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    booting is the process of which of the following loading the os

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    Booting

    Booting

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    "Quick boot" redirects here. For the feature of the Quarterdeck memory manager, see Quickboot (QEMM).

    This article is about bootstrapping operating systems. For the general concept, see Bootstrapping.

    For other uses, see Boot (disambiguation).

    A flow diagram of a computer booting

    In computing, booting is the process of starting a computer as initiated via hardware such as a button or by a software command. After it is switched on, a computer's central processing unit (CPU) has no software in its main memory, so some process must load software into memory before it can be executed. This may be done by hardware or firmware in the CPU, or by a separate processor in the computer system.

    Restarting a computer also is called rebooting, which can be "hard", e.g. after electrical power to the CPU is switched from off to on, or "soft", where the power is not cut. On some systems, a soft boot may optionally clear RAM to zero. Both hard and soft booting can be initiated by hardware such as a button press or by a software command. Booting is complete when the operative runtime system, typically the operating system and some applications,[nb 1] is attained.

    The process of returning a computer from a state of sleep (suspension) does not involve booting; however, restoring it from a state of hibernation does. Minimally, some embedded systems do not require a noticeable boot sequence to begin functioning and when turned on may simply run operational programs that are stored in ROM. All computing systems are state machines, and a reboot may be the only method to return to a designated zero-state from an unintended, locked state.

    In addition to loading an operating system or stand-alone utility, the boot process can also load a storage dump program for diagnosing problems in an operating system.

    is short for [1][2] or and derives from the phrase .[3][4] The usage calls attention to the requirement that, if most software is loaded onto a computer by other software already running on the computer, some mechanism must exist to load the initial software onto the computer.[5] Early computers used a variety of ad-hoc methods to get a small program into memory to solve this problem. The invention of read-only memory (ROM) of various types solved this paradox by allowing computers to be shipped with a start up program that could not be erased. Growth in the capacity of ROM has allowed ever more elaborate start up procedures to be implemented.

    Contents

    1 History

    1.1 Pre integrated-circuit-ROM examples

    1.1.1 Early computers

    1.1.2 First commercial computers

    1.1.3 IBM System/360 and successors

    1.1.4 Minicomputers

    1.1.4.1 Early minicomputer boot loader examples

    1.1.5 Booting the first microcomputers

    1.2 Integrated circuit read-only memory era

    1.2.1 Minicomputers

    1.2.2 Microprocessors and microcomputers

    2 Modern boot loaders

    2.1 First-stage boot loader

    2.2 Second-stage boot loader

    2.3 Network booting

    3 Personal computers (PC)

    3.1 Boot devices 3.2 Boot sequence

    4 Other kinds of boot sequences

    5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

    History[edit]

    Switches and cables used to program ENIAC (1946)

    There are many different methods available to load a short initial program into a computer. These methods reach from simple, physical input to removable media that can hold more complex programs.

    Pre integrated-circuit-ROM examples[edit]

    Early computers[edit]

    Early computers in the 1940s and 1950s were one-of-a-kind engineering efforts that could take weeks to program and program loading was one of many problems that had to be solved. An early computer, ENIAC, had no program stored in memory, but was set up for each problem by a configuration of interconnecting cables. Bootstrapping did not apply to ENIAC, whose hardware configuration was ready for solving problems as soon as power was applied.

    The EDSAC system, the second stored-program computer to be built, used stepping switches to transfer a fixed program into memory when its start button was pressed. The program stored on this device, which David Wheeler completed in late 1948, loaded further instructions from punched tape and then executed them.[6][7]

    First commercial computers[edit]

    The first programmable computers for commercial sale, such as the UNIVAC I and the IBM 701[8] included features to make their operation simpler. They typically included instructions that performed a complete input or output operation. The same hardware logic could be used to load the contents of a punch card (the most typical ones) or other input media, such as a magnetic drum or magnetic tape, that contained a bootstrap program by pressing a single button. This booting concept was called a variety of names for IBM computers of the 1950s and early 1960s, but IBM used the term "Initial Program Load" with the IBM 7030 Stretch[9] and later used it for their mainframe lines, starting with the System/360 in 1964.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Concept of Booting: What is Booting Process? Type of Booting & Examples

    Booting is basically the process of starting the computer. When the CPU is first switched on it has nothing inside the Memory. In order to start the Computer, load the Operating System into the Main Memory and then Computer is ready to take commands from the User. Learn the types of booting.

    Classification of Computers

    Concept of Booting

    Table of content

    1 Booting

    2 What happens in the Process of Booting?

    3 Boot Devices

    3.1 Browse more topics under Classification of Computers

    4 Types of Booting 4.1 Cold Booting 4.2 Warm Booting 5 Steps of Booting 5.1 1. The Startup

    5.2 2. BIOS: Power On Self Test

    5.3 3. Loading of OS

    5.4 4. System Configuration

    5.5 5. Loading System Utilities

    5.6 6. User Authentication

    6 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Booting

    Booting is basically the process of starting the computer. When the CPU is first switched on it has nothing inside the Memory. In order to start the Computer, load the Operating System into the Main Memory and then Computer is ready to take commands from the User. Learn the types of booting.

    What happens in the Process of Booting?

    Booting happens when you start the computer. This happens when we turned ON the power or the computer restarts. The system BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) makes the peripheral devices active. Further, it requires that the boot device loads the operating system into the main memory.

    Booting

    Boot Devices

    Booting can be done either through hardware (pressing the start button) or by giving software commands. Therefore, a boot device is a device that loads the operating system. Moreover, it contains the instructions and files which start the computer. Examples are the hard drive, floppy disk drive, CD drive, etc. Among them, the hard drive is the most used one.

    Browse more topics under Classification of Computers

    Basics of Computer and its Operation

    Functional Components and their Interconnections

    Types of Booting

    There are two types of booting:

    Cold Booting

    A cold boot is also called a hard boot. It is the process when we first start the computer. In other words, when the computer is started from its initial state by pressing the power button it is called cold boot. The instructions are read from the ROM and the operating system is loaded in the main memory.

    Warm Booting

    Warm Boot is also called soft boot. It refers to when we restart the computer. Here, the computer does not start from the initial state. When the system gets stuck sometimes it is required to restart it while it is ON. Therefore, in this condition the warm boot takes place. Restart button or CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys are used for warm boot.

    Steps of Booting

    We can describe the boot process in six steps:

    1. The Startup

    It is the first step that involves switching the power ON. It supplies electricity to the main components like BIOS and processor.

    2. BIOS: Power On Self Test

    It is an initial test performed by the BIOS. Further, this test performs an initial check on the input/output devices, computer’s main memory, disk drives, etc. Moreover, if any error occurs, the system produces a beep sound.

    3. Loading of OS

    In this step, the operating system is loaded into the main memory. The operating system starts working and executes all the initial files and instructions.

    4. System Configuration

    In this step, the drivers are loaded into the main memory. Drivers are programs that help in the functioning of the peripheral devices.

    5. Loading System Utilities

    System utilities are basic functioning programs, for example, volume control, antivirus, etc. In this step, system utilities are loaded into the memory.

    6. User Authentication

    If any password has been set up in the computer system, the system checks for user authentication. Once the user enters the login Id and password correctly the system finally starts.

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Q1. What is booting?

    A1. The starting up of the computer is known as booting. It initiates all the devices before starting any work on the computer. Moreover, the operating system is loaded into the main memory.

    Q2. What is BIOS?

    A2. BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System. It helps in the functioning of all the input/output devices. Further, it also helps to start and initiate the working of all devices during the boot process.

    Q3. What are the boot devices?

    A3. Boot devices are the devices that have the operating system loaded inside them during the boot process. Common devices are the hard drive, disk drive, floppy drive, etc.

    Q4. What are the types of booting?

    A4. There are two types of the boot:

    Cold Boot/Hard Boot Warm Boot/Soft Boot

    Q5. Why do we need booting?

    A5. We perform this so that the operating system along with the initial files and instructions load into the main memory. And as a result, the computer starts.

    Q6. What are the basic steps of booting?

    A6. Basic steps are:

    The start-up Power On Self Test Loading OS

    System Configuration

    Loading system utilities

    User authentication

    स्रोत : www.toppr.com

    [Solved] The process of loading an operating system into a computer&#

    The correct answer is Booting. Key Points In computing, booting is the process of starting a computer. Booting is a kind of start-up sequence that turns

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    The process of loading an operating system into a computer's Random Access Memory (RAM) and then preparing the system of users to run applications when the computer is switched on is called:

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    The correct answer is Booting.

    Key Points

    In computing, booting is the process of starting a computer.

    Booting is a kind of start-up sequence that turns on the operating system of a computer when the system is turned on.

    The process includes some set of operations, which are performed by the computer when it is switched on.

    It is important to know the boot sequence in order to customize and troubleshoot the computer.

    It can be initiated by hardware such as a button press, or by a software command.

    After it is switched on, a computer's central processing unit (CPU) has no software in its main memory, so some process must load software into memory before it can be executed.

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