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    Stock exchange

    Stock exchange

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    Not to be confused with Stack Exchange.

    The New York Stock Exchange in Lower Manhattan is the world's largest stock exchange per total market capitalization of its listed companies.[1]

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    A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an exchange where stockbrokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock, bonds and other financial instruments. Stock exchanges may also provide facilities for the issue and redemption of such securities and instruments and capital events including the payment of income and dividends.[] Securities traded on a stock exchange include stock issued by listed companies, unit trusts, derivatives, pooled investment products and bonds. Stock exchanges often function as "continuous auction" markets with buyers and sellers consummating transactions via open outcry at a central location such as the floor of the exchange or by using an electronic trading platform.[2]

    To be able to trade a security on a certain stock exchange, the security must be listed there. Usually, there is a central location for record keeping, but trade is increasingly less linked to a physical place as modern markets use electronic communication networks, which give them advantages of increased speed and reduced cost of transactions. Trade on an exchange is restricted to brokers who are members of the exchange. In recent years, various other trading venues such as electronic communication networks, alternative trading systems and "dark pools" have taken much of the trading activity away from traditional stock exchanges.[3]

    Initial public offerings of stocks and bonds to investors is done in the primary market and subsequent trading is done in the secondary market. A stock exchange is often the most important component of a stock market. Supply and demand in stock markets are driven by various factors that, as in all free markets, affect the price of stocks (see stock valuation).

    There is usually no obligation for stock to be issued through the stock exchange itself, nor must stock be subsequently traded on an exchange. Such trading may be or over-the-counter. This is the usual way that derivatives and bonds are traded. Increasingly, stock exchanges are part of a global securities market. Stock exchanges also serve an economic function in providing liquidity to shareholders in providing an efficient means of disposing of shares.


    1 History 2 Roles

    2.1 Raising capital for businesses

    2.1.1 Alternatives to stock exchanges for raising capital Research and Development limited partnerships Venture capital Corporate partners

    2.2 Mobilizing savings for investment

    2.3 Facilitating acquisitions

    2.4 Profit sharing

    2.5 Corporate governance

    2.6 Creating investment opportunities for small investors

    2.7 Government capital-raising for development projects

    2.8 Barometer of the economy

    3 Listing requirements

    3.1 Examples of listing requirements

    4 Ownership

    5 Other types of exchanges

    6 See also 7 References 8 External links


    The beginnings of the stock exchange were in Italy in the late Middle Ages. In the 1300s, Venetian lenders would carry slates with information on the various issues for sale and meet with clients, much like a broker does today. [4] The Real Merchants of Venice introduced the principle of exchanging debts between moneylenders; a lender looking to unload a high-risk, high-interest loan might exchange it for a different loan with another lender. These lenders also bought government debt issues.[5] As the natural evolution of their business continued, the lenders began to sell debt issues to the first individual investors.2 The Venetians were the leaders in the field and the first to start trading securities from other governments.3 There is little consensus among scholars as to when corporate stock was first traded. Some view the key event as the Dutch East India Company's founding in 1602,[6] while others point to much earlier developments (Bruges, Antwerp in 1531 and in Lyon in 1548). The first book in history of securities exchange, the Confusion of Confusions, was written by the Dutch-Jewish trader Joseph de la Vega and the Amsterdam Stock Exchange is often considered the oldest “modern” securities market in the world.[7] On the other hand, economist Ulrike Malmendier of the University of California at Berkeley argues that a share market existed as far back as ancient Rome, that derives from Etruscan "Argentari". In the Roman Republic, which existed for centuries before the Empire was founded, there were , organizations of contractors or leaseholders who performed temple-building and other services for the government. One such service was the feeding of geese on the Capitoline Hill as a reward to the birds after their honking warned of a Gallic invasion in 390 B.C. Participants in such organizations had or shares, a concept mentioned various times by the statesman and orator Cicero. In one speech, Cicero mentions "shares that had a very high price at the time". Such evidence, in Malmendier's view, suggests the instruments were tradable, with fluctuating values based on an organization's success. The declined into obscurity in the time of the emperors, as most of their services were taken over by direct agents of the state.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

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    Concept: Stock Exchange

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    Chapter 12: Stock Exchange - Exercises [Page 176]

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    स्रोत : www.shaalaa.com

    Getting to Know the Stock Exchanges

    Get answers to all the questions you have about stock exchanges including what they are, how they work, and where they're located.


    Getting to Know the Stock Exchanges

    By DAVID R. HARPER Updated April 10, 2022

    Reviewed by CHIP STAPLETON

    Fact checked by SUZANNE KVILHAUG

    What Are Stock Exchanges?

    A stock exchange does not own shares. Instead, it acts as a market where stock buyers connect with stock sellers. Stocks can be traded on several exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) or the Nasdaq.

    Although most stocks are traded through a broker, it is important to understand the relationship between exchanges and the companies that trade. Also, there are various requirements for different exchanges designed to protect investors.


    A stock exchange is a centralized location that brings corporations and governments so that investors can buy and sell equities.

    Auction-based exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange allow traders and brokers to physically and verbally communicate buy and sell orders.

    Electronic exchanges take place on electronic platforms, so they don't require a centralized physical location for trades.

    Electronic communication networks connect buyers and sellers directly by bypassing market makers.

    The OTCBB has been closed by FINRA.


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    The History of Stock Exchanges

    How Stock Exchanges Work

    A stock exchange is where different financial instruments are traded, including equities, commodities, and bonds. Exchanges bring corporations and governments, together with investors. Exchanges help provide liquidity in the market, meaning there are enough buyers and sellers so that trades can be processed efficiently without delays.

    Exchanges also ensure that trading occurs in an orderly and fair manner so important financial information can be transmitted to investors and financial professionals.

    Stocks first become available on an exchange after a company conducts its initial public offering (IPO). A company sells shares to an initial set of public shareholders in an IPO known as the primary market. After the IPO floats shares into the hands of public shareholders, these shares can be sold and purchased on an exchange or the secondary market.

    The general public can trade shares on the secondary market after a company's initial public offering.

    The exchange tracks the flow of orders for each stock, and it's the flow of supply and demand that establishes a stock's price. Depending on the type of brokerage account, you may be able to view this flow of price action. For example, if a stock's bid price is $40, this means an investor is telling the exchange that they are willing to buy the stock for $40. At the same time, you may see an asking price of $41, meaning somebody else is willing to sell the stock for $41. The difference between the two is the bid-ask spread.

    Auction Exchanges

    Auction exchanges—or the auction market—is a place where buyers and sellers put in competitive bids and offers simultaneously. In an auction exchange, the current stock price is the highest price a buyer is willing to spend on a security, while the lowest price is what the seller will accept. Trades are then matched, and when paired together, the order is executed.

    The auction market is also referred to as the open outcry system. Brokers and traders communicate physically and verbally on the trading floor or pit to buy and sell securities. Although this system is slowly being phased out by electronic systems, some exchanges still use the auction system, including the New York Stock Exchange  (NYSE).


    The NYSE Closing Auction is the last event of the trading day when the closing price for each stock is determined by bringing all buyers and sellers together to establish a price for all those involved.


    The NYSE closing auction is one of the busiest trading times in the U.S. equity markets when nearly 223 million shares are traded.


    New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)

    The New York Stock Exchange is the world's largest equities exchange.


    The parent company of the New York Stock Exchange is Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) as a result of the merger with the European exchange Euronext in 2007.

    Although some of its functions have been transferred to electronic trading platforms, it remains one of the world's leading auction markets, meaning specialists (called "Designated Market Makers") are physically present on its trading floors.


    Each specialist specializes in a particular stock, buying and selling the stock in the auction.


    These professionals are under competitive threat by electronic-only exchanges that claim to be more efficient—that is, they execute faster trades and exhibit smaller bid-ask spreads—by eliminating human intermediaries.

    Companies listed on the NYSE have great credibility because they have to meet initial listing requirements and comply with annual maintenance requirements. To keep trading on the exchange, companies must keep their price above $4 per share.


    Investors who trade on the NYSE benefit from a set of minimum protections. Among several of the requirements that the NYSE has enacted, the following two are especially significant:

    Equity incentive plans must receive shareholder approval.


    A majority of the board of directors' members must be independent, the compensation committee must be entirely composed of independent directors, and the audit committee must include at least one person who possesses "accounting or related financial management expertise."

    स्रोत : www.investopedia.com

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