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CBSE Class 9 History Notes Chapter 4
Access History Notes of CBSE Class 9 for Chapter 4 and score well in your exam. Refer to these notes to quickly revise the entire chapter just before the final exam.
CBSE NotesCBSE Notes For Class 9Class 9 Social Science NotesClass 9 History NotesChapter 4 Forest Society And Colonialism
CBSE Class 9 History Notes Chapter 4 - Forest Society and Colonialism
Chapter 4 – Forest Society and Colonialism will take you into the forest. It talks about the growth of industries and urban centres, ships and railways, new demand on the forests for timber and other forest products. Students will also get to learn topics such as new rules of forest use, new ways of organising the forest, colonial control, how forest areas were mapped, trees were classified, and plantations were developed. The chapter will give you an idea of the history of such developments in India and Indonesia. CBSE Class 9 notes of History will help the students to study the subject in a very detailed and concise way. These CBSE Class 9 History notes are all prepared by subject experts and have kept the study material very simple, including the language and the format.
Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism
CBSE Class 9 History Notes Chapter 4 – Forest Society and Colonialism PDF
Deforestation means disappearance of forests and is not a recent problem. It began many centuries ago, but under colonial rule, it became more systematic and extensive.
Land to be Improved
Over the centuries, as the population grew and the demand for food went up, peasants started clearing forests and breaking new land. British encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. In the 19th century, the demand for these crops increased. The colonial state thought that forests were unproductive in the early 19th century. So between 1880 and 1920, cultivated areas and the expansion of cultivation showed a sign of progress.
Sleepers on the Tracks
In England, by the early nineteenth century, oak forests were disappearing. Search parties were sent to India to explore the forest resources. Railways spread from the 1850s. Railways were essential for colonial trade and for the movement of imperial troops. From the 1860s, the railway network expanded rapidly. Trees started falling as the railway tracks spread through India. The government gave out contracts to individuals to supply the required quantities. Forests around the railway tracks started disappearing.
Large areas of natural forests cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities. The forests were taken over by the colonial government and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates to plant tea or coffee.
The Rise of Commercial Forestry
British were worried that reckless use of trees by traders and use of forests by local people would destroy forests. Dietrich Brandis, a German expert, became the first Inspector General of Forests in India. He realised that a proper system had to be introduced to manage the forests and people need to be trained in the science of conservation. But it needed legal sanction. In 1864, Indian Forest Service was set up in Dehradun in 1906. In scientific forestry, natural forests, which had lots of different types of trees were cut down. In 1906, the Forest Act was enacted which was amended twice, once in 1878 and then in 1927. The Act of 1878, divided forests into three categories: reserved, protected and village forests. The best forests were called ‘reserved forests’.
How were the Lives of People Affected?
Villagers wanted forests with species of different types to satisfy their needs of fuel, fodder and leaves. On the other hand, the forest department wanted trees like teak and sal suitable for building ships or railways. Roots, leaves, fruits and tubers were used for many things. In the forest almost everything was available such as herbs, yokes, ploughs, bamboo, etc. From the fruit of mahua tree, oil was extracted for the purpose of cooking and lighting lamps. The Forest Act meant severe hardship for villagers across the country. People were forced to steal wood from the forests. Forest guard used to take bribes if they got caught. Police constables and forest guards harass people by demanding free food from them
How did Forest Rules Affect Cultivation?
Practice of shifting cultivation or swidden cultivation was introduced during European colonialism or swidden agriculture. It is a traditional agricultural practice in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America. In shifting cultivation, parts of the forest are cut and burnt in rotation. After the first monsoon rains, seeds are sown in the ashes, and the crop is harvested by October-November. For a couple of years such plots are cultivated and then left for 12 to 18 years. On these plots a mixture of crops is grown. According to European foresters, this practice is harmful for the forests. This type of cultivation also made it difficult for the government to calculate taxes. So, the government decided to ban shifting cultivation.
Who could Hunt?
People who lived near forests survived by hunting deer, partridges and a variety of small animals. The practice was prohibited by the forest laws and those who were caught hunting were punished for poaching. In India, hunting of tigers and other animals is a part of the culture of the court and nobility for centuries. The scale of hunting increased under colonial rule to such an extent that various species became almost extinct. Rewards were given for killing wild animals. Some areas of the forest were reserved for hunting.
Class 9 History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism Notes
Class 9 History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism Notes In which we will read about deforestation, forest destruction in India etc.
Class 9 History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism Notes
Class 9 History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism Notes 9 Class Social Science History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism NotesTextbook NCERTClass Class 9Subject HistoryChapter Chapter 4Chapter Name Forest Society and ColonialismCategory Class 9 History NotesMedium HindiClass 9 Social Science History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism Notes In which we will read about deforestation, forest destruction in India, Indian Forest Service, Forest Act , scientific forestry, forest society and colonialism etc.
Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism Notes📚 Chapter = 4 📚
💠 Forest Society and Colonialism 💠❇️ benefits from forests :-
🔹 When we take a look around us , we see so many things that come from forests ; the paper in the book we are reading , doors and windows , tables and chairs , spices in our food , gum , honey , coffee , tea , medicines from herbs and roots , wood for fuel , fruits , flowers , animals , birds and many other things . In the Amazon forests or in the Western Ghats , it is possible to find as many as 500 different species in one forest patch.❇️ Deforestation :-
🔹 The disappearance of forests or destruction of forest by humans for various reasons is referred to as deforestation.
🔹 A lot of diversity from forests is rapidly disappearing between 1700 & 1995. A vast area has been cleared for industrial uses, cultivation, postures and fuel wood.❇️ Causes of large scale deforestration during colonial rule :-
Expansion of cultivation for food grains
Make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantations
To enhance the state revenue by converting forest land into agricultural land
The spread of railways
For Imperial shipbuilding❇️ WHY DEFORESTATION :-
🔹 The disappearance of forests is referred to as deforestation.The process of cutting trees on a large scale began many centuries ago. Under the rule of the British i.e. colonial rule it became more systematic. Let us see some of the causes of deforestation in India under colonial rule.🔶 LAND FOR CULTIVATION :-
🔹 The British encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton as demands for these crops increased in Europe where raw materials were required for industrial production. Secondly, the colonial state thought that forests were unproductive and more and more forest area under cultivation.🔶 WOOD TO MAKE ENGLISH SHIPS :-
🔹 By the early 19th century, oak forests in England was disappearing and timber was needed by the Royal Navy to make ships. Search parties were sent to India and trees were being cut on a large scale and vast quantities of timber was exported from India to England.🔶 SLEEPERS ON THE TRACKS :-
🔹 The spread of railways from the 1850s created a new demand. To run locomotives, wood was needed as fuel, and to lay railway lines sleepers were essential to hold the tracks together . (Sleepers Wooden Planks laid across railway tracks; they hold the tracks in position) The contractors appointed by the British Government began cutting trees indiscriminately.🔶 PLANTATIONS :-
🔹 Large areas of natural forests were also cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities. The British government gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates to clear forests and plant tea or coffee.❇️ Forest management :-
🔹 A system of cuttingtrees controlled by the forest department,in which old trees are cut and new onesplanted in straight lines for British railway and Navy.❇️ FIRST INSPECTOR GENERAL OF FORESTS IN INDIA :-
🔹 The British were worried that the use of forests by local people and the reckless felling of trees by traders would destroy forests. So, they decided to invite a German expert, DIETRICH BRANDIS, for advice , and made him the first Inspector General of Forests in India.❇️ SCIENTIFIC FORESTRY :-
🔹 Brandis set up the Indian Forest Service in 1864. The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at Dehradun in 1906. The system they taught here was called SCIENTIFIC FORESTRY. Many people now, including ecologists, feel that this system is not scientific at all. In scientific forestry, natural forests which had lots of different types of trees were cut down. In their place, of tree was planted in straight rows.❇️ THE FOREST ACT :-
🔹 The 1878 Act divided forests divided forests into three categories:-
RESERVED, PROTECTED VILLAGE FORESTS.
🔹 The best forests were called’reserved forests. Villagers could not take anything from these forests, even for their own use. For house building or fuel , they could take wood from protected or village Forests.❇️ Impact of Forest laws :-
🔹 After the implementation of act, almost all everyday practices of native became illegal like-Cutting wood for their houses, Hunting and Fishing, Grazing their cattle, collecting honey, Collecting fruits and roots, Collection of Mahua and other forest products.
Notes of Ch 4 Forest Society and Colonialism
Study Material and Notes of Ch 4 Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9th History
Notes of Ch 4 Forest Society and Colonialism| Class 9th History
30 Jan, 2018
Study Material and Notes of Ch 4 Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9th History
• Forest provide us many products which are of great importance.
• It supports a large variety of flora and fauna such as in Amazon forests or in the Western Ghats.Why Deforestation?
• The disappearance of forests is referred to as deforestation.
Causes of deforestation in IndiaLand to be Improved
• Forests were unproductive, therefore British brought them under cultivation so that they could increase the income of the state.Building Ships
• By the 1830s, In India, trees were cut down and exported to England for building royal ships.Railway Tracks
• Wood was needed for Railways as:
→ Fuel for Trains
→ Railway lines sleepers which were essential to hold the tracks together.Plantations
• Large areas of natural forests were also cleared for tea, coffee and rubber plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities.The Rise of Commercial Forestry
• British made a German expert, Dietrich Brandis, the first Inspector General of Forests in India.
• Brandis set up the Indian Forest Service in 1864 and helped formulate the Indian Forest Act of
• The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up in Dehradun in 1906.
→ Scientific forestry was taught there.
→ In the scientific forestry system, forests with different kinds of trees were replaced by plantations.
→ Forest management plans were made by forest officials. They planned how much of the forest had to be cut and how much had to be replanted.
• The Forest Acts divided forests into:
→ Reserved Forests - these were the best forests. Villagers could not enter these forests
→ Protected Forests - villagers can enter these forests but with permission
→ Village Forests: The villagers were dissatisfied with the Forest Acts. They were now forced to steal wood from the forests. If they were caught, they were punished.How were the Lives of People Affected?
What is Shifting Cultivation?
• An area is cleared for cultivation for a period of time after that it left uncultivated so it could gain fertility.
• The colonial foresters did not favour this system as it made it difficult for the government to calculate taxes, there is a danger of fire and also that no trees could grow on this kind of land.
Consequences of banning shifting cultivation
• Some people changed occupations
• Some people resisted through large and small rebellions.Who could Hunt?
• The forest laws forbade the villagers from hunting in the forests but encouraged hunting as a big sport.
• They felt that the wild animals were savage, wild and primitive, just like the Indian society and that it was their duty to civilise them.New Trades, New Employments and New Services
• Forest communities rebelled against the changes imposed upon them.The People of Bastar
• Bastar is located in the southernmost part of Chhattisgarh.
• The initiative was taken by the Dhurwas of the Kanger forest where reservation first took place.
• The new law of Forest Act introduced by the Colonial government reserved two-thirds of the forest in 1905.
• The British sent troops to suppress the rebellion.
• It took them three months to regain control.
• A victory for the people of Bastar was that the work on reservation was suspended and the area was reduced to half of that planned before 1910.Changes in JavaThe Kalangs
• They rose in rebellion against the Dutch in 1770 but their uprising was suppressed.Scientific Forestry in Java
• Forest laws were enacted in Java.
• The villagers resisted these laws.
• Forest timber was used for ships and railway sleepers.
• The Dutch government used the ‘balandongdiensten’ system for extracting free labour from the villagers.Samin’s Movement
• Around 1890, Samin of Randublatung village (a teak forest village) questioned the state ownership of forests.
• A widespread movement spread.
• They protested by lying on the ground when the Dutch came to survey it and refusing to pay taxes and perform labour.World Wars and Deforestation
• The world wars had a major impact on forests.
• The forest department cut freely to meet the British demands.
• In Indonesia, the Dutch destroyed sawmills and burnt huge piles of teak logs.
• The Japanese after occupying Indonesia exploited the forests recklessly for their war needs.New Developments
• The government realised that if forests are to survive, the local community needs to be involved.
• There are many such examples in India where communities are conserving forests in sacred groves. This looking after is done by each member of the village and everyone is involved.NCERT Solutions of Ch 4 Forest Society and Colonialism