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    Difference Between Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet with its Practical Applications in Real Life

    Difference Between Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet and its application in the practical world are provided here. Learn about the difference between electromagnet and permanent magnet & its functions in a detailed way by visiting BYJU'S.

    PhysicsElectromagnetismDifference Between Electromagnet And Permanent Magnet

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    Difference Between Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet

    The major difference between an electromagnet and a permanent magnet is that the former can have a magnetic field when electric current flows through it and disappears when the flow of the current stops. On the other hand, permanent magnets are made up of magnetic material that is magnetised and has its own magnetic field. It will always display the magnetic behaviour.

    Difference Between Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet

    As the name suggests permanent magnet magnetic field is permanent and electromagnets magnetic field depends upon the flow of the electrical current. The electromagnet constitutes a coil made of wire which acts as a magnet when current is passed through it. Usually, a ferromagnetic material like steel is wrapped by an electromagnet to enhance its magnetic field.

    Difference Between Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet

    Electromagnet Permanent Magnet

    The magnetic properties are displayed when current is passed through it Magnetic properties exist when the material is magnetised

    The strength is adjusted depending upon the amount of flow of current The strength depends upon the nature of the material used in its creation

    Removal of magnetic properties is temporary Once magnetic properties are lost, it becomes useless

    It requires a continuous supply of electricity to maintain its magnetic field. It doesn’t require a continuous supply of electricity to maintain its magnetic field

    It is usually made of soft materials It is usually made of hard materials

    The poles of this kind of magnet can be altered with the flow of current The poles of this kind of magnet cannot be changed.

    These were some differences between an electromagnet and a permanent magnet. If you wish to find out more, download BYJU’S – The learning app.

    RELATED ARTICLES:

    Permanent Magnets and Magnetic Behaviour Electromagnetism

    Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs

    Electromagnets require a continuous supply of electric current. Is it true or false?

    The above statement is true, electromagnets require a continuous supply of electricity to maintain its magnetic field.

    What is electromagnetic force?

    The electromagnetic force is a force that acts between charged particles and is a combination of electrical and magnetic forces.

    What are the properties of a magnet?

    A magnet has three properties and that are attractive prosperity, repulsive property and directive property.

    What is a magnet?

    An object which is capable of producing magnetic fields and attracting unlike poles and repelling like poles.

    Write some uses of permanent magnets.

    Permanent magnets find applications in generators, electric accelerators, and electric motors.

    Test your knowledge on Electromagnet and permanent magnet

    Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. Click ‘Start Quiz’ to begin!

    Select the correct answer and click on the “Finish” button

    Check your score and answers at the end of the quiz

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    Know the Difference Between Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet

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    Difference Between Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet

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    Electromagnets are soft iron cores that are made into magnets on passing an electric current through the coil surrounding them.

    A permanent magnet is something that is an innate ability of a magnet that continues to show magnetism even if it is removed from the magnetic field.

    So, here if we differentiate between an electromagnet and a permanent magnet, it seems that permanent magnets are better than electromagnets; however, each of these has its own advantages.

    This article discusses the difference between an electromagnet and a permanent magnet in points.

    Electromagnetism Meaning 

    The word ‘Electro’ in electromagnetism talks about the magnetism that is caused by the effect of electricity, and soon it loses its magnetism when it is brought away from the area of the magnetic field.

    Permanent Magnetism Meaning

    The word permanent talks about something that remains firm or permanent. Here, permanent magnetism means a magnet that retains its magnetism after the removal of the magnetizing force or after taking a magnet from the vicinity of the magnetic field.

    The below diagram represents the difference between the electromagnet and permanent magnet:

    (ImagewillbeUploadedSoon)

    Differentiate Between Permanent Magnet and Electromagnet

    Parameters Permanent Magnetism Electromagnetism Definition

    A permanent magnet is an object made of a material that gets magnetized and creates its own persistent magnetic field.

    An electromagnet is made from a coil of wire that acts as a magnet when an electric current is allowed to pass through it.

    Meaning

    As the name ‘permanent magnet’ suggests, it always has a magnetic field and displays its magnetic behavior forever.

    As the name suggests ‘electromagnet’ means temporary.

    It works like a magnet as long as the current passes through the coil.

    Made of

    A permanent magnet is made of hard materials like steel.

    It is made of a soft iron core.

    Magnetism

    It generates the magnetic field by itself and that remains persistent forever.

    The electromagnet is often wrapped around a core of the ferromagnetic material like steel that increases the magnetic field generated by the coil.

    The need for an electric current supply

    Permanent magnets does not need an electric current to behave as a magnet.

    Electromagnets require an electric current to work as a magnet.

    Distinguish Between the Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet:

    Parameter Electromagnet Permanent Magnet

    Magnetic field strength

    The magnetic field strength of electromagnets can be changed/altered.

    As the name suggests ‘permanent’, its magnetic field strength remains like its name.

    Nature of magnetic field

    Temporary Permanent

    Strength of magnetic field

    The magnetic field of electromagnets can be very strong.

    The nature of magnetism or the magnetic field is weaker as compared to electromagnets.

    Changing the magnetic field

    The magnetic field of electromagnets can be altered by controlling the flow of the electric current.

    The magnetic field of permanent magnets cannot be changed, as it remains constant.

    Magnetic force

    Electromagnets are temporary, as these magnets work on magnetic forces only when an electric current passes through them.

    Permanent magnets generate a weaker magnetic force as compared to electromagnets.

    Polarity

    The polarity of an electromagnet can be reversed.

    We can not reverse the polarity of permanent magnets.

    Demagnetizing

    Electromagnets can be easily demagnetized by switching off the current.

    We cannot demagnetize the permanent magnet.

    Example

    An example of an electromagnet is a solenoid wrapped with a wire or a coil and connected to the battery.

    A bar magnet is an example of permanent magnets.

    Usage

    Used in devices like electric fans

    Electric motors:

    There are a total of three permanent magnets in the electric motor

    First: powering the front axle

    Second and third: A pair at the rear, each driving its own wheel.

    Applications

    Electric fans, electric bell, telegraph, debit cards, credit cards, etc.

    Electric clocks, microphones, speakers,  electrical devices like generators, motors, scientific instruments, etc.

    Now, let’s discuss more to differentiate between the electromagnet and permanent magnet:

    The table below lists the difference between the electromagnet and permanent magnet

    Difference between Permanent and Electromagnet

    Parameter Permanent magnet Electromagnet

    Retaining of magnetic property

    Permanent magnets can retain their magnetic property for a long period until it gets demagnetized because of various factors.

    Since electromagnet is a temporary magnetic, so its magnetic effect can be utilized by switching on the current when needed.

    The magnitude of magnetic field strength

    The magnitude of the magnetic field can be increased or decreased by changing the magnitude of the current supply.

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    Difference between Permanent Magnet & Electromagnet

    Difference between Permanent Magnet & Electromagnet is magnetic field & strength. Magnetic Field of Bar Magnet is constant but for electromagnet it varies.

    Difference between Permanent Magnet and Electromagnet is magnetic field and strength. In Electromagnet, the magnetic field is created by a wire-wound coil but the magnetic field of Permanent (Bar) Magnet cannot be changed. The strength of Permanent Magnet depends on the material used for its creation, on the other hand, the strength of Electromagnet varies according to the flow of electric current into it. Three types of Permanent (Bar) Magnets are Ceramic Magnet, Flexible magnets, Neodymium iron boron magnet, and Samarium cobalt magnet. Each has its own applications and types. Let’s see the more differences between the Permanent Magnet and Electromagnet.

    Table of content

    1 Suggested Videos 2 Permanent Magnet

    2.1 Browse more Topics under Magnetism And Matter

    3 Electromagnet

    4 Difference between Permanent Magnet and Electromagnet

    4.1 Similarities between Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets

    4.2 Advantages of Electromagnets over Permanent Magnets

    4.3 Disadvantages of Electromagnets

    4.4 Disadvantages of Permanent Magnets

    4.5 Types of Permanent Magnets

    4.6 Application of Electromagnets

    5 Solved Example For You

    Suggested Videos

    Introduction to Magnetism

    Earth as a Magnet

    Class 6 Science Physics: Fun With Magnets | Make your own Magnet

    Permanent Magnet

    These types of magnets can retain their magnetism and magnetic properties for a longer time. Strongly magnetized hard materials make up permanent magnets. A perfect example of a permanent magnet is the Bar Magnet. This magnet widely explains the behavior of magnets. Actually, we call permanent magnets as Bar Magnets also.

    Browse more Topics under Magnetism And Matter

    Magnetic Properties of Materials

    Magnets and Its Properties

    Magnetisation and Magnetic Intensity

    The Bar Magnet

    The Earth’s Magnetism

    Electromagnet

    When a battery is connected to a solenoid (a coil of wire is wounded around a nail), the apparatus behaves like a magnet. This is due to the magnetic field produced by the current flowing through the coil. The nail retains its magnetism until there is a current flowing through the coil, but once there is no current, the nail loses its magnetism.

    You can produce electromagnets when you wound a coil of wire across an iron core. Let us now look at the differences between a permanent magnet and electromagnet.

    Difference between Permanent Magnet and Electromagnet

    Permanent (Bar) Magnet Electromagnet

    They are permanently magnetized. These are temporarily magnetized.

    These are usually made of hard materials. They are usually made of soft materials.

    The strength of the magnetic field line is constant i.e. it cannot be varied. The strength of the magnetic field lines can be varied according to our need.

    The poles of a Permanent magnet cannot be changed. The poles of an electromagnet can be altered.

    Example of a permanent magnet is a Bar Magnet Example of a temporary magnet is solenoid wounded across a nail and connected to a battery.

    Similarities between Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets

    Both the magnets possess imaginary magnetic field lines. The magnets have north and south-pole whose behavior depends on the Geographic north-pole and south-pole of the earth. Both the magnets exhibit the properties of magnetism.

    Advantages of Electromagnets over Permanent Magnets

    You can get electromagnets at cheaper rates than the permanent magnets. This is because the cost of materials used in the electromagnet is lesser. You can alter the magnetic strength of an Electromagnet according to your need. This is not possible in case of a permanent magnet.

    Disadvantages of Electromagnets

    Electromagnets require a large number of copper couplings. This makes them unfit for use in small spaces. They also require a lot of maintenance. The short-circuit may damage the electromagnet.

    Electromagnets require a continuous supply of current. This may, at some point in time, affect the magnets and its field due to various factors like ohmic heating, Inductive voltage spikes, core losses, the coupling of coils, etc.

    Disadvantages of Permanent Magnets

    You can produce the magnetic field of a permanent magnet only below a certain temperature. Therefore, you cannot use this type of magnets for hot-device applications.

    These permanent magnets tend to corrode with time. The strength of the maximum magnetic field is, thus, reduced. You cannot vary the poles of the permanent magnet.

    Types of Permanent Magnets

    In this section, we will discuss the various types of permanent magnet. They are:

    Ceramic Magnet:These magnets are the most inexpensive permanent magnets. We use them in food processing industries, resonance imaging etc.Flexible Magnets: The door seals used in the refrigerator are flexible magnets. You can develop these through a combination of rubber polymers, plastic, and magnetic powders.Neodymium Iron Boron Magnet (NdFeB): It a type of rare earth magnet. You can oxidize it very easily. It is a very expensive material. We commonly use it in jewelry making, bookbinding etc.

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