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    Dholavira

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    For the historical Harappan Civilization, see Indus Valley Civilization.

    Dholavira

    Part of the excavated site

    Shown within Gujarat

    Location Khadirbet, Kutch district, Gujarat, India

    Coordinates 23°53′18.98″N 70°12′49.09″E / 23.8886056°N 70.2136361°E

    Coordinates: 23°53′18.98″N 70°12′49.09″E / 23.8886056°N 70.2136361°E

    Type Settlement

    Area 47 ha (120 acres)

    History

    Periods Harappa 1 to Harappa 5

    Cultures Indus Valley civilization

    Site notes Condition Ruined Public access Yes

    UNESCO World Heritage Site

    Official name Dholavira: A Harappan City

    Criteria Cultural: (iii)(iv)

    Designated 2021 (44th session)

    Reference no. 1645

    Dholavira (Gujarati: ધોળાવીરા) is an archaeological site at Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District, in the state of Gujarat in western India, which has taken its name from a modern-day village 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) south of it. This village is 165 km (103 mi) from Radhanpur. Also known locally as , the site contains ruins of a city of the ancient Indus Valley civilization.[1] Earthquakes have repeatedly affected Dholavira, including a particularly severe one around 2600 BC.[2]

    Dholavira's location is on the Tropic of Cancer. It is one of the five largest Harappan sites[3] and the most prominent of archaeological sites in India belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization.[4] It is also considered as having been the grandest of cities[5] of its time. It is located on island in the Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary in the Great Rann of Kutch. The 47 ha (120 acres) quadrangular city lay between two seasonal streams, the Mansar in the north and Manhar in the south.[6] The site was thought to be occupied from c.2650 BCE, declining slowly after about 2100 BCE, and to have been briefly abandoned then reoccupied until c.1450 BCE;[7] however, recent research suggests the beginning of occupation around 3500 BCE (pre-Harappan) and continuity until around 1800 BCE (early part of Late Harappan period).[8]

    The site was initially discovered by a resident of Dholavira village, Shambhudan Gadhvi, in early 1960s who made efforts to bring government attention to the location.[9][10][11] The site was "officially" discovered in 1967-68 by J. P. Joshi, of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), and is the fifth largest of eight major Harappan sites. It has been under excavation since 1990 by the ASI, which opined that "Dholavira has indeed added new dimensions to personality of Indus Valley Civilisation."[12] The other major Harappan sites discovered so far are Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Ganeriwala, Rakhigarhi, Kalibangan, Rupnagar and Lothal.

    It was named as a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the name on 27 July 2021.[13]

    Contents

    1 Chronology of Dholavira

    2 Excavations

    3 Architecture and material culture

    3.1 Reservoirs 3.2 Seal making

    3.3 Other structures and objects

    3.4 Hemispherical constructions

    4 Findings 5 Coastal route

    6 Language and script

    6.1 Sign board 7 References 8 External links

    Chronology of Dholavira[edit]

    Layout of Dholavira

    Ravindra Singh Bisht, the director of the Dholavira excavations, has defined the following seven stages of occupation at the site:[14]

    STAGES DATES EVENTS

    Stage I 2650–2550 BCE Early Harappan – Mature Harappan Transition A

    Stage II 2550–2500 BCE Early Harappan – Mature Harappan Transition B

    Stage III 2500–2200 BCE Mature Harappan A

    Stage IV 2200–2000 BCE Mature Harappan B

    Stage V 2000–1900 BCE Mature Harappan C

    1900–1850 BCE Period of desertion

    Stage VI 1850–1750 BCE Posturban Harappan A

    1750–1650 BCE Period of desertion

    Stage VII 1650–1450 BCE Posturban Harappan B

    Recent C14 datings and stylistic comparisons with Amri II-B period pottery shows the first two phases should be termed Pre-Harappan Dholaviran Culture and re-dated as follows: Stage I (c. 3500-3200 BCE), and Stage II (c. 3200-2600 BCE).[15]

    Excavations[edit]

    Excavation was initiated in 1989 by the ASI under the direction of Bisht, and there were 13 field excavations between 1990 and 2005.[3] The excavation brought to light the urban planning and architecture, and unearthed large numbers of antiquities such as, animal bones, gold, silver, terracotta ornaments, pottery and bronze vessels. Archaeologists believe[] that Dholavira was an important centre of trade between settlements in south Gujarat, Sindh and Punjab and Western Asia.[16][17]

    Architecture and material culture[edit]

    See also: Periodisation of IVC, Pottery culture in Indian subcontinent, Phases in archaeology, and Chronological dating

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Dholavira: a Harappan City

    UNESCO World Heritage Centre

    Dholavira: a Harappan City

    Description Maps Documents Gallery Indicators

    Dholavira: a Harappan City

    The ancient city of Dholavira, the southern centre of the Harappan Civilization, is sited on the arid island of Khadir in the State of Gujarat. Occupied between ca. 3000-1500 BCE, the archaeological site, one of the best preserved urban settlements from the period in Southeast Asia, comprises a fortified city and a cemetery. Two seasonal streams provided water, a scarce resource in the region, to the walled city which comprises a heavily fortified castle and ceremonial ground as well as streets and houses of different proportion quality which testify to a stratified social order. A sophisticated water management system demonstrates the ingenuity of the Dholavira people in their struggle to survive and thrive in a harsh environment. The site includes a large cemetery with cenotaphs of six types testifying to the Harappan’s unique view of death. Bead processing workshops and artifacts of various kinds such as copper, shell, stone, jewellery of semi-precious stones, terracotta, gold, ivory and other materials have been found during archaeological excavations of the site, exhibiting the culture’s artistic and technological achievements. Evidence for inter-regional trade with other Harappan cities, as well as with cities in the Mesopotamia region and the Oman peninsula have also been discovered.

    Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

    English French Arabic Chinese Russian Spanish Hindi

    Middle town drain, Opening of the drain in the northern arm of the broad way © ASI

    Outstanding Universal Value

    Brief synthesis

    Dholavira: a Harappan city, is one of the very few well preserved urban settlements in South Asia dating from the 3rd to mid-2nd millennium BCE. Being the 6th largest of more than 1,000 Harappan sites discovered so far, and occupied for over 1,500 years, Dholavira not only witnesses the entire trajectory of the rise and fall of this early civilization of humankind, but also demonstrates its multifaceted achievements in terms of urban planning, construction techniques, water management, social governance and development, art, manufacturing, trading, and belief system. With extremely rich artefacts, the well-preserved urban settlement of Dholavira depicts a vivid picture of a regional centre with its distinct characteristics, that also contributes significantly to the existing knowledge of Harappan Civilization as a whole.

    The property comprises two parts: a walled city and a cemetery to the west of the city. The walled city consists of a fortified Castle with attached fortified Bailey and Ceremonial Ground, and a fortified Middle Town and a Lower Town. A series of reservoirs are found to the east and south of the Citadel. The great majority of the burials in the Cemetery are memorial in nature.

    The configuration of the city of Dholavira, during its heyday, is an outstanding example of planned city with planned and segregated urban residential areas based on possibly differential occupational activities, and a stratified society. Technological advancements in water harnessing systems, water drainage systems as well architecturally and technologically developed features are reflected in the design, execution, and effective harnessing of local materials. Unlike other Harappan antecedent towns normally located near to rivers and perennial sources of water, the location of Dholavira in the island of Khadir was strategic to harness different mineral and raw material sources (copper, shell, agate-carnelian, steatite, lead, banded limestone, among others) and to facilitate internal as well as external trade to the Magan (modern Oman peninsula) and Mesopotamian regions.

    Criterion (iii): Dholavira is an exceptional example of a proto-historic Bronze Age urban settlement pertaining to the Harappan Civilization (early, mature and late Harappan phases) and bears evidence of a multi-cultural and stratified society during the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE. The earliest evidence can be traced back to 3000 BCE during the early Harappan phase of the Harappan Civilization. This city flourished for nearly 1,500 years, representing a long continuous habitation. The excavated remains clearly indicate the origin of the settlement, its growth, zenith and the subsequent decline in the form of continuous changes in the configuration of the city, architectural elements and various other attributes.Criterion (iv): Dholavira is an outstanding example of Harappan urban planning, with its preconceived city planning, multi-layered fortifications, sophisticated water reservoirs and drainage system, and the extensive use of stone as a building material. These characteristics reflect the unique position Dholavira held in the entire gamut of Harappan Civilization.Integrity

    The ancient Harappan city of Dholavira was discovered in 1968 and excavated for 13 field seasons between 1989 and 2005. The unearthed excavations were simultaneously preserved and conserved, and display all physical attributes contributing to the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, that is to say the proto-historic systems of urban planning, water management systems, architectural elements and design, traditional knowledge of art and technology preserved in situ. All the attributes that convey the Outstanding Universal Value of the property are located in the property area. Physical evidence of the entire 1,500 years of inhabitation are spanning from pre-Harappan to post-Harappan stages. The excavated remains at Dholavira, to a large extent, illustrate attributes associated with industrial activities (e.g. bead manufacturing) and are indicative of the sophisticated life and exploitation of natural resources for nearly 1,500 years, trade, interregional relations and exchanges, the physical manifestations of these are largely found in situ. Conservation measures and consolidation of few areas have been carried out to prevent deterioration and have also been stabilized for ensuring preservation of its physical attributes. Guidelines for development and conservation need should be developed in the extended buffer zone.

    स्रोत : whc.unesco.org

    Explained: What UNESCO heritage site Dholavira tells us about Indus Valley Civilisation

    The IVC acropolis is located on a hillock near present-day Dholavira village in Kutch district, from which it gets its name. It was discovered in 1968 by archaeologist Jagat Pati Joshi.

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    Explained: What UNESCO heritage site Dholavira tells us about Indus Valley Civilisation

    Explained: What UNESCO heritage site Dholavira tells us about Indus Valley Civilisation The IVC acropolis is located on a hillock near present-day Dholavira village in Kutch district, from which it gets its name. It was discovered in 1968 by archaeologist Jagat Pati Joshi.

    Written by Gopal B Kateshiya , Edited by Explained Desk

    Rajkot | Updated: August 3, 2021 1:28:52 pm

    0

    An aerial view of Dholavira archaeological site in Kutch district. UNESCO declared Dholavira a World Heritage Site. (PTI Photo)

    Dholavira, the archaeological site of a Harappan-era city, received the UNESCO world heritage site tag on Tuesday. While Dholavira became the fourth site from Gujarat and 40th from India to make the list, it is the first site of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) in India to get the tag.

    Also in Explained |A Telangana temple and its UNESCO tag

    Dholavira site

    The IVC acropolis is located on a hillock near present-day Dholavira village in Kutch district, from which it gets its name. It was discovered in 1968 by archaeologist Jagat Pati Joshi. The site’s excavation between 1990 and 2005 under the supervision of archaeologist Ravindra Singh Bisht uncovered the ancient city, which was a commercial and manufacturing hub for about 1,500 years before its decline and eventual ruin in 1500 BC.

    Distinct features

    After Mohen-jo-Daro, Ganweriwala and Harappa in Pakistan and Rakhigarhi in Haryana of India, Dholavira is the fifth largest metropolis of IVC.  The site has a fortified citadel, a middle town and a lower town with walls made of sandstone or limestone instead of mud bricks in many other Harappan sites.

    Archaeologist Bisht cites a cascading series of water reservoirs, outer fortification, two multi-purpose grounds — one of which was used for festivities and as a marketplace — nine gates with unique designs, and funerary architecture featuring tumulus — hemispherical structures like the Buddhist Stupas— as some of the unique features of the Dholavira site.

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    Dholavira became the fourth site from Gujarat and 40th from India to make the list. (Twitter/narendramodi)

    He says that one finds the origin of the Buddhist Stupas in memorials in Dholavira.

    While unlike graves at other IVC sites, no mortal remains of humans have been discovered at Dholavira. Bisht says memorials that contain no bones or ashes but offerings of precious stones, etc. add a new dimension to the personality of the Harappans.

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    Rise and fall of Dholavira

    Remains of a copper smelter indicate of Harappans, who lived in Dholavira, knew metallurgy. It is believed that traders of Dholavira used to source copper ore from present-day Rajasthan and Oman and UAE and export finished products. It was also a hub of manufacturing jewellery made of shells and semi-precious stones, like agate and used to export timber.

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    Bisht says that such beads peculiar to the Harappan workmanship have been found in the royal graves of Mesopotamia, indicating Dholavira used to trade with the Mesopotamians. Its decline also coincided with the collapse of Mesopotamia, indicating the integration of economies. Harappans, who were maritime people, lost a huge market, affecting the local mining, manufacturing, marketing and export businesses once Mesopotamia fell.

    He further says that from 2000 BC, Dholavira entered a phase of severe aridity due to climate change and rivers like Saraswati drying up. Because of a drought-like situation, people started migrating toward the Ganges valley or towards south Gujarat and further beyond in Maharashtra.

    In those times, Bisht says, the Great Rann of Kutch, which surrounds the Khadir island on which Dholavira is located, used to be navigable, but the sea receded gradually and the Rann became a mudflat.

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    Other Harappan sites in Gujarat

    Before Dholavira was excavated, Lothal, in Saragwala village on the bank of Sabarmati in Dholka taluka of Ahmedabad district, was the most prominent site of IVC in Gujarat.

    It was excavated between 1955 and 1960 and was discovered to be an important port city of the ancient civilisation, with structures made of mud bricks. From a graveyard in Lothal, 21 human skeletons were found. Foundries for making copperware were also discovered. Ornaments made of semi-precious stones, gold etc. were also found from the site.

    Besides Lothal, Rangpur on the bank of Bhadar river in Surendranagar district was the first Harappan site in the state to be excavated. Rojdi in Rajkot district, Prabhas near Veraval in Gir Somnath district, Lakhabaval in Jamnagar, and Deshalpar in Bhuj taluka of Kutch are among other Harappan sites in the state.

    स्रोत : indianexpress.com

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