following draws the salary from the Consolidated Fund of India?Q7. Parliament exercises control over delegated legislator through the:Q8. Who was the first woman elected as a Lok Sabha member from Rajasthan?Q9. Which one of the following programs of the Constitution of India has a provision regarding the salary of the President of India?Q10. How many members of Lok Sabha are nominated by the President?

    More Polity Questions

    Q1. With reference to the office of the Attorney General of India, Which of the following statements is/are correct? I. He is the highest law officer in the country.  II. In the performance of his official duties, the Attorney General has the right of audience in all courts in the territory of India.Q2. 'Developing a culture to deliver Public Services within stipulated time limit' deals with which of the following section of the Maharashtra Right to Public Services Act, 2015?Q3. Which of the following section of Maharashtra Right to Public Service Act, 2015 relates with 'Power and Functions of Commission' ?Q4. Which of the following statement/s is/are true regarding application seeking information under Right to Information Act, 2005 ? (a) Application should be in writing or through electronic means. (b) Application should be accompanied by prescribed fees/no fee and cost for applicant below poverty line. (c) Application should mention reason for requesting the information. (d) Application should mention personal details of applicant necessary for contacting him.Q5. As per section 26(3) of Right to Information Act, 2005 the appropriate Govt. shall if necessary, update and publish the guidelines referred to in sub-sec (2) at regular intervals which shall, in particular and without prejudice to the generality of sub-sec (2) include: (a) All remedies in law available regarding an act or failure to act in respect of a right or duty conferred or imposed by this act including the manner of filing an appeal to the Commission. (b) The objects of this act. (c) The notices regarding fees to be paid in relation to requests for access to an information. (d) Any additional regulations. Choose the correct options:Q6. Which of the following institutions is not exempted from the Right to Information Act , 2005?Q7. What is the tenure of appointment of Chief Information Commissioner of India?Q8. Who is the Chairman of State Summit Committee for Skill Development?Q9. The First Schedule to the Right to Information Act(RTI), 2005 includes ___________.

    स्रोत : testbook.com

    The President of India: Powers and Responsibilities

    Here are the powers and responsibilities of the President of India.

    The President of India: Powers and responsibilities

    The President of India: Powers and responsibilities Here are the powers and responsibilities of the President of India.

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    India Today Web Desk

    New Delhi,UPDATED: Nov 23, 2021 19:55 IST

    Find out the powers and responsibilities of the President of India.

    By India Today Web Desk: The President of the Republic of India is the head of the Indian state, and commander in chief of all the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India is indirectly elected by the directly elected members of both the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha, and the legislative assemblies of the states and union territories of India. The President of India has been granted the responsibility and authority to protect the Constitution.

    Legislative powers enjoyed by the President of India

    The President has the power to dissolve the Lok Sabha.

    A bill that has been passed by both the houses of the parliament can become a law only if it receives the president. (subject to limitations)

    The President of India has the power to nominate 12 members to the Rajya Sabha who have made extraordinary accomplishments in the fields of science, art, literature and social service.

    The President has the power to send a bill back to the parliament unless it is a money bill or constitutional amendment bill.

    Executive power enjoyed by the President of India

    The executive powers of the country are vested with the President of India.

    The parliament can grant additional powers to the President if it deems fit and these powers can be further delegated by the president to state governors.

    Appointing powers and duties of the President

    The President has the power and responsibility to appoint the Prime Minister of India.

    The President of India appoints the Chief Justice.

    The President is the appointing authority for the states and also has the power to dismiss a governor who has violated the constitution in their acts.

    Other than the posts mentioned above, the President has the power to appoint on a number of posts including, Ambassadors to other countries like, IAS, IPS, IFS, Attorney General, etcetera.

    Military powers of the President

    The President of India is the commander in chief of all the Indian armed forces.

    The President has the power to declare war or conclude peace with any country on the advice of a council of ministers headed by the Prime Minister.

    All the treaties with any foreign countries are signed in the name of the President of India.

    Power to pardon

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    The President of the Republic of India has the power to grant pardons if the punishment of the crime is an offence of against union law, granted by the military court or the punishment is that of death.

    READ: The 13 Presidents of India: The powerhouses who made the nationREAD: Do you know the salary of the President of India?

    --- ENDS --- Edited By: Roshni Published On: Nov 23, 2021

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    the interrelationship between technical descriptors in the house of quality is given by

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    Relationship between technical descriptors

    Download scientific diagram | Relationship between technical descriptors   from publication: A QFD strategy for improving customer satisfaction: case study of telecom companies of Pakistan | Purpose The purpose of this paper is to argue that the quality function deployment (QFD) matrix that has been successfully used for developing products from customer needs can also be applied to improve the service quality of telecommunication... | Qfd, Telecoms and Telecommunications | ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists.

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    Relationship between technical descriptors  

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    A QFD strategy for improving customer satisfaction: case study of telecom companies of Pakistan

    Article Full-text available Nov 2011 Matloub Hussain Loukas Tsironis Mian M. Ajmal

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to argue that the quality function deployment (QFD) matrix that has been successfully used for developing products from customer needs can also be applied to improve the service quality of telecommunication companies. Design/methodology/approach The paper presents a case study of the two big telecom companies (...

    Contexts in source publication

    Context 1

    ... roof of the quality house shows the relationship among technical descriptors as shown in Figure 3. ...

    View in full-text

    Context 2

    ... can be seen from Figure 3 that numbers of towers have got strong positive correlation with number of boosters, antenna and area coverage. ...

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    MCQs of Designing for Quality (Quality Engineering

    No aside layout examples

    MCQs of 

    Showing 11 to 20 out of 45 Questions

    1 2 3 4 5

    11.

    Which tool is used to break down the complex customer needs into key customer needs in QFD approach?

    (a) Voice of customers (b) Affinity diagram (c) 5S (d) Poka Yoke

    12.

    What does the relationship matrix in the House of Quality represent?

    (a)

    Correlation between customer requirements and technical descriptors

    (b)

    Correlation between good and bad customers

    (c)

    Correlation between the organization’s profit and loss

    (d)

    Correlation between good and bad investors

    13.

    Which of the following is not an item included in the prioritized customer requirements in the House of Quality?

    (a)

    Customer importance rating

    (b)

    Customer benchmarking

    (c) Sales point (d)

    Technical benchmarking

    14.

    The interrelationship between technical descriptors in the House of Quality is given by _____.

    (a) Relationship matrix (b) Trade-off matrix (c) Customer matrix (d)

    Customer requirement matrix

    15.

    The technical descriptors are the ________.

    (a)

    Voice of the customer

    (b)

    Voice of the manager

    (c) Voice of the owner (d)

    Voice of the organization

    16.

    QFD has a complete focus on the ________.

    (a)

    Voice of the customer

    (b)

    Voice of the manager

    (c) Voice of the owner (d)

    Voice of the organization

    17.

    In which part of the House of Quality ‘product design characteristics’ can be located?

    (a)

    Customer requirements

    (b)

    Prioritized customer requirements

    (c)

    Technical descriptors

    (d)

    Prioritized technical descriptors

    18.

    In which part of the House of Quality "degree of technical difficulty" can be located?

    (a)

    Customer requirements

    (b)

    Prioritized customer requirements

    (c)

    Technical descriptors

    (d)

    Prioritized technical descriptors

    19.

    Which of the following is not an example of customer requirements in the "House of Quality"?

    (a) Reasonable cost (b) Corrosion-resistant (c) Durable (d) Sand casting

    20.

    Which of the following is not an example of a ‘technical descriptor’ in House of Quality?

    (a) Sand casting (b) Investment casting (c) Reasonable cost (d) Grinding

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    QFD Basic Concepts Questions and Answers

    This set of Total Quality Management Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Basic Concepts of QFD”. 1. The approach of QFD in product design leads to customer-driven products. a) True b) False 2. QFD has a complete focus on the ‘voice of the customer’? a) True b) False 3. Which of the following ... Read more

    Total Quality Management Questions and Answers – Basic Concepts of QFD

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    This set of Total Quality Management Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Basic Concepts of QFD”.

    1. The approach of QFD in product design leads to customer-driven products.

    a) True b) False View Answer

    2. QFD has a complete focus on the ‘voice of the customer’?

    a) True b) False View Answer

    3. Which of the following is not a technique used to capture customer requirements for the QFD approach?

    a) Market surveys b) Customer surveys c) Cash receipt

    d) Customer complaints

    View Answer

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    4. Which tool is used to break down the complex customer needs into key customer needs in QFD approach?

    a) Voice of customers

    b) Affinity diagram c) Poka Yoke d) 5S View Answer

    5. HOQ refers to _________

    a) Headquarters b) High Quality c) House of Quality d) Head of Quality View Answer

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    6. What does the relationship matrix in the House of Quality represent?

    a) Correlation between customer requirements and technical descriptors

    b) Correlation between good and bad customers

    c) Correlation between the organization’s profit and loss

    d) Correlation between good and bad investors

    View Answer

    7. Which of the following is not an item included in the prioritized customer requirements in the House of Quality?

    a) Customer importance rating

    b) Customer benchmarking

    c) Sales point

    d) Technical benchmarking

    View Answer advertisement

    8. The interrelationship between technical descriptors in the House of Quality is given by _____

    a) Relationship matrix

    b) Trade-off matrix c) Customer matrix

    d) Customer requirement matrix

    View Answer

    9. The technical descriptors are the ________

    a) Voice of the customer

    b) Voice of the manager

    c) Voice of the owner

    d) Voice of the organization

    View Answer advertisement

    10. In which part of the House of Quality ‘product design characteristics’ can be located?

    a) Customer requirements

    b) Prioritized customer requirements

    c) Technical descriptors

    d) Prioritized technical descriptors

    View Answer

    11. In which part of the House of Quality ‘degree of technical difficulty’ can be located?

    a) Customer requirements

    b) Prioritized customer requirements

    c) Technical descriptors

    d) Prioritized technical descriptors

    View Answer

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    which text contains classification of soils according to colour, components, salinity, crops that suit different soils, and methods to improve soil quality?

    get which text contains classification of soils according to colour, components, salinity, crops that suit different soils, and methods to improve soil quality? from screen.

    3. SALINE SOILS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

    3. SALINE SOILS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

    3.1 Characteristics

    3.2 Reclamation and management

    3.3 Crops in saline soils

    3.1 Characteristics

    3.1.1 Measuring salinity status

    3.1.2 Salinity and plant growth

    The distinguishing characteristic of saline soils from the agricultural standpoint, is that they contain sufficient neutral soluble salts to adversely affect the growth of most crop plants. For purposes of definition, saline soils are those which have an electrical conductivity of the saturation soil extract of more than 4 dS/m at 25°C (Richards 1954). This value is generally used the world over although the terminology committee of the Soil Science Society of America has lowered the boundary between saline and non-saline soils to 2 dS/m in the saturation extract. Soluble salts most commonly present are the chlorides and sulphates of sodium, calcium and magnesium. Nitrates may be present in appreciable quantities only rarely. Sodium and chloride are by far the most dominant ions, particularly in highly saline soils, although calcium and magnesium are usually present in sufficient quantities to meet the nutritional needs of crops. Many saline soils contain appreciable quantities of gypsum (CaSO4, 2H2O) in the profile. Soluble carbonates are always absent. The pH value of the saturated soil paste is always less than 8.2 and more often near neutrality (Abrol et al., 1980). Physico-chemical characteristics in respect of a few typical saline soil profiles are presented in Tables 5-8.

    Excess salts keep the clay in saline soils in a flocculated state so that these soils generally have good physical properties. Structure is generally good and tillage characteristics and permeability to water are even better than those of non-saline soils. However, when leached with a low salt water, some saline soils tend to disperse resulting in low permeability to water and air, particularly when the soils are heavy clays. Leaching may also result in a slight increase in soil pH due to lowering of salt concentration but saline soils, as will be shown later, rarely become strongly sodic upon leaching if there is an adequate drainage system.

    In field conditions, saline soils can be recognized by the spotty growth of crops and often by the presence of white salt crusts on the surface. When the salt problem is only mild, growing plants often have a blue-green tinge. Barren spots and stunted plants may appear in cereal or forage crops growing on saline areas. The extent and frequency of bare spots is often an indication of the concentration of salts in the soil. If the salinity level is not sufficiently high to cause barren spots, the crop appearance may be irregular in vegetative vigour.

    Moderate salinity, however, particularly if it tends to be uniform throughout the field, can often go undetected because it causes no apparent injuries other than restricted growth. Leaves of plants growing in salt infested areas may be smaller and darker blue-green in colour than the normal leaves. Increased succulence often results from salinity, particularly if the concentration of chloride ions in the soil solution is high. Plants in salt-affected soils often have the same appearance as plants growing under moisture stress (drought) conditions although the wilting of plants is far less prevalent because the osmotic potential of the soil solution usually changes gradually and plants adjust their internal salt content sufficiently to maintain turgor and avoid wilting.

    Symptoms of specific element toxicities, such as marginal or tip burn of leaves, occur as a rule only in woody plants. Chloride and sodium ions and boron are the elements most usually associated with toxic symptoms. Non-woody species may often accumulate as much or more of these elements in their leaves without showing apparent damage as do the woody species.

    Table 5 CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL SALINE SOILS

    * pHS - pH measured on soil saturated paste.

    Table 6 TYPICAL SALINE SOIL REPRESENTING ADDALA SERIES, IRAQ (Sehgal, 1980)Depth cmMechanical Composition %pHsECe dS/mComposition of the Saturation Extract me/lSAROrganic Matter %Clay <2 Silt (2-50 )Sand (50 m- 2 mm)Na+Ca++Mg++Cl-SO4 -

    0 - 15 1.1 39 46 15 7.4 12 20 78 30 111 16 2.7 15 - 37 0.9 40 46 14 7.6 13 48 70 30 123 20 6.7 37 - 66 0.6 43 51 6 7.9 10 66 30 28 87 42 12.0 66 - 127 0.6 37 52 11 7.9 14 106 40 26 93 68 18.0 127 - 136 0.5 37 55 8 7.9 15 123 32 38 105 96 22.0

    Table 7 TYPICAL SALINE SOIL REPRESENTING ABU-HALANA SERIES, IRAQ (Sehgal 1980)Depth cmMechanical Composition %pHsECe dS/mComposition of the Saturation Extract me/lSAROrganic Matter %Clay <2 Silt (2-50 )Sand (50 m- 2 mm)Na+Ca++Mg++Cl-SO4 -

    0 - 17 1.1 49 49 2 7.0 49 320 164 178 618 26 24 17 - 57

    स्रोत : www.fao.org

    Introduction to Soil Salinity, Sodicity and Diagnostics Techniques

    It is widely recognized that soil salinity has increased over time. It is also triggered with the impact of climate change. For sustainable management of soil salinity, it is essential to diagnose it properly prior to take proper intervention measures. In this...

    Introduction to Soil Salinity, Sodicity and Diagnostics Techniques

    Shabbir A. Shahid, Mohammad Zaman & Lee Heng

    Chapter Open Access

    First Online: 29 November 2018

    45k Accesses 27 Citations 21 Altmetric

    Abstract

    It is widely recognized that soil salinity has increased over time. It is also triggered with the impact of climate change. For sustainable management of soil salinity, it is essential to diagnose it properly prior to take proper intervention measures. In this chapter soil salinity (dryland and secondary) and sodicity concepts have been introduced to make it easier for readers. A hypothetical soil salinity development cycle has been presented. Causes of soil salinization and its damages, socio-economic and environmental impacts, and visual indicators of soil salinization and sodicity have been reported. A new relationship between ECe (mS/cm) and total soluble salts (meq/l) established on UAE soils has been reported which is different to that established by US Salinity Laboratory Staff in the year 1954, suggesting the latter is specific to US soils, therefore, other countries should establish similar relationships based on their local conditions. Procedures for field assessment of soil salinity and sodicity are described and factors to convert EC of different soil:water (1:1, 1:2.5 & 1:5) suspensions to ECe from different regions are tabulated and hence providing useful information to those adopting such procedures. Diversified salinity assessment, mapping and monitoring methods, such as conventional (field and laboratory) and modern (electromagnetic-EM38, optical-thin section and electron microscopy, geostatistics-kriging, remote sensing and GIS, automatic dynamics salinity logging system) have been used and results are reported providing comprehensive information for selection of suitable methods by potential users. Globally accepted soil salinity classification systems such as US Salinity Lab Staff and FAO-UNESCO have been included.

    Keywords

    Salinity Sodicity Diagnostics Electromagnetic Geostatistics GIS Kriging Electron microscopy

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    1 Introduction

    Soil is a non-renewable resource; once lost, can’t be recovered in a human lifespan. Soil salinity, the second major cause of land degradation after soil erosion, has been a cause of decline in agricultural societies for 10,000 years. Globally about 2000 ha of arable land is lost to production every day due to salinization. Salinization can cause yield decreases of 10–25% for many crops and may prevent cropping altogether when it is severe and lead to desertification. Addressing soil salinization through improved soil, water and crop management practices is important for achieving food security and to avoid desertification.

    1.1 What Is Soil Salinity?

    Soil salinity is a measure of the concentration of all the soluble salts in soil water, and is usually expressed as electrical conductivity (EC). The major soluble mineral salts are the cations: sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), potassium (K+) and the anions: chloride (Cl−), sulfate (SO4 2−), bicarbonate (HCO3 −), carbonate (CO3 2−), and nitrate (NO3 −). Hyper-saline soil water may also contain boron (B), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), lithium (Li), silica (Si), rubidium (Rb), fluorine (F), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), barium (Ba), and aluminum (Al), some of which can be toxic to plants and animals (Tanji 1990).

    From the point of view of defining saline soils, when the electrical conductivity of a soil extract from a saturated paste (ECe) equals, or exceeds 4 deci Siemens per meter (dS m−1) at 25 °C, the soil is said to be saline (USSL Staff 1954), and this definition remains in the latest glossary of soil science in the USA.

    1.1.1 Units of Soil Salinity

    Salinity is generally expressed as total dissolved solutes (TDS) in milli gram per liter (mg l−1) or parts per million (ppm). It can also be expressed as total soluble salts (TSS) in milli equivalents per liter (meq l−1).

    The salinity (EC) was originally measured as milli mhos per cm (mmho cm−1), an old unit which is now obsolete. Soil Science has now adopted the Systeme International d’Unites (known as SI units) in which mho has been replaced by Siemens (S). Currently used SI units for EC are:

    milli Siemens per centimeter (mS cm−1) or

    deci Siemens per meter (dS m−1)

    The units can be presented as:

    1 mmho cm−1 = 1 dS m−1 = 1 mS cm−1 = 1000 micro Siemens per cm (1000 μS cm−1)

    EC readings are usually taken and reported at a standard temperature of 25 °C.

    For accurate results, EC meter should be checked with 0.01 N solution of KCl, which should give a reading of 1.413 dS m−1 at 25 °C.

    No fixed relationship exists between TDS and EC, although a factor of 640 is commonly used to convert EC (dS m−1) to approximate TDS. For highly concentrated solutions, a factor of 800 is used to account for the suppressed ionization effect on EC.

    Similarly, no one relationship exists between ECe and total soluble salts (TSS), although a factor of 10 is used to convert ECe (dS m−1) to TSS (expressed in meq l−1) in the EC range of 0.1–5 dS m−1 (USSL Staff 1954). One relationship between ECe and TSS is presented in the Agriculture Handbook 60 (USSL Staff 1954). This relationship was developed using USA soils and has been widely used (worldwide) for over six decades. No efforts have been made to validate this relationship in other soils, though recently Shahid et al. (2013) have published a similar relationship for sandy desert soils ranging from low salinity (desert sand) to hyper-saline soils (coastal lands) in the Abu Dhabi Emirate. This latter work established a relationship between ECe and TSS which differs significantly from that of USSL Staff (1954), thus, opening the way for other countries to develop country-specific relationships which will allow better prediction and management of their saline and saline-sodic soils.

    स्रोत : link.springer.com

    Classification of Salt

    Download Citation | Classification of Salt-Affected Soils | Irrigated agriculture in arid and semiarid regions of the world has resulted in salinity and waterlogging problems that are threatening the... | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate

    Article

    Classification of Salt-Affected Soils

    December 2004Arid Land Research and Management 19(1):61-79

    DOI:10.1080/15324980590887344

    Authors: R. CHHABRA Download citation Request full-text Download citation

    To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

    Abstract

    Irrigated agriculture in arid and semiarid regions of the world has resulted in salinity and waterlogging problems that are threatening the sustainability of our lands. Based on pH of the saturated paste, electrolytic conductivity of the saturated paste extract (ECe), and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), these soils have been classified as saline, alkali, and saline-alkali per the criteria of the U. S. Salinity Laboratory. Apart from textural B horizon, the Soil Taxonomy considers only ESP for defining a natric and ECe for defining a salic horizon. It does not consider pH and the nature of soluble salts as criteria for classifying these soils. All soils with high pH values (>8.5) as well as high ESP (>15) and high ECe (>4 dS m) developed in situ, soils with high pH values (>8.5) as well as high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR > 13) and high ECe (>4 dS m) formed due to use of irrigation waters containing high residual sodium carbonate (RSC > 2.5 mol m), and those with moderate pH values (7 to 8.5) but high SAR (>13) and high ECe (>4 dS m) formed due to shallow saline water table, are classified as saline-alkali soils. These are classified as Salidic Natrustalfs under Alfisols, since such soils contain both salic and natric horizons. Reclamation of such soils requires both leaching to remove soluble salts and application of amendments to lower ESP. This creates confusion in the mind of soil survey officials, planners, and development authorities. An examination of the composition of saturated paste extracts of these soils shows that these are either to be treated as saline or alkali for the purpose of adopting reclamation techniques. Soils that have the ratio of either and/or , expressed in mol m, should be treated as natric and require chemical amendments for reclamation. When soils have both these ratios

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