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    Networking Chapter 23 Flashcards by Matthew Gromer

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    1 Q

    One of the main duties of the transport layer is to provide ____________ communication.

    A host-to-host 2 Q

    A client program normally uses ____________ port number. A server program normally uses __________ port number.

    A

    an ephemeral; a well-known

    3 Q

    A socket address is a combination of __________.

    A

    local IP address and port number

    4 Q

    ______________ means accepting items from more than one source. ______________ means delivering items to more than one source.

    A

    Multiplexing; Demultiplexing

    5 Q

    ________ means the producer delivers the items when they are produced. _______ means the consumer takes the items when it is ready to do so.

    A Pushing; Pulling 6 Q

    UDP is a ________________transport protocol.

    A

    connectionless, unreliable

    7 Q

    UDP is an acronym for _______.

    A

    User Datagram Protocol

    8 Q

    At the transport layer, to define the processes, we need two identifiers called ____________.

    A port addresses 9 Q

    The ports ranging from 0 to 1,023 are called the ___________ ports. The ports ranging from 1,024 to 49,151 are called ___________ ports. The ports ranging from 49,152 to 65,535 are called the ___________ ports.

    A

    well-known; registered; dynamic or private

    10 Q

    UDP and TCP are two protocols at the ___________ layer.

    A transport 11 Q

    A port number is _______ bits long.

    A 16 12 Q

    Communication at the transport layer is _________.

    A end-to-end

    स्रोत : www.brainscape.com

    Computer Networking

    This Portion of Computer Networking contains Computer Networking Transport Layer MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions and Answers).

    Computer Networking – Transport Layer MCQs

    This Portion of Computer Networking contains Computer Networking Transport Layer MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions and Answers).

    This Section covers below lists of topics.

    1 INTRODUCTION

    • Transport-Layer Services

    2 TRANSPORT-LAYER PROTOCOLS

    • Simple Protocol

    • Stop-and-Wait Protocol

    • Go-Back-/V Protocol (GBN)

    • Selective-Repeat Protocol

    • Bidirectional Protocols: Piggybacking

    • Internet Transport-Layer Protocols

    3 USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL (UDP)

    • User Datagram • UDP Services • UDP Applications

    4 TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP)

    • TCP Services • TCP Features • Segment • A TCP Connection

    • State Transition Diagram

    • Windows in TCP • Flow Control • Error Control

    • TCP Congestion Control

    • TCP Timers • Options 1

    . At the transport layer, to define the processes, we need two identifiers called ____________.

    logical addresses physical addresses port addresses

    None of the choices are correct

    2

    . The ports ranging from 0 to 1,023 are called the ___________ ports. The ports ranging from 1,024 to 49,151 are called ___________ ports. The ports ranging from 49,152 to 65,535 are called the ___________ ports.

    well-known; registered; dynamic or private

    registered; dynamic or private; well-known

    private or dynamic; well-known; registered

    private or dynamic; registered; well-known

    3

    . UDP and TCP are two protocols at the ___________ layer.

    data link network transport application 4

    . Which of the following functions are performed by UDP?

    process-to-process communication

    host-to-host communication

    node-to-node communication

    None of the choices are correct

    5

    . A port number is _______ bits long.

    8 16 32 64 6

    . Which of the following does UDP provide?

    flow control

    connection-oriented delivery

    error control

    None of the choices are correct

    7

    . The source port number on the UDP user datagram header defines _______.

    the sending computer

    the receiving computer

    the process running on the sending computer

    None of the choices are correct

    8

    . To use the services of UDP, we need ________ socket addresses.

    four two three

    None of the choices are correct

    9

    . UDP packets are called __________ .

    user datagrams segments frames

    None of the choices are correct

    10

    . UDP packets have a fixed-size header of _______ bytes.

    16 8 40 32 11

    . TCP is a __________ protocol.

    byte-oriented message-oriented block-oriented

    None of the choices are correct

    12

    . TCP groups a number of bytes together into a packet called a ___________.

    user datagram segment datagram

    None of the choices are correct

    13

    . TCP is a(n) ___________ protocol.

    connection-oriented connectionless

    both connection-oriented and connectionless

    None of the choices are correct

    14

    . TCP is a(n) _______ transport protocol.

    unreliable

    best-effort delivery

    reliable

    None of the choices are correct

    15

    . TCP uses _________________ to check the safe and sound arrival of data.

    an acknowledgment mechanism

    out-of-band signaling

    the services of another protocol

    None of the choices are correct

    16

    . The bytes of data being transferred in each connection are numbered by TCP. The numbering starts with a __________________.

    0 1

    randomly generated number

    None of the choices are correct

    17

    . In TCP, the sequence number for each segment is the number of the _______ byte (virtual byte) carried in that segment.

    first last middle

    None of the choices are correct

    18

    . Communication in TCP is ___________.

    simplex half-duplex full-duplex

    None of the choices are correct

    19

    . In TCP, the value of the acknowledgment field in a sent segment defines the sequence number related to the ______ byte a party expects to receive next.

    first last next

    None of the choices are correct

    20

    . The inclusion of the checksum in the TCP segment is ________.

    optional mandatory

    depends on the type of data

    None of the choices are correct

    21

    . In TCP, a SYN segment consumes _____ sequence number(s).

    no one two

    None of the choices are correct

    22

    . In TCP, a SYN + ACK segment consumes _____ sequence numbers.

    no three two one 23

    . In TCP, an ACK segment, if carrying no data, consumes ______ sequence number(s).

    no one two

    None of the choices are correct

    24

    . The connection establishment procedure in TCP is susceptible to a serious security problem called the _________ attack.

    ACK flooding FIN flooding SYN flooding

    None of the choices are correct

    स्रोत : examradar.com

    Computer Network

    Computer Network | Transport Layer Protocols with computer network tutorial, features, types of computer network, components, cables and connectors, Router, Uses Of Computer Network, Hub, Software and Hardware, etc.

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    Transport Layer protocols

    The transport layer is represented by two protocols: TCP and UDP.

    The IP protocol in the network layer delivers a datagram from a source host to the destination host.

    Nowadays, the operating system supports multiuser and multiprocessing environments, an executing program is called a process. When a host sends a message to other host means that source process is sending a process to a destination process. The transport layer protocols define some connections to individual ports known as protocol ports.

    An IP protocol is a host-to-host protocol used to deliver a packet from source host to the destination host while transport layer protocols are port-to-port protocols that work on the top of the IP protocols to deliver the packet from the originating port to the IP services, and from IP services to the destination port.

    Each port is defined by a positive integer address, and it is of 16 bits.

    UDP

    UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol.

    UDP is a simple protocol and it provides nonsequenced transport functionality.

    UDP is a connectionless protocol.

    This type of protocol is used when reliability and security are less important than speed and size.

    UDP is an end-to-end transport level protocol that adds transport-level addresses, checksum error control, and length information to the data from the upper layer.

    The packet produced by the UDP protocol is known as a user datagram.

    User Datagram Format

    The user datagram has a 16-byte header which is shown below:

    Where,Source port address: It defines the address of the application process that has delivered a message. The source port address is of 16 bits address.Destination port address: It defines the address of the application process that will receive the message. The destination port address is of a 16-bit address.Total length: It defines the total length of the user datagram in bytes. It is a 16-bit field.Checksum: The checksum is a 16-bit field which is used in error detection.

    Disadvantages of UDP protocol

    UDP provides basic functions needed for the end-to-end delivery of a transmission.

    It does not provide any sequencing or reordering functions and does not specify the damaged packet when reporting an error.

    UDP can discover that an error has occurred, but it does not specify which packet has been lost as it does not contain an ID or sequencing number of a particular data segment.

    TCP

    TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol.

    It provides full transport layer services to applications.

    It is a connection-oriented protocol means the connection established between both the ends of the transmission. For creating the connection, TCP generates a virtual circuit between sender and receiver for the duration of a transmission.

    Features Of TCP protocol

    Stream data transfer: TCP protocol transfers the data in the form of contiguous stream of bytes. TCP group the bytes in the form of TCP segments and then passed it to the IP layer for transmission to the destination. TCP itself segments the data and forward to the IP.Reliability: TCP assigns a sequence number to each byte transmitted and expects a positive acknowledgement from the receiving TCP. If ACK is not received within a timeout interval, then the data is retransmitted to the destination.

    The receiving TCP uses the sequence number to reassemble the segments if they arrive out of order or to eliminate the duplicate segments.

    Flow Control: When receiving TCP sends an acknowledgement back to the sender indicating the number the bytes it can receive without overflowing its internal buffer. The number of bytes is sent in ACK in the form of the highest sequence number that it can receive without any problem. This mechanism is also referred to as a window mechanism.Multiplexing: Multiplexing is a process of accepting the data from different applications and forwarding to the different applications on different computers. At the receiving end, the data is forwarded to the correct application. This process is known as demultiplexing. TCP transmits the packet to the correct application by using the logical channels known as ports.Logical Connections: The combination of sockets, sequence numbers, and window sizes, is called a logical connection. Each connection is identified by the pair of sockets used by sending and receiving processes.Full Duplex: TCP provides Full Duplex service, i.e., the data flow in both the directions at the same time. To achieve Full Duplex service, each TCP should have sending and receiving buffers so that the segments can flow in both the directions. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. Suppose the process A wants to send and receive the data from process B. The following steps occur:

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