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    a ________________ is a proposition put forward for verification that may be true or false.

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    Hypothesis

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    Hypothesis

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    For other uses, see Hypothesis (disambiguation) and Hypothetical (disambiguation).

    The hypothesis of Andreas Cellarius, showing the planetary motions in eccentric and epicyclical orbits.

    A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used interchangeably, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research[1] in a process beginning with an educated guess or thought.[2]

    A different meaning of the term is used in formal logic, to denote the antecedent of a proposition; thus in the proposition "If , then ", denotes the hypothesis (or antecedent); can be called a consequent. is the assumption in a (possibly counterfactual) question.

    The adjective , meaning "having the nature of a hypothesis", or "being assumed to exist as an immediate consequence of a hypothesis", can refer to any of these meanings of the term "hypothesis".

    Contents

    1 Uses

    2 Scientific hypothesis

    3 Working hypothesis

    4 Hypotheses, concepts and measurement

    4.1 Statistical hypothesis testing

    5 Honours 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

    Uses

    In its ancient usage, referred to a summary of the plot of a classical drama. The English word comes from the ancient Greek word ὑπόθεσις whose literal or etymological sense is "putting or placing under" and hence in extended use has many other meanings including "supposition".[1][3][4][5]

    In Plato's (86e–87b), Socrates dissects virtue with a method used by mathematicians,[6] that of "investigating from a hypothesis."[7] In this sense, 'hypothesis' refers to a clever idea or to a convenient mathematical approach that simplifies cumbersome calculations.[8] Cardinal Bellarmine gave a famous example of this usage in the warning issued to Galileo in the early 17th century: that he must not treat the motion of the Earth as a reality, but merely as a hypothesis.[9]

    In common usage in the 21st century, a refers to a provisional idea whose merit requires evaluation. For proper evaluation, the framer of a hypothesis needs to define specifics in operational terms. A hypothesis requires more work by the researcher in order to either confirm or disprove it. In due course, a confirmed hypothesis may become part of a theory or occasionally may grow to become a theory itself. Normally, scientific hypotheses have the form of a mathematical model.[10] Sometimes, but not always, one can also formulate them as existential statements, stating that some particular instance of the phenomenon under examination has some characteristic and causal explanations, which have the general form of universal statements, stating that every instance of the phenomenon has a particular characteristic.

    In entrepreneurial science, a hypothesis is used to formulate provisional ideas within a business setting. The formulated hypothesis is then evaluated where either the hypothesis is proven to be "true" or "false" through a verifiability- or falsifiability-oriented experiment.[11][12][13]

    Any useful hypothesis will enable predictions by reasoning (including deductive reasoning). It might predict the outcome of an experiment in a laboratory setting or the observation of a phenomenon in nature. The prediction may also invoke statistics and only talk about probabilities. Karl Popper, following others, has argued that a hypothesis must be falsifiable, and that one cannot regard a proposition or theory as scientific if it does not admit the possibility of being shown false. Other philosophers of science have rejected the criterion of falsifiability or supplemented it with other criteria, such as verifiability (e.g., verificationism) or coherence (e.g., confirmation holism). The scientific method involves experimentation to test the ability of some hypothesis to adequately answer the question under investigation. In contrast, unfettered observation is not as likely to raise unexplained issues or open questions in science, as would the formulation of a crucial experiment to test the hypothesis. A thought experiment might also be used to test the hypothesis as well.

    In framing a hypothesis, the investigator must not currently know the outcome of a test or that it remains reasonably under continuing investigation. Only in such cases does the experiment, test or study potentially increase the probability of showing the truth of a hypothesis.[14]: pp17, 49–50  If the researcher already knows the outcome, it counts as a "consequence" — and the researcher should have already considered this while formulating the hypothesis. If one cannot assess the predictions by observation or by experience, the hypothesis needs to be tested by others providing observations. For example, a new technology or theory might make the necessary experiments feasible.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Hypothesis Definition & Meaning

    Hypothesis definition, a proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation (working hypothesis ) or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts. See more.

    Top Definitions Quiz Related Content

    More About Hypothesis

    Examples British Medical Scientific Cultural

    hypothesis

    [ hahy-poth-uh-sis, hi- ]

    See synonyms for: hypothesis / hypotheses on Thesaurus.com

    noun, plural hy·poth·e·ses [hahy-poth-uh-seez, hi-].

    a proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation (working hypothesis ) or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts.

    a proposition assumed as a premise in an argument.

    the antecedent of a conditional proposition.

    a mere assumption or guess.

    QUIZ

    SHALL WE PLAY A "SHALL" VS. "SHOULD" CHALLENGE?

    Should you take this quiz on “shall” versus “should”? It should prove to be a quick challenge!

    QUESTION 1 OF 6

    Which form is used to state an obligation or duty someone has?

    shall should

    TAKE THE QUIZ TO FIND OUT

    ORIGIN OF HYPOTHESIS

    First recorded in 1590–1600, hypothesis is from the Greek word hypóthesis “basis, supposition”; see hypo-, thesis

    SYNONYM STUDY FOR HYPOTHESIS

    1. See theory.

    OTHER WORDS FROM HYPOTHESIS

    hy·poth·e·sist, noun

    coun·ter·hy·poth·e·sis, noun, plural coun·ter·hy·poth·e·ses.

    sub·hy·poth·e·sis, noun, plural sub·hy·poth·e·ses.

    WORDS THAT MAY BE CONFUSED WITH HYPOTHESIS

    1. hypothesis , law, theory (see synonym study at theory)

    2. deduction, extrapolation, induction, generalization, hypothesis

    WORDS NEARBY HYPOTHESIS

    hypothecium, hypothenar, hypothenuse, hypothermal, hypothermia, hypothesis, hypothesis testing, hypothesize, hypothetical, hypothetical imperative, hypothetically

    DICTIONARY.COM UNABRIDGED

    BASED ON THE RANDOM HOUSE UNABRIDGED DICTIONARY, © RANDOM HOUSE, INC. 2022

    MORE ABOUT HYPOTHESIS

    MORE ABOUT HYPOTHESIS What is a hypothesis?

    In science, a hypothesis is a statement or proposition that attempts to explain phenomena or facts. Hypotheses are often tested to see if they are accurate.

    Crafting a useful hypothesis is one of the early steps in the scientific method, which is central to every field of scientific experimentation. A useful scientific hypothesis is based on current, accepted scientific knowledge and is testable.

    Outside of science, the word hypothesis is often used more loosely to mean a guess or prediction.

    Why is hypothesis important?

    Did you know … ?

    What are real-life examples of hypothesis?

    What other words are related to hypothesis?

    Quiz yourself!

    Why is hypothesis important? Did you know … ? What are real-life examples of hypothesis? What other words are related to hypothesis? Quiz yourself! WORDS RELATED TO HYPOTHESIS

    assumption, axiom, conclusion, conjecture, explanation, guess, inference, interpretation, premise, proposition, rationale, supposition, theorem, thesis, antecedent, assignment, attribution, basis, belief, condition

    HOW TO USE HYPOTHESIS IN A SENTENCE

    Each one is a set of questions we’re fascinated by and hypotheses we’re testing.

    INTRODUCING QUARTZ’S NEW OBSESSIONS|KATHERINE BELL|AUGUST 13, 2020|QUARTZ

    Mousa’s research hinges on the “contact hypothesis,” the idea that positive interactions among rival group members can reduce prejudices.

    INTERFAITH SOCCER TEAMS EASED MUSLIM-CHRISTIAN TENSIONS — TO A POINT|SUJATA GUPTA|AUGUST 13, 2020|SCIENCE NEWS

    Do more research on it, come up with a hypothesis as to why it underperforms, and try to improve it.

    GUIDE: HOW TO EFFECTIVELY INCORPORATE CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAPPING INTO YOUR MARKETING STRATEGY|CONNIE BENTON|JULY 14, 2020|SEARCH ENGINE WATCH

    Now is the time to test your hypotheses to figure out what’s changing in your customers’ worlds, and address these topics directly.

    THE THREE MOST CRITICAL MARKETING METRICS TO MEASURE RIGHT NOW|ADAM MASUR|JULY 2, 2020|SEARCH ENGINE WATCH

    BRITISH DICTIONARY DEFINITIONS FOR HYPOTHESIS

    hypothesis / (haɪˈpɒθɪsɪs) /

    noun plural -ses (-ˌsiːz)

    a suggested explanation for a group of facts or phenomena, either accepted as a basis for further verification (working hypothesis) or accepted as likely to be trueCompare theory (def. 5)

    an assumption used in an argument without its being endorsed; a supposition

    an unproved theory; a conjecture

    DERIVED FORMS OF HYPOTHESIS

    hypothesist, noun

    WORD ORIGIN FOR HYPOTHESIS

    C16: from Greek, from hupotithenai to propose, suppose, literally: put under; see hypo-, thesis

    COLLINS ENGLISH DICTIONARY - COMPLETE & UNABRIDGED 2012 DIGITAL EDITION

    © WILLIAM COLLINS SONS & CO. LTD. 1979, 1986 © HARPERCOLLINS

    PUBLISHERS 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

    MEDICAL DEFINITIONS FOR HYPOTHESIS

    hypothesis [ hī-pŏth′ĭ-sĭs ]

    n. pl. hy•poth•e•ses (-sēz′)

    A tentative explanation that accounts for a set of facts and can be tested by further investigation.

    OTHER WORDS FROM HYPOTHESIS

    hy′po•thet′i•cal (hī′pə-thĕt′ĭ-kəl) adj.

    THE AMERICAN HERITAGE® STEDMAN'S MEDICAL DICTIONARY

    COPYRIGHT © 2002, 2001, 1995 BY HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY. PUBLISHED BY HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY.

    SCIENTIFIC DEFINITIONS FOR HYPOTHESIS

    hypothesis [ hī-pŏth′ĭ-sĭs ]

    Plural hypotheses (hī-pŏth′ĭ-sēz′)

    A statement that explains or makes generalizations about a set of facts or principles, usually forming a basis for possible experiments to confirm its viability.

    स्रोत : www.dictionary.com

    Hyphoteses and propositions: when to use one or another

    Read 10 answers by scientists to the question asked by Yves Costa Netto on Aug 4, 2020

    Discussion

    Started 4th Aug, 2020

    Yves Costa Netto

    Fundação Getulio Vargas

    Hyphoteses and propositions: when to use one or another

    Dear colleagues,

    I’ve seen throughout my academic life a grueling discussion about when we should use propositions or hypotheses. Many researchers assume that when we formulate hypotheses, we are dealing with a measurable investigation (relationships between variables). On the other hand, when we elaborate on a non-measurable work (e.g., a conceptual model), we should formulate propositions.

    However, other academics defend that hypotheses are related simply to a quantitative paper, while propositions are adequate for qualitative investigations. However, in areas as applied social sciences, we frequently need to embrace both perspectives (quantitative and qualitative). In the case, of a quali-quanti approach, we may need to use different methods that involve both, variables measurement as subjective interpretation. In this case, (and of course, if they are adequate to answer our research question), should we formulate hypotheses or propositions? Could you please give your thoughts about this question? Thanks in advance.

    Kind Regards Yves Formulations Quantitative Conceptual Modeling Social Science

    Qualitative Analysis

    Scientific Communication

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    Most recent answer

    14th Aug, 2020 Yves Costa Netto

    Fundação Getulio Vargas

    Thanks for your insight Peter Jimi Babatunde !

    Cite

    Popular replies (1)

    5th Aug, 2020 Dr Manzoor Hussain

    University of Kashmir

    Yves Costa Netto - I think to answer your question, it is important to differentiate the terms "proposition" and "hypothesis". The main difference between the two is that a hypothesis must be testable and measurable, while a proposition deals with pure concepts for which no laboratory test is currently available. A proposition is a tentative and conjectural relationship between constructs that is stated in a declarative form. It is a statement about the concepts that may be judged as true or false if it refers to observable phenomena. When a proposition is formulated for empirical testing, we call it a hypothesis. Since preposition is a declarative statement it does not have to be true, but must be empirically testable using data, so that we can judge whether it is true or false.

    Cite 4 Recommendations

    All replies (10)

    5th Aug, 2020 Dr Manzoor Hussain

    University of Kashmir

    Yves Costa Netto - I think to answer your question, it is important to differentiate the terms "proposition" and "hypothesis". The main difference between the two is that a hypothesis must be testable and measurable, while a proposition deals with pure concepts for which no laboratory test is currently available. A proposition is a tentative and conjectural relationship between constructs that is stated in a declarative form. It is a statement about the concepts that may be judged as true or false if it refers to observable phenomena. When a proposition is formulated for empirical testing, we call it a hypothesis. Since preposition is a declarative statement it does not have to be true, but must be empirically testable using data, so that we can judge whether it is true or false.

    Cite 4 Recommendations 5th Aug, 2020 Alessandro Giuliani

    Istituto Superiore di Sanità

    The opposition between hypothesis and proposition is , in my opinion, flawed by the fact these two terms are not independent: we can put an hypothesis in the form of a proposition and viceversa we can arrange an hypotesisis testing of a proposition.

    This is evident by the origin of the two terms: proposition comes from the Latin pro=in front, ahead and positus=to put, thus a proposition is something that I put forward, the same happens when I make a proposal (the same meaning), Putting something in front implies it can be judged by other persons.

    Hypothesis instead is Greek word that has only a little difference with proposition it comes from Hypo= Under, plus Tithemi = To put , the same of the Latin verb pongo (past tense : positus). Thus by means of a Proposition I expose something (to put in front, to make a proposal) with an Hypothesis I base (a base is located under a building or a statue) my proposal on some concept (or theory, or supposition, or judgement..). That's all, thus any proposal to be rational must be based on an hypothesis, and any hypothesis I overtly express is a proposition.

    Cite 2 Recommendations 5th Aug, 2020 Jochen Wilhelm

    Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

    From Wikipedia:

    "In philosophy, a proposition is the meaning of a declarative sentence [...], [the [...] bearer of truth or falsity which makes any sentence that expresses it either true or false."

    "The term 'proporition' does not refer [...] to concrete events or facts"

    So it's a thing of in .

    "A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it."

    "A different meaning of the term is used in formal logic, to denote the antecedent of a proposition"

    स्रोत : www.researchgate.net

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