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    You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-4, which are based on Reading Passage below.


    A. The term 'alternative practitioner' first became common currency in the 1960s as part of a movement in healthcare which espoused a value system quite distinct from orthodox or western medicine. More recently, 'practitioners of complementary medicine' have sought to define themselves as distinct from 'alternative practitioners' in so far as they seek to work closely with the established medical profession to relieve a patient's symptoms. In a contemporary setting, the terms are often used interchangeably. But complementary medicine is perhaps a more fashionable term amongst those who aspire to greater integration within orthodox medicine-an attempt to gain respectability in the eyes of the establishment.B. Complementary medicine comprises a range of physical therapies, including reflexology, aromatherapy, shiatsu and acupuncture, which can be used to help ease symptoms associated with a range of conditions. None of these therapies claims to be a panacea. They simply help to relieve symptoms, although in some cases they may result in a permanent cure. The basic principle is that the body ultimately heals itself with the intervention of a particular therapy 'kick starting' and subsequently, speeding up this process. The therapies work on an energetic level to impact on a psychological, emotional and physiological level helping to alleviate short-term stress-induced conditions and, to a greater or lesser degree, chronic problems. All complementary therapies can be used as a preventative measure and to strengthen the constitution. Their common aim is to treat the whole person, with the goal of recovering the equilibrium between the physical, emotional and spiritual aspects of the individual. The focus is very much on improving overall well-being rather than the isolated treatment of specific symptoms. Where the therapies differ is their particular approach.C. Reflexology is a treatment which was introduced to the West about 100 years ago, although it was practised in ancient Egypt, India and East Asia. It involves gently focused pressure on the feet to both diagnose and treat illness. A reflexologist may detect imbalances in the body on an energetic level through detecting tiny crystals on the feet. Treating these points can result in the release of blockages in other parts of the body. It has been found to be an especially useful treatment for sinus and upper respiratory tract conditions and poor lymphatic and cardiovascular circulation. Anecdotal evidence from various practitioners suggests it can also be effective in treating migraine, hormonal imbalances, digestive, circulatory and back problems.D. Aromatherapy massage is a western medicine invention. The therapeutic effects of the essential oils used were first investigated early last century by a French chemist, Rene Maurice Gattefosse. Today, the beneficial effects of the oils are dispensed through aromatherapy massage, bath and shower preparations and the burning of oils. Essential oils work by entering the body through both the skin and lungs. Powerful molecules in the oils can affect cells in the nervous and circulatory systems to varying degrees. The effect on the olfactory centres of the brain is both physiological and psychological. Again, anecdotal evidence suggests aromatherapy is particularly useful in alleviating symptoms of respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis and asthma.E. Shiatsu is a Japanese healing art deeply rooted in the philosophy and practices of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). It is a hands-on therapy which aims to rebalance tensions and weaknesses in the body and mind. Shiatsu incorporates the traditional therapeutic massage of Japan, which in itself is an adaption of ancient Chinese massage therapy. Embracing its original focus of meditation and self-healing, shiatsu is gaining popularity in the West. The term shiatsu comes from Japanese: "shi" meaning finger, and "atsu" meaning pressure. In a shiatsu session, pressure is applied to various parts of the body which correspond with the points and energy lines (meridians) used in acupuncture.F. Shiatsu has been successfully used for treating headaches, neck and upper back tension, lower back conditions such as lumbago and sciatica, other muscular-skeletal problems such as frozen shoulder, tennis and golfer's elbow, carpal tunnel syndrome, and osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis. Along with acupuncture, it can be very effective in treating digestive complaints involving organs from the stomach through to the large intestine and menstrual problems. It is ideal for people who have an aversion to needles or who prefer the hands on body contact that shiatsu involves.G. Acupuncture is a very focused form of treatment which uses needles to rebalance the body's Energetics. According to traditional Chinese philosophy, our health is dependent on the body's energy-known as Qi moving in a smooth and balanced way through the channels beneath the skin. Disruptions in this flow are associated with illness and pain, which may relate to anxiety, stress, anger, fear or grief, poor nutrition, weather conditions, hereditary factors, infections and other trauma. The insertion of needles into the skin and then energy channels helps to stimulate the body's own healing response and to restore its natural balance. Acupuncture has over 3000 years of empirical evidence to support its efficacy, it is probably the most effective way of treating a diverse range of conditions. These include conditions of a more emotional focus including anxiety states, depression (including what in the West is known as manic depression), and sleep related disorders. Other illnesses treated by acupuncture include arthritis, asthma, circulatory problems (i.e. high blood pressure, facial paralysis (pre- and post-stroke), fatigue, tinnitus, infertility, menstrual problems, rheumatism, multiple sclerosis. Parkinson's disease, migraines, sciatica, skin conditions and ulcers.

    स्रोत : gandhisir.com

    Complementary and Alternative medicine

    IELTS Reading sample answers are of different types. IELTS reading sample with explanation helps candidates write correct answers to different questions.

    Collegedunia Team Content Curator

    The IELTS Reading section contains three passages and forty questions. There are different types of questions found in each IELTS reading passage. It is crucial to read the passage carefully and take mental notes of important points in order to answer the questions quickly. This IELTS reading sample - Complementary and Alternative medicine, is an IELTS Academic topic. The passage contains the following question types from IELTS Reading Question Types:

    True/False/Not Given

    Choose the correct option

    The IELTS Reading section tests the reading proficiency of the candidates through the passage and follow-up questions. There are about 40 questions of different types. The section tests the understanding ability through different task types.

    Topic: Complementary and Alternative medicine

    What do scientists in Britain think about alternative’ therapies? Or la kennedy reads a surprising survey

    Is complementary medicine hocus-pocus or does it warrant large-scale scientific investigation? Should science range beyond conventional medicine and conduct research on alternative medicine and the supposed growing links between mind and body? This will be hotly debated at the British Association for the Advancement of Science. One Briton in five uses complementary medicine, and according to the most recent Mintel survey, one in ten uses herbalism or homoeopathy. Around £130 million is spent on oils, potions, and pills every year in Britain, and the complementary and alternative medicine industry is estimated to be worth £1.6 billion. With the help of Professor Edzard Ernst, Laing chair of complementary medicine at The Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, we asked scientists their views on complementary and alternative medicine. Seventy-five scientists, in fields ranging from molecular biology to neuroscience, replied.

    Surprisingly, our sample of scientists was twice as likely as the public to use some form of complementary medicine, at around four in 10 compared with two in 10 of the general population. Three-quarters of scientific users believed they were effective. Acupuncture, chiropractic, and osteopathy were the most commonly used complementary treatments among scientists and more than 55 per cent believed these were more effective than a placebo and should be available to all on the National Health Service.

    Scientists appear to place more trust in the more established areas of complementary and alternative medicine, such as acupuncture, chiropractic, and osteopathy, for which there are professional bodies and recognized training than therapies such as aromatherapy and spiritual healing. ‘Osteopathy is now a registered profession requiring a certified four-year degree before you can advertise and practice,’ said one neuroscientist who used the therapy. Nearly two-thirds of the scientists who replied to our survey believed that aromatherapy and homoeopathy were no better than placebos, with almost a half thinking the same of herbalism and spiritual thinking. Some of the comments we received were scathing, even though one in ten of our respondents had used homoeopathy. ‘Aromatherapy and homoeopathy are scientifically nonsensical,’ said one molecular biologist from the University of Bristol. Dr.Romke Bron, a molecular biologist at the Medical Research Council Centre at King’s College London, added: ‘Homoeopathy is a big scam and I am convinced that if someone sneaked into a homoeopathic pharmacy and swapped labels, nobody would notice anything.’

    Two centuries after homoeopathy was introduced, it still lacks a watertight demonstration that it works. Scientists are happy that the resulting solutions and sugar baffled by how they can do anything. Both complementary and conventional medicine should be used in routine health care, according to followers of the ‘integrated health approach’, who want to treat an individual ‘as a whole’. But the scientists who responded to our surveys expressed serious concerns about this approach, with more than half believing that integrated medicine was an attempt to bypass rigorous scientific testing. Dr. Bron said: ‘There is an awful lot of bad science going on in alternative medicine and the general public has a hard time to distinguish between scientific myth and fact. It is absolutely paramount to maintain rigorous quality control in health care. Although the majority of alternative health workers mean well, there are just too many frauds out there preying on vulnerable people.’

    One molecular biologist from the University of Warwick admitted that ‘by doing this poll I have realized how shamefully little I understand about alternative therapy. Not enough scientific research has been performed. There is enough anecdotal evidence to suggest that at least some of the alternative therapies are effective for some people, suggesting this is an area ripe for research.’

    When asked if complementary and alternative medicine should get more research funding, scientists believed the top three (acupuncture, chiropractic, and osteopathy) should get money, as should herbalism. It seems that therapies based on physical manipulation or a known action – like the active ingredients in a herb on a receptor in the body – are the ones that the scientific community has faith in. Less than a quarter thought that therapies such as aromatherapy, homeopathy, and spiritual healing should get any funding. Scientists believed that the ‘feelgood’ counseling effect of complementary medicine and the time taken to listen to patients’ problems was what worked, rather than any medicinal effect. In contrast, the average visit to the doctor lasts only eight minutes, says the British Medical Association. Dr. Stephen Nurrish, a molecular biologist at University College London, said: ‘Much of the benefits people get from complementary medicine is the time to talk to someone and be listened to sympathetically, something that is now lacking from medicine in general.’

    स्रोत : collegedunia.com

    Complementary Medicine An Overview Ielts Reading Answers Test 9

    Pdf Foot D 2001 Complementary Medicine An Overview


    Complementary Medicine An Overview Ielts Reading Answers Test 9

    Pdf Foot D 2001 Complementary Medicine An Overview

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