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    Direct-drive mechanism

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    "Direct-drive mechanism" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR

    A direct-drive mechanism is where the transmitting of torque from an electric motor to the output device (such as the driven wheels of a car) occurs without any gearing reductions or belts.[1][2][3][4]

    Contents

    1 History 2 Design 3 Applications 4 See also 5 References

    History[edit]

    In the late 19th century and early 20th century, some of the earliest locomotives and cars used direct drive transmissions at higher speeds.[5][6] Direct-drive mechanisms for industrial arms began to be possible in the 1980s, with the use of rare-earth magnetic materials.[1] The first direct-drive arm was built in 1981 at Carnegie Mellon University.[7] Today the most commonly used magnets are neodymium magnets.[8]

    Design[edit]

    Direct-drive systems are characterized by smooth torque transmission, and nearly-zero backlash.[9][10][11] The main[] benefits of a direct-drive system are increased efficiency (due to reduced power losses from the drivetrain components) and being a simpler design with fewer moving parts. Major benefits also include the ability to deliver high torque over a wide range of speeds, fast response, precise positioning, and low inertia.[12][13]

    The main drawback is that a special type of electric motor is often needed to provide high torque outputs at low rpm. Compared with a multi-speed transmission, the motor is usually operating in its optimal power band for a smaller range of output speeds for the system (e.g., road speeds in the case of a motor vehicle).

    Direct-drive mechanisms also need a more precise control mechanism. High-speed motors with speed reduction have relatively high inertia, which helps smooth the output motion. Most motors exhibit positional torque ripple known as cogging torque. In high-speed motors, this effect is usually negligible, as the frequency at which it occurs is too high to significantly affect system performance; units will suffer more from this phenomenon unless additional inertia is added (i.e. by a flywheel) or the system uses feedback to actively counter the effect.

    Applications[edit]

    Direct-drive mechanisms are used in applications ranging from low speed operation (such as phonographs, telescope mounts and ski lifts, video game racing wheels and gearless wind turbines)[14][15][16] to high speeds (such as fans, computer hard drives, VCR heads, sewing machines, CNC machines and washing machines.)

    Some electric railway locomotives have used direct-drive mechanisms, such as the 1919 Milwaukee Road class EP-2 and the 2007 East Japan Railway Company E331. Several cars from the late 19th century used direct-drive wheel hub motors, as did some concept cars in the early 2000s; however, most modern electric cars use inboard motor(s), where drive is transferred to the wheels, via the axles.[17][18]

    Some automobile manufacturers have managed to create their own unique direct-drive transmissions, such as the one Christian von Koenigsegg invented for the Koenigsegg Regera.[19]

    See also[edit]

    Belt-drive Chain-drive

    Comparison of direct-drive sim racing wheels

    Drive shaft Hubless wheel Linear motor

    Individual wheel drive

    References[edit]

    ^ Jump up to:

    Asada, H., & Kanade, T. (1983) in , Volume 105, Issue 3, pp.312-316

    ^ "Auto Repair - Maintenance, Troubleshooting and Car Repair Estimates".^ "Why the Porsche Taycan EV's Two-Speed Transmission Is a Big Deal".^ "What is a Direct Drive Motor | Electric Torque Machines". Archived from the original on 2018-11-10.^ P. Ransome-Wallis (2001) Illustrated Encyclopedia of World Railway Locomotives, p.63^ Roy V. Wright (ed.) (1938) Locomotive Cyclopedia of American Practice, section 16 "Diesel locomotives", 10th edition, Association of American Railroads - Mechanical Division, p.973^ Baichun Zhang, Marco Ceccarelli (Eds.) , p.292^ "What is a Strong Magnet?". . Adams Magnetic Products. October 5, 2012. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2012.^ Bruno Siciliano, Oussama Khatib (Eds., 2008) , p.80^ Robotics Technology Abstracts, Volume 4, Cranfield Press, 1985, p.362, quote: "direct drive. The direct coupling of motors eliminates backlash completely"^ United States Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals (1966) Board of Contract Appeals Decisions, Volume 66, Issue 1, p.764, published by Commerce Clearing House^ Uday Shanker Dixit, Manjuri Hazarika, J. Paulo Davim (2016) , ch.7 "History of Mechatronics", pp.160-161^ K. T. Chau Electric Vehicle Machines and Drives: Design, Analysis and Application, ch.8 "Vernier Permanent Magnet Motor Drives", p.227^ "Fanatec Release Details On Their(sic) Direct Drive Wheel - Inside Sim Racing". 4 June 2017.^ Patel, Prachi. "GE Grabs Gearless Wind Turbines". Technology Review (MIT). Archived from the original on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2011.^ Dvorak, Paul. "Direct drive turbine needs no gearbox". Windpower Engineering. Retrieved 7 April 2011.

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    Automobile Engineering Questions and Answers

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    Automobile Engineering - Set 8

    1.

    The crown wheel and pinion is called the

    A. Differential B. Rear axle C. Final drive D. Rear drive Answer: Option C 2.

    The purpose of sliding joint at the front end of the propeller shaft is to allow

    A. The shaft to be remove and fitted

    B. The drive to transmitted through a varying angle

    C. For the change in distance between the gear box and final drive

    D. For the variation in speed of the front universal joint

    Answer: Option C 3.

    A propeller shaft is tubular instead of solid because

    A. A solid shaft is weaker

    B. Its sag is smaller

    C. It is more rigid

    D. It resists wind up

    Answer: Option B 4.

    A universal joint which is constructed with two yokes joint by cross shaped truninion is a type called

    A. Hooker B. Layrub C. Doughnut

    D. Constant velocity

    Answer: Option A 5.

    A constant velocity universal joint is used at the

    A. Front end of the propeller shaft

    B. Rear end of the propeller shaft

    C. Road wheel end of the shaft on front wheel drive vehicle

    D. Differential end of the shaft on front wheel drive vehicle

    Answer: Option C 6.

    Direct drive in a gear box is generally obtained by connecting

    A. Together two gear of equal size

    B. The smallest main shaft gear to the main shaft gear

    C. The smallest layshaft pinion with larger main shaft gear

    D. The primary shaft to the main shaft by dog clutch

    Answer: Option D 7.

    In a sliding mesh gear box a small gear transfer the drive from a layshaft pinion to a main shaft wheel . the purpose of this small gear is to

    A. Dive the speedometer

    B. Obtain direct drive

    C. Lubricate the spogot

    D. Provide reverse motion

    Answer: Option D 8.

    Lubrication of a manual gear box is achieved by

    A. Submerging all gears in oil

    B. Immersing the layshaft in oil

    C. Connecting the oilways to the engine pump

    D. A pressure pump driven from the input shaft

    Answer: Option B 9.

    Which one of the following gear box types uses friction comes to equalize the speed of the member prior to the gear engagement

    A. Crash type

    B. Sliding mesh type

    C. Constant mesh type

    D. Synchromesh type Answer: Option D 10.

    The purpose of the interlocking plungers fitted between the gear box selector rods is to

    A. Slope the gear jumping out of mesh

    B. To hold the gear in the engage position

    C. To resist the reverse being engage when the vehicle is moving forward

    D. To prevent two gears being obtained at the same time

    Answer: Option D

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 set 5 »

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    Gear Box

    This set of Automobile Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Transmission System – Gear Box”. 1. Which of the following is the need of the gearbox? a) To vary the speed of the vehicle b) To vary the torque of the vehicle c) To vary the power of the vehicle d) To ... Read more

    Automobile Engineering Questions and Answers – Transmission System – Gear Box

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    This set of Automobile Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Transmission System – Gear Box”.

    1. Which of the following is the need of the gearbox?

    a) To vary the speed of the vehicle

    b) To vary the torque of the vehicle

    c) To vary the power of the vehicle

    d) To vary the acceleration of the vehicle

    View Answer

    2. In which type of manual transmission the double-declutching is used?

    a) Constant-mesh gearbox

    b) Sliding mesh gearbox

    c) Synchromesh gearbox

    d) Epicyclical gearbox

    View Answer

    3. In which of the gearbox all gears are always in contact?

    a) Constant-mesh gearbox

    b) Sliding mesh gearbox

    c) Synchromesh gearbox

    d) Epicyclical gearbox

    View Answer

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    4. In which of the gearbox sun and planet gear set is used?

    a) Constant-mesh gearbox

    b) Sliding mesh gearbox

    c) Synchromesh gearbox

    d) Epicyclical gearbox

    View Answer

    5. Where is the overdrive located?

    a) Between transmission and engine

    b) Between transmission and rear axle

    c) Between transmission and propeller shaft

    d) Between transmission and differential

    View Answer

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    6. Which of the following is not part of automatic transmission?

    a) Epicyclic gearbox

    b) Torque convertor

    c) Multi-plate clutch

    d) Sliding mesh gearbox

    View Answer

    7. In which of the configuration of epicyclic gearbox output will be forward and fast output speed?

    a) Sun gear stationary, ring gear driven, planet carrier driving

    b) Sun gear driving, ring gear driven, planet carrier stationary

    c) Sun gear driven, ring gear stationary, planet carrier driving

    d) Sun gear stationary, ring gear stationary, planet carrier driving

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    8. Which types of gears are used in constant mesh gearbox?

    a) Spur gear b) Helical gear c) Bevel gear d) Worm gear View Answer

    9. Why are the helical gears used commonly in transmission over spur gears?

    a) Low cost and high strength

    b) Low noise level and high strength

    c) Low noise level and economy

    d) Low noise level and low cost

    View Answer advertisement

    10. Increase of torque in a vehicle is obtained by decreasing power.

    a) True b) False View Answer

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    Do you want to see answer or more ?
    Mohammed 20 day ago
    4

    Guys, does anyone know the answer?

    0
    raghava 10 day ago

    Answer is

    The primary shaft to the main shaft by a dog clutch.

    Ans:

    Sol: As the vehicle moves over uneven surfaces, its assembly moves up and down due to expansion and compression of springs. This change the length of the propeller shaft because it is connected to the differential and gearbox. Sliding joint allows for the change in length of the propeller shaft.

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