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    babbling uttered as the infant approaches and manipulates a novel object is called __________-directed vocalization

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    Babbling

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    Babbling

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    Not to be confused with Baby talk.

    A babbling infant, age 6 months, making and sounds (15 seconds)

    Babbling is a stage in child development and a state in language acquisition during which an infant appears to be experimenting with uttering articulate sounds, but does not yet produce any recognizable words. Babbling begins shortly after birth and progresses through several stages as the infant's repertoire of sounds expands and vocalizations become more speech-like.[1] Infants typically begin to produce recognizable words when they are around 12 months of age, though babbling may continue for some time afterward.[2]

    Babbling can be seen as a precursor to language development or simply as vocal experimentation. The physical structures involved in babbling are still being developed in the first year of a child's life.[3] This continued physical development is responsible for some of the changes in abilities and variations of sound babies can produce. Abnormal developments such as certain medical conditions, developmental delays, and hearing impairments may interfere with a child's ability to babble normally. Though there is still disagreement about the uniqueness of language to humans, babbling is not unique to the human species.[4]

    Contents

    1 Typical development

    1.1 Timeline of typical vocal development

    1.2 Manual babbling

    2 Transition from babbling to language

    3 Physiology of babbling

    4 Abnormal development

    4.1 Vocal babbling in deaf infants

    5 Evidence across species

    5.1 Songbirds

    5.2 Pygmy marmoset ()

    5.3 Sac-winged bat ()

    6 See also 7 References

    Typical development[edit]

    Babbling is a stage in language acquisition. Babbles are separated from language because they do not convey meaning or refer to anything specific like words do. Human infants are not necessarily excited or upset when babbling; they may also babble spontaneously and incessantly when they are emotionally calm.

    The sounds of babbling are produced before an infant begins to construct recognizable words.[5] This can be partly attributed to the immaturity of the vocal tract and neuromusculature at this age in life.[6] Infants first begin vocalizing by crying, followed by cooing and then vocal play. These first forms of sound production are the easiest for children to use because they contain natural, reflexive, mostly vowel sounds.

    Babbling is assumed to occur in all children acquiring language.[4] Particularly it has been studied in English,[7] Italian,[8][9] Korean,[10] French,[11] Spanish,[9] Japanese[11] and Swedish.[11] Infants across the world follow general trends in babbling tendencies. Differences that do appear are the result of the infants' sensitivity to the characteristics of the language(s) they are exposed to. Infants mimick the prosody of the language(s) they are exposed to. They use intonation patterns and timing that matches the characteristics of their parent language.[6] Infants also babble using the consonants and vowels that occur most frequently in their parent language. Most babbling consists of a small number of sounds, which suggests the child is preparing the basic sounds necessary to speak the language to which he is exposed.[]

    The consonants that babbling infants produce tend to be any of the following : /p, b, t, d, k, g, m, n, s, h, w, j/. The following consonants tend to be infrequently produced during phonological development : /f, v, θ, ð, ʃ, tʃ, dʒ, l, r, ŋ/. The complexity of the sounds that infants produce makes them difficult to categorize, but the above rules tend to hold true regardless of the language to which children are exposed.[12]

    The sounds produced in babble have been categorised relative to their components. For example, babble may be broken down into syllables that contain a consonant and a vowel (CV syllables) and syllables that contain only a vowel sound (non-CV syllables). These components have been studied in relation to speech development in children, and have been found to relate to future speech outcomes.[13]

    If babbling occurs during the first year of life, it can typically be concluded that the child is developing speech normally. As babies grow and change, their vocalizations will change as well.

    Timeline of typical vocal development[edit]

    Infants follow a general timeline of vocal developments in childhood.[14] This timeline provides a general outline of expected developments from birth to age one. Babbling usually lasts 6–9 months in total.[4] The babbling period ends at around 12 months because it is the age when first words usually occur. However, individual children can show large variability, and this timeline is only a guideline.

    From birth to 1 month, babies produce mainly pleasure sounds, cries for assistance, and responses to the human voice.[14]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Characterizing the Richness of Maternal Input for Word Learning in Neurogenetic Disorders

    Promoting language abilities, including early word learning, in children with neurogenetic disorders with associated language disorders, such as Down syndrome (DS) and fragile X syndrome (FXS), is a main concern for caregivers and clinicians. For typically ...

    Semin Speech Lang. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2022 Aug 1.

    Published in final edited form as:

    Semin Speech Lang. 2021 Aug; 42(4): 301–317.

    Published online 2021 Jul 26. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1730914

    PMCID: PMC9210920

    NIHMSID: NIHMS1714324

    PMID: 34311482

    Characterizing the Richness of Maternal Input for Word Learning in Neurogenetic Disorders

    Laura J. Mattie, Ph.D. and Pamela A. Hadley, Ph.D.

    Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer

    The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Semin Speech Lang

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    Abstract

    Promoting language abilities, including early word learning, in children with neurogenetic disorders with associated language disorders, such as Down syndrome (DS) and fragile X syndrome (FXS), is a main concern for caregivers and clinicians. For typically developing children, the quality and quantity of maternal language input and maternal gesture use contributes to child word learning, and a similar relation is likely present in DS and FXS. However, few studies have examined the combined effect of maternal language input and maternal gesture use on child word learning. We present a multidimensional approach for coding word-referent transparency in naturally occurring input to children with neurogenetic disorders. We conceptualize high quality input from a multidimensional perspective, considering features from linguistic, interactive, and conceptual dimensions simultaneously. Using case examples, we highlight how infrequent the moments of word-referent transparency are for three toddlers with DS during play with their mothers. We discuss the implications of this multidimensional framework for children with DS and FXS, including the clinical application of our approach to promote early word learning for these children.

    Keywords: Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, maternal language input, maternal gesture use, word learning

    Individuals with neurogenetic disorders, such as Down syndrome (DS) and fragile X syndrome (FXS), characteristically struggle with spoken language throughout the life course.1,2 Promoting language abilities in these populations is a main concern for caregivers and clinicians, leading researchers to be as invested in this issue, because increased language ability is associated with greater independence and community inclusion.3-5 However, our understanding of the mechanistic factors that underlie early word learning and use in these populations is limited. We propose that responsive and lexically rich language input coupled with maternal gesture use are key factors for promoting word learning and use in children with DS and FXS.

    It is well-established that the quality and quantity of maternal language input and maternal gesture use contributes to children’s vocabulary growth in typically developing children.6-8 Given this, it is likely that a similar relation is present in children with DS and FXS, but there is limited research in this area, especially in toddlerhood. Further, much of the research on maternal language input and gesture use have focused on these behaviors separately as predictors of child language abilities, but few studies have examined their combined effect. In this paper, we introduce an approach for characterizing the richness of maternal input for word learning in DS and FXS from a multidimensional perspective. First, we provide an overview of early communication development in DS and FXS. Next, we introduce the transactional model as the theoretical framework guiding this work and our application of Rowe and Snow’s9 framework to characterize variation in word-referent transparency in maternal input. With this information, we then present and apply our approach to three mothers of toddlers with DS to reveal differences in mothers’ use of nouns that are responsive to the toddlers’ engagement states and are supported with maternal gesture during free play. We conclude with a discussion of our approach and its application for intervention in DS and FXS.

    Go to:

    EARLY LANGUAGE IN DOWN SYNDROME AND FRAGILE X SYNDROME

    Both DS and FXS are associated with intellectual disability, presenting with mild to severe cognitive impairments emerging in infancy.10-13 Early delays in spoken vocabulary set the course for later language disorders.14 The development of prelinguistic skills—the use of eye-gaze, vocalizations, and gestures to communicate—precede the acquisition of first words and support language learning.15 For infants with DS and FXS prelinguistic skills are also delayed.16 In DS, a mixed profile of strengths and difficulties emerges in infancy indicating impairments in early vocalizations coupled with strengths in gesture use.17,18 Although less research has explored prelinguistic skills in FXS, these studies consistently demonstrate early gesture impairments.19-21

    Given the established risk for language disorders associated with DS and FXS, children with these conditions usually begin to receive early intervention services within the first year of life since both of these neurogenetic disorders can be diagnosed pre-, per-, or postnatally.22,23 However, it is important to note that while FXS can be diagnosed pre-, per-, or postnatally, diagnostic testing is not commonly performed at these times. In fact, the average age of diagnosis for FXS occurs between 35 and 37 months for males and at 41 months for females.24 Nonetheless, there is strong evidence establishing the need for early language intervention for children with DS and FXS.

    स्रोत : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    quiz3/4 psyL Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like organization refers to the progressive arrangement along the basilar membrane of cells sensitive to different frequencies. Infrasonic Periodic Prosodic Tonotopic, The process of overlapping phonemes in the speech stream is known as __________. aspiration coarticulation formant transition overtone, __________ refers to the difference in time between the release of a plosive consonant and the beginning of vocal fold vibration. Aspiration Coarticulation Formant transition Voice onset time and more.

    quiz3/4 psyL

    Term 1 / 37

    organization refers to the progressive arrangement along the basilar membrane of cells sensitive to different frequencies.

    Infrasonic Periodic Prosodic Tonotopic

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    Definition 1 / 37 tonotopic

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    Created by kuehn260

    Terms in this set (37)

    organization refers to the progressive arrangement along the basilar membrane of cells sensitive to different frequencies.

    Infrasonic Periodic Prosodic Tonotopic tonotopic

    The process of overlapping phonemes in the speech stream is known as __________.

    aspiration coarticulation formant transition overtone coarticulation

    __________ refers to the difference in time between the release of a plosive consonant and the beginning of vocal fold vibration.

    Aspiration Coarticulation Formant transition Voice onset time Voice onset time

    The __________ strategy is a rule-of-thumb that both infants and adults use to identify words in the speech stream based on the fact that most English words begin on a stressed syllable.

    categorical perception

    metrical segmentation

    prosodic bootstrapping

    transitional probability

    metrical segmentation

    The process of filling in missing segments of the speech stream with contextually appropriate material is known as __________.

    categorical perception

    phonemic restoration

    prosodic bootstrapping

    the McGurk effect

    phonemic restoration

    The likelihood that a particular event will occur next given the current event is known as its __________ probability.

    conditional phonotactic sequential transitional transitional

    The __________ effect is an artificially induced illusion in which the auditory information for one speech sound, such as b, is combining with the visual information for another speech sound, such as g, to produce the perception of a third speech sound, such as d.

    McDonald McGuffey McGurk McMillan mcgurk

    Infants start out with the ability to discriminate speech contrasts in languages they've never heard before, but within the first year of life, they lose this ability and can only discriminate the contrasts in the language they are learning. This process is known as __________.

    categorical perception

    distributional learning

    metrical segmentation

    perceptual narrowing

    perceptual narrowing

    __________ is the view that behavior is mainly shaped by natural selected and is thus encoded in our genes.

    Behaviorism Darwinism Nativism Naturalism Nativism

    Chomsky argued for the existence of a(n) __________, which is a specialized set of processing units in the brain that guides the rapid development of language in human infants.

    innate grammar module

    language acquisition device

    multimodal perception mechanism

    universal syntactic parser

    language acquisition device

    __________ neurons in the brains of primates fire not only when the individual performs an action but also when it observes somebody else performing that action.

    Inter Mirror Motor Sensory Mirror

    Infants make note of how frequently and in what contexts various speech sounds occur in a process known as __________.

    distributional learning

    metrical segmentation

    multimodal perception

    phonemic restoration

    distributional learning

    __________ is the number of wavelengths that pass by a given point in a given amount of time.

    frequency

    A sound with no regularly repeating pattern is known as __________

    aperiodic sounds

    The __________ is the lowest frequency produced by a vibrating object.

    fundamental frequency

    The organ of auditory sensation is called the __________, and it is a fluid-filled tube that is curled around itself like a snail

    cochela

    The process of filling in missing segments of the speech stream with contextually appropriate material is known as __________.

    phonemic restoration

    A consonant sound like f or v that is produced by bringing the lower lip against the upper teeth his called a(n) __________ consonant.

    glottal stop interdental labiodental postalvelvar labiodental

    A consonant like t or d that is produced by pressing the tip of the tongue against the fleshy area behind the teeth is called a(n) __________ consonant.

    alveolar interdental postalveolar velar alveolar

    Consonants like k and g that are produced by pressing the root of the tongue against the soft palate at the back of the mouth are referred to as __________ consonants.

    alveolar glottal postalveolar velar velar

    The __________ is a band of neural fibers extending from the temporal lobe to the frontal lobe.

    arcuate fasciculus basal ganglia corpus callosum limbic system arcuate fasciculus

    __________ aphasia is a condition in which brain damage leads to a loss of speech production without a loss of speech comprehension.

    Conduction Expressive Receptive Wernicke's Expressive aphasia

    Also known as Wernicke's aphasia, __________ aphasia is a condition in which brain damage leads to a loss of speech comprehension and fluent but meaningless speech production.

    स्रोत : quizlet.com

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