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History of sound recording
History of sound recording
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Au clair de la lune 0:21
Oldest known intelligible recording of a human voice in 1860. Played at what is now believed to be the correct speed, The words are "Au clair de la lune, mon ami Pierrot, prête-m—".
The history of sound recording - which has progressed in waves, driven by the invention and commercial introduction of new technologies — can be roughly divided into four main periods:
The Acoustic era (1877–1925)
The Electrical era (1925–1945)
The Magnetic era (1945–1975)
The Digital era (1975–present)
Experiments in capturing sound on a recording medium for preservation and reproduction began in earnest during the Industrial Revolution of the 1800s. Many pioneering attempts to record and reproduce sound were made during the latter half of the 19th century – notably Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville's phonautograph of 1857 – and these efforts culminated in the invention of the phonograph by Thomas Edison in 1877. Digital recording emerged in the late 20th century and has since flourished with the popularity of digital music and online streaming services.
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The Acoustic Era (1877–1925)
Edward Elgar and Beatrice Harrison during recording sessions for his Cello Concerto in 1920. Note the recording horns placed before soloist and orchestra
The earliest practical recording technologies were entirely mechanical devices. These recorders typically used a large conical horn to collect and focus the physical air pressure of the sound waves produced by the human voice or musical instruments. A sensitive membrane or diaphragm, located at the apex of the cone, was connected to an articulated scriber or stylus, and as the changing air pressure moved the diaphragm back and forth, the stylus scratched or incised an analogue of the sound waves onto a moving recording medium, such as a roll of coated paper, or a cylinder or disc coated with a soft material such as wax or a soft metal.
These early recordings were necessarily of low fidelity and volume and captured only a narrow segment of the audible sound spectrum — typically only from around 250 Hz up to about 2,500 Hz — so musicians and engineers were forced to adapt to these sonic limitations. Musical ensembles of the period often favoured louder instruments such as trumpet, cornet, and trombone; lower-register brass instruments such as the tuba and the euphonium doubled or replaced the double bass, and blocks of wood stood in for bass drums. Performers also had to arrange themselves strategically around the horn to balance the sound, and to play as loudly as possible. The reproduction of domestic phonographs was similarly limited in both frequency-range and volume.
By the end of the acoustic era, the disc had become the standard medium for sound recording, and its dominance in the domestic audio market lasted until the end of the 20th century.
The Electrical Era (1925–1945) (including sound on film)
Ring-and-spring microphones, such as this Western Electric microphone, were common during the electrical age of sound recording c. 1925–45
The 'second wave' of sound recording history was ushered in by the introduction of Western Electric's integrated system of electrical microphones, electronic signal amplifiers and electromechanical recorders, which was adopted by major US record labels in 1925. Sound recording now became a hybrid process — sound could now be captured, amplified, filtered, and balanced electronically, and the disc-cutting head was now electrically powered, but the actual recording process remained essentially mechanical – the signal was still physically inscribed into a wax 'master' disc, and consumer discs were mass-produced mechanically by stamping a metal electroform made from the wax master into a suitable substance, originally a shellac-based compound and later polyvinyl plastic.
The Western Electric system greatly improved the fidelity of sound recording, increasing the reproducible frequency range to a much wider band (between 60 Hz and 6000 Hz) and allowing a new class of professional – the audio engineer – to capture a fuller, richer, and more detailed and balanced sound on record, using multiple microphones connected to multi-channel electronic amplifiers, compressors, filters and mixers. Electrical microphones led to a dramatic change in the performance style of singers, ushering in the age of the "crooner", while electronic amplification had a wide-ranging impact in many areas, enabling the development of broadcast radio, public address systems, and electronically-amplified home record players.
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The first music playing device able to both record and play back music was the phonograph, created by Thomas Edison in _______.
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The First Music Playing Device Able To Both Record And Play Back Music Was The Phonograph, Created By Thomas Edison In _______. Amazon Quiz Answers
Explaination – Thomas continued his experiments after many failed, then in 1877 he received a patent for the phonograph. After his tireless efforts, on October 21, 1879, he invented an electric light bulb that could burn for more than 40 hours. It is said that they failed about 1000 times while making this bulb but they did not give up and continued to try and finally succeeded and gave the light bulb to the world.
Meanwhile his wife died on 9 August 1884. After which he remarried on 24 February 1886 to Mina Miller. Edison also had three children with Mina Miller. His father died in 1896. After this, Edison continued to work on his inventions until the 1920s, but during this time his health declined. Still, he continued to experiment.
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