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    between 1880 and 1920 forest cover in the indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares

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    Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:1. Railways 2. Shipbuilding3. Agricultural expansion4. Commercial farming5. Tea/Coffee plantations6. Adivasis and other peasant users

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:1. Railways 2. Shipbuilding3. Agricultural expansion4. Commercial farming5. Tea/Coffee plantations6. Adivasis and other peasant users

    Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:

    Question 1. Railways 2. Shipbuilding

    3. Agricultural expansion

    4. Commercial farming

    5. Tea/Coffee plantations

    6. Adivasis and other peasant users

    Medium Open in App Solution Verified by Toppr

    (1) Railways played a vital role in the decline of the forest cover in India. For laying railway tracks forest land had to be cleared. Apart from clearing area for tracks, railway locomotives required timber for fuel and sleepers. For all these needs forests had to be cut down. The British government gave contracts to individuals to supply the required quantity of timber. These individuals cut down trees indiscriminately.

    (2) By the end of the 19th century, oak forests in England had almost disappeared. This created a shortage of timber for the Royal Navy. If the imperial power was to be protected and maintained, the building of ships was the first priority. So, search parties were sent to explore the forest resources of India. A large number of sleepers began to be exported to England annually. This further led to the indiscriminate cutting of trees year after year which caused deforestation on a massive scale.

    (3) The population was on the rise and the demand for food increased. Peasants extended the boundaries of cultivation by clearing forests. This gave them more land available for cultivation. In addition, there was great demand for cash crops such as tea, cotton, jute, sugar, etc., which were needed to feed the industries of England.

    (4) The British directly encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugar, wheat, and cotton. The demand for these crops increased in the 19th century in Europe, where foodgrains were needed to feed the growing urban population and raw materials were required for industrial production. Hence, large tracts of forest land were cleared to make land available for commercial farming.

    (5) The colonial state thought that forest land was unproductive. It did not yield agricultural produce nor revenue. Large areas of natural forests were hence cleared to make way for tea, coffee, and rubber plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities. The colonial government took over the forests and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates. The areas were enclosed and cleared of forests and planted with tea or coffee.

    (6) The Adivasis and other peasant users, gather forest products and graze their cattle.  Their livelihood mainly came from forest produce. This does not destroy the forests except sometimes in shifting agriculture. In fact, now the new trends that promote forest conservation tend to involve local villagers in conservation and preservation. Adivasis and other peasant communities regard the forests as their own and even engage watchmen to keep a vigil over their forests.

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    Between 1880 and 1920 , forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline: Railways Shipbuilding Agricultural expansion Commercial farming Tea/Coffee plantations Adivasis and other peasant users

    Between 1880 and 1920 , forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline: Railways Shipbuilding Agricultural expansion Commercial farming Tea/Coffee plantations Adivasis and other peasant users

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    Between 1880 and 1920 , forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline: Railways Shipbuilding Agricultural expansion Commercial farming Tea/Coffee plantations Adivasis and other peasant users

    Question

    Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:

    Railways Shipbuilding

    Agricultural expansion

    Commercial farming

    Tea/Coffee plantations

    Adivasis and other peasant users

    Open in App Solution

    (a) Railways: These were a necessary mode of transport for colonial trade and movement of troops. To run the locomotives, wood was needed as fuel and also for railway sleepers. As railways spread throughout India, a huge number of trees were felled. In the Madras Presidency itself, 35,000 trees were cut annually for sleepers, in the 1850s.

    (b) Shipbuilding: This was also important from the perspective of colonial trade. When England’s own forests began to deplete, teams were sent to India to explore timber resources here. New ships were needed for the continuance of the English imperial power. Being an island nation, England had an essential need for timber for shipbuilding, and huge quantities of this timber was being exported from India.

    (c) Agricultural expansion: In order to expand production of cash crops, whole forests were cut to make way for cultivation of crops that brought in revenue. Commercial agriculture fast replaced shifting agriculture.

    (d) Commercial farming: This was a direct corollary of agricultural expansion. In commercial forestry, a particular type of tree was grown for trade purposes. Older forests which had a wide variety of trees were no longer considered of use. These were cut down and replaced with “managed” forests.

    (e) Tea/Coffee plantations: They hired displaced village community members on low wages. The forest tribes no longer lived where they had been located for generations. Shifting cultivators would sow seeds in burnt out forest land and re-grow trees. When they were gone, there was no one left to tend to the forests, something they had done naturally in their home villages.

    (f) Adivasis and other peasant users: As mentioned in the previous note, when they were forced to leave their forest homes, the forests became victim to trade avarice. Industry did not worship the earth or its resources like the adivasis had done.

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    SIMILAR QUESTIONS

    Q. Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:

    1. Railways 2. Shipbuilding

    3. Agricultural expansion

    4. Commercial farming

    5. Tea/Coffee plantations

    6. Adivasis and other peasant users

    Q. The following table shows the area of the land on which different crops were grown.

    Crop

    Area of land (in million hectares)

    Rice 50 Wheat 30 Pulse 20 Sugarcane 25 Catton 15

    Prepare a pictograph by choosing a suitable symbol to represent 10 million hectares.

    Q. Tropical rain forests of world which were 1600 million hectares in 1900, now occupyQ. Today ...........% of the total land surface of Earth, covering almost 665 million hectares has been set aside as nationally protected areas.Q. A dairy farm covers an area of

    8 k m 2

    . What is the area of the farm in hectares?

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    स्रोत : byjus.com

    Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:1. Railways 2. Shipbuilding3. Agricultural expansion4. Commercial farming5. Tea\/Coffee plantations6. Adivasis and other peasant users

    Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:1. Railways 2...

    Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:

    1. Railways 2. Shipbuilding

    3. Agricultural expansion

    4. Commercial farming

    5. Tea/Coffee plantations

    6. Adivasis and other peasant users

    Answer Verified 215.4k+ views 4 likes

    Hint: During the time of the British guideline, trees were felled with no idea. Enormous quantities of trees, as an example, the sal, teak, and sandalwood were cut for development.

    Trees couldn't be felled without earlier authorization and knowledge of the British authority. This progression was taken to ensure that they were the only clients of the trees of the forests.

    Complete answer:1. Railways: The 1860s marked the beginning of the expansion of the railway system. Around 1890, the length of the track laid down was 25,000km and by 1946, the distance of the tracks had expanded to over 765,000 km.

    - With the development of the railways, a countless number of trees were felled. In the 1850s, 35,000 trees were felled in the Madras Presidency for construction of the sleepers for the rails.

    2. Shipbuilding: The British government required colossal boats for its Royal Navy. Boats are worked of solid, sturdy lumber. At the point when the oak woodlands in England started to vanish, the British assaulted the backwoods assets in India.

    - Tremendous amounts of wood were traded to England from India, for transport building, accordingly draining forest woods in India.

    3. Agricultural expansion: The populace was on the ascent and the interest in food expanded. Laborers broadened the limits of development by clearing woodlands. This gave them more land accessible for development.

    - Also, there was extraordinary interest in money harvests, for example, tea, cotton, jute, sugar, and so forth, which were expected to take care of the businesses of England.

    4. Commercial farming: The British legitimately energized the creation of business crops like jute, sugar, wheat, and cotton. The interest for these yields expanded in the nineteenth century in Europe, where food grains were expected to take care of the developing metropolitan populace and crude materials were needed for modern creation.

    -Subsequently, huge plots of woodland were cleared to make land accessible for business cultivation.

    5. Tea/coffee cultivation: The pioneer state imagined that woodland land was inefficient. It didn't yield rural produce nor income. Enormous zones of woods were thus cleared to clear a path for tea, espresso, and elastic manors to meet Europe's developing requirement for these products.

    - The provincial government assumed control over the timberlands and gave immense zones to European growers at modest rates. The territories were encased and freed from woodlands and planted with tea or espresso.

    6. Adivasis: The Adivasis and other laborer clients, assemble timberland items and eat their steers. Their occupation originated from forest produce. This doesn't decimate the backwoods aside from in some cases in moving horticulture.

    - Adivasis and other worker networks view the woodlands as their own and even connect with guardians to keep a vigil over their backwoods.

    Note:

    In 1976 administration of the forests went under the concurrent list. 'Advancement without devastation' and 'timberlands for endurance' were the subjects of the following two five-year plans, targeting expanding wildlife and connecting woodland improvement with the ancestral economy.

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