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    Biodiversity hotspot

    Biodiversity hotspot

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    A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened by human habitation.[1][2]

    Norman Myers wrote about the concept in two articles in in 1988 [3] and 1990,[4] after which the concept was revised following thorough analysis by Myers and others into “Hotspots: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions”[5] and a paper published in the journal , both in 2000.[6]

    To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot on Myers' 2000 edition of the hotspot map, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 1,500 species of vascular plants (more than 0.5% of the world's total) as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70% of its primary vegetation.[6] Globally, 36 zones qualify under this definition.[7] These sites support nearly 60% of the world's plant, bird, mammal, reptile, and amphibian species, with a high share of those species as endemics. Some of these hotspots support up to 15,000 endemic plant species, and some have lost up to 95% of their natural habitat.[7]

    Biodiversity hotspots host their diverse ecosystems on just 2.4% of the planet's surface.[2] Ten hotspots were originally identified by Myer;[1] the current 36 used to cover more than 15.7% of all the land but have lost around 85% of their area.[8] This loss of habitat is why approximately 60% of the world's terrestrial life lives on only 2.4% of the land surface area. Caribbean Islands like Haiti and Jamaica are facing serious pressures on the populations of endemic plants and vertebrates as a result of rapid deforestation. Other areas include the Tropical Andes, Philippines, Mesoamerica, and Sundaland, which, under the current levels at which deforestation is occurring, will likely lose most of their plant and vertebrate species.[9]


    1 Hotspot conservation initiatives

    2 Distribution by region

    3 Critiques of "Hotspots"

    4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

    Hotspot conservation initiatives[edit]

    Only a small percentage of the total land area within biodiversity hotspots is now protected. Several international organizations are working to conserve biodiversity hotspots.

    Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) is a global program that provides funding and technical assistance to nongovernmental organizations in order to protect the Earth's richest regions of plant and animal diversity, including biodiversity hotspots, high-biodiversity wilderness areas and important marine regions.

    The World Wide Fund for Nature has devised a system called the "Global 200 Ecoregions", the aim of which is to select priority ecoregions for conservation from fourteen terrestrial, three freshwater, and four marine habitat types. They are chosen for species richness, endemism, taxonomic uniqueness, unusual ecological or evolutionary phenomena, and global rarity. All biodiversity hotspots contain at least one Global 200 Ecoregion.

    Birdlife International has identified 218 “Endemic Bird Areas” (EBAs) each of which holds two or more bird species found nowhere else. Birdlife International has identified more than 11,000 Important Bird Areas[10] all over the world.

    Plant life International coordinates programs aiming to identify and manage Important Plant Areas.

    Alliance for Zero Extinction is an initiative of scientific organizations and conservation groups who co-operate to focus on the most threatened endemic species of the world. They have identified 595 sites, including many .

    The National Geographic Society has prepared a world map[11] of the hotspots and ArcView shapefile and metadata for the Biodiversity Hotspots[12] including details of the individual endangered fauna in each hotspot, which is available from Conservation International.[13]

    The Compensatory Afforestation Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) seeks to control the destruction of forests in India.

    Distribution by region[edit]

    Biodiversity hotspots. Original proposal in green, and added regions in blue.[14]

    North and Central America

    California Floristic Province (8)

    Madrean pine–oak woodlands (26)

    Mesoamerica (2)

    North American Coastal Plain (36)[15][16]

    The Caribbean

    Caribbean Islands (3)

    South America

    Atlantic Forest (4) Cerrado (6)

    Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests (7)

    Tumbes–Chocó–Magdalena (5)

    Tropical Andes (1)


    Mediterranean Basin (14)


    Cape Floristic Region (12)

    Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa (10)

    Eastern Afromontane (28)

    Guinean Forests of West Africa (11)

    Horn of Africa (29)

    Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands (9)

    Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (27)

    Succulent Karoo (13)

    Central Asia

    Mountains of Central Asia (31)

    South Asia

    Eastern Himalaya (32)

    Indo-Burma, India and Myanmar (19)

    Western Ghats and Sri Lanka (21)

    Southeast Asia and Asia-Pacific

    East Melanesian Islands (34)

    New Caledonia (23) New Zealand (24) Philippines (18)

    Polynesia-Micronesia (25)

    Eastern Australian temperate forests (35)

    Southwest Australia (22)

    Sundaland and Nicobar islands of India (16)

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Biodiversity Hotspots

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    Targeted investment in nature’s most important places



    There are places on Earth that are both biologically rich — and deeply threatened. For our own sake, we must work to protect them.

    Species are the building blocks of Earth's life-support systems. We all depend on them.

    But our planet’s “biodiversity,” the vast array of life on Earth, faces a crisis of historic proportions. Development, urbanization, pollution, disease — they’re all wreaking havoc on the tree of life. Today, species are going extinct at the fastest rate since the mass extinction of the dinosaurs.

    To stem this crisis, we must protect the places where biodiversity lives. But species aren’t evenly distributed around the planet. Certain areas have large numbers of endemic species — those found nowhere else. Many of these are heavily threatened by habitat loss and other human activities. These areas are the biodiversity hotspots, 36 regions where success in conserving species can have an enormous impact in securing our global biodiversity.

    The forests and other remnant habitats in hotspots represent just 2.5% of Earth’s land surface. But you’d be hard-pressed to find another 2.5% of the planet that’s more important.



    To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot, a region must meet two strict criteria:

    It must have at least 1,500 vascular plants as endemics — which is to say, it must have a high percentage of plant life found nowhere else on the planet. A hotspot, in other words, is irreplaceable.

    It must have 30% or less of its original natural vegetation. In other words, it must be threatened.

    What is a biodiversity hotspot?

    Around the world, 36 areas qualify as hotspots. Their intact habitats represent just 2.5% of Earth’s land surface, but they support more than half of the world’s plant species as endemics — i.e., species found no place else — and nearly 43% of bird, mammal, reptile and amphibian species as endemics.

    Map: Where are the world's biodiversity hotspots?


    Conservation International was a pioneer in defining and promoting the concept of hotspots. In 1989, just one year after scientist Norman Myers wrote the paper that introduced the hotspots concept, Conservation International adopted the idea of protecting these incredible places as the guiding principle of our investments. For nearly two decades thereafter, hotspots were the blueprint for our work.

    Today, our mission has expanded beyond the protection of hotspots. We recognize that it is not enough to protect species and places; for humanity to survive and thrive, the protection of nature must be a fundamental part of every human society.

    Yet the hotspots remain important in our work for two important reasons:

    Biodiversity underpins all life on Earth. Without species, there would be no air to breathe, no food to eat, no water to drink. There would be no human society at all. And as the places on Earth where the most biodiversity is under the most threat, hotspots are critical to human survival.The map of hotspots overlaps extraordinarily well with the map of the natural places that most benefit people. That’s because hotspots are among the richest and most important ecosystems in the world — and they are home to many vulnerable populations who are directly dependent on nature to survive. By one estimate, despite comprising 2.5% of Earth’s land surface, the forests, wetlands and other ecosystems in hotspots account for 35% of the “ecosystem services” that vulnerable human populations depend on.

    @[email protected]#=img=#



    From Indonesia to Madagascar, Brazil to southeast Asia, a majority of Conservation International’s global field offices are located in or near biodiversity hotspots. We continue to work to protect these places for the benefit of people around the world.

    What’s more, Conservation International is an investor in the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. CEPF is an alliance of leading conservation donors that provides grants to nonprofit and private-sector organizations that are working to protect the biodiversity hotspots and improve human well-being.

    To explore the world’s 36 hotspots, access GIS data and learn more about what CEPF and partners are doing to protect these vital places, visit CEPF’s website at the link below.



    Get the latest updates on breaking conservation news from around the world—delivered to your inbox.


    When you donate to Conservation International, you protect the nature we can’t live without.



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    A biogeographic region with significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans is called as

    A biogeographic region with significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans is called as biodiversity hotspot.

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    A biogeographic region with s...

    A biogeographic region with significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans is called as

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    bioendangered region


    biodiversity hotspot


    biodiversity reservoir


    environmentally endangered region


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    A biogeographic region with significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans is called as biodiversity hotspot.

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    A biogeographic region with significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans is called as

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