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# distinguish between ideal and non ideal solution

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### Mohammed

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## What is the difference between Ideal and Non

Ideal solution obeys Raoult’s law for all the concentration and temperature ranges. Find differences between Ideal and Non-ideal Solution, only at BYJU’S.

Any homogeneous mixture of two or more components is known as a solution. The component, having the highest quantity in a solution is known as the solvent and it determines the physical state of the solution. Other components are known as solute. The solution with two components is known as a binary solution. The properties of a solution are expressed in terms of vapour pressure, boiling point, freezing point and other colligative properties.

The binary liquid in liquid solutions can be classified into two types; ideal and non-ideal solutions.

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## Ideal Solution

An ideal solution is a solution where the intermolecular interactions between solute-solute (A-A) and solvent-solvent (B-B) are similar to the interaction between solute-solvent (A-B). An ideal solution fulfils the following criteria:

It obeys Raoult’s law for all the concentration and temperature ranges. Which states that the partial vapour pressure of each component is proportional to the mole fraction of the component in a solution at a given temperature.

The enthalpy of mixing is zero, i.e. ΔHmix = 0. It means that no heat is absorbed or released.

The volume of mixing is zero, ΔVmix = 0. It means that the volume of the solution is equal to the sum of the volume of components.

The ideal solution is possible with components of the same size and polarity. There is no association, dissociation or reaction taking place between components. A perfect ideal solution is rare but some solutions are near to the ideal solution. Examples are Benzene and toluene, hexane and heptane, bromoethane and chloroethane, chlorobenzene and bromobenzene, etc.

## Non-ideal Solution

When a solution does not obey Raoult’s law for all the concentration and temperature ranges it is known as a non-ideal solution. A non-ideal solution may show positive or negative deviation from Raoult’s law. ΔHmix and ΔVmix for non-ideal solutions are not equal to zero.

a) Non-ideal solution showing positive deviation

Here the total vapour pressure is higher than that calculated from Raoult’s equation. The interaction between solute-solvent (A-B) is weaker than those of pure components (A-A or B-B). The ΔHmix and ΔVmix are positive. E.g. ethanol and acetone, carbon disulphide and acetone, acetone and benzene, etc.

b) Non-ideal solution showing negative deviation

Here the total vapour pressure is lower than that calculated from Raoult’s equation. The interaction between solute-solvent (A-B) is stronger than those of pure components (A-A or B-B). The ΔHmix and ΔVmix are negative. E.g. phenol and aniline, chloroform and acetone, etc.

## Difference between Ideal and Non-ideal Solution

The table below shows the main differences between Ideal and Non-ideal Solution:

Ideal Solution Non-ideal Solution Raoult’s Law

They obey Raoult’s law They do not obey Raoult’s law

Molecular Interactions

Intermolecular interaction between solute and solvent is the same as that of pure components Intermolecular interaction between solute and solvent is weaker or stronger than that of between pure components

Total Vapour Pressure

The total vapour pressure is the same as predicted from Raoult’s law The total vapour pressure increases or decreases from the predicted value according to Raoult’s law

Enthalpy of mixing

No heat is released or absorbed so the enthalpy of mixing is zero, ΔHmix = 0 Heat is either absorbed or released so the enthalpy of mixing is either positive or negative, ΔHmix ≠ 0

Volume of mixing

The total volume is equal to the sum of the volume of components (solute and solvent) so the volume of mixing is zero, ΔVmix = 0 The volume of mixing is not zero, ΔVmix ≠ 0. There is either expansion or contraction.

Separation of components

Components can be separated by fractional distillation Components can’t be separated in the pure form by fractional distillation

Azeotrope formation

Does not form an azeotrope Forms azeotrope mixture

Examples

Benzene and toluene, hexane and heptane, etc. All the dilute solutions nearly behave as an ideal solution Ethanol and acetone, carbon disulphide and acetone, phenol and aniline, chloroform and acetone, etc.

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## Distinguish between ideal and non

Distinguish between ideal and non-ideal solutions.

Distinguish between ideal and non-ideal solutions.

### SOLUTION

Ideal solutions Nonideal solutions

1. Ideal solutions obey Raoult’s law over entire range of concentrations. Nonideal solutions do not obey Raoult’s law over the entire range of concentrations.

2. The vapour pressure of ideal solution always lies between vapour pressures of pure components. The vapour pressures of these solutions can be higher or lower than those of pure components.

3. Solvent-solute, solute-solute and solvent-solvent molecular interactions are comparable. Solute-solvent intermolecular attractions may be weaker or stronger than those between solute-solute molecules and solvent-solvent molecules.

4. e.g. Benzene + toluene  e.g. Ethanol + acetone Carbon disulphide + acetone Phenol + aniline Chloroform + acetone

Concept: Vapour Pressure of Solutions of Liquids in Liquids

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## Write two differences between ideal and non

Write two differences between ideal and non-ideal solutions.. Ans: Hint:One of the crucial differences between ideal and non-ideal solutions is the extent of their obedience of Raoult’s law. With this in mind, try to distinguish between these two typ...

## Write two differences between ideal and non-ideal solutions.

Answer Verified 209.6k+ views 11 likes

Hint:One of the crucial differences between ideal and non-ideal solutions is the extent of their obedience of Raoult’s law. With this in mind, try to distinguish between these two types of solutions.Complete step by step answer:

The fundamental difference between an ideal and non-ideal solution is the application of Raoult’s law. So let us first understand what it is.

The law states that, the vapour pressure of a solution containing a non-volatile solute at a particular temperature is equal to the vapour pressure of pure solute at that particular temperature multiplied by the mole fraction of the solvent. Mathematically this can be represented as follows:

P solution =P ∘ × χ solvent

Psolution=P∘×χsolvent

Here: - P solution Psolution

is the vapour pressure of the solution.

- P ∘ P∘

is the vapour pressure of pure solvent.

- χ solvent χsolvent

is the mole fraction of the solvent. The formula for the same is :-

χ solvent = Moles of solvent

Total moles in the solution

χsolvent=Moles of solventTotal moles in the solution

Now, as we have covered the basics we can move on to the differences between ideal and non-ideal solution.

Ideal solution Non-ideal solution

1. It obeys Raoult’s law to the furthest extent possible. 1. Does not obey Raoult’s law.

2. The molecular attractions between solute and solvent particles are the same as that between solvent-solvent particles. 2. The molecular attraction is different between solute-solvent particles and that between solvent-solvent particles.

3. The proportion of solvent particles that change into their vapour forms remains unchanged even when solute particles are added.4. The liquid and vapour form of the solvent always remain in a dynamic equilibrium. 3. The vapour pressure of solvent significantly decreases when solute particles are added to the solvent.4. The equilibrium is quite disturbed because of the various forces of nature at play.

5. As more and more solute particles are added to the solution, there is a gradual decrease in vapour pressure, which if plotted in a graph gives a straight line. 5. The decrease in vapour pressure is not in a linear manner.

6. Ideal solutions can be converted into non-ideal solutions when the solute particles of different dimensions are put together in the solution. 6. Non-ideal solutions approach the properties of the ideal solutions when they are in extremely diluted conditions.

7. When two ideal solutions are mixed, there is no change in enthalpy or volume of the solution. 7. When two non-ideal solutions are mixed, the change in volume and enthalpy is very significant.

8. For example solutions of benzene-toluene, n hexane- n heptane and ethyl bromide-ethyl iodide. 8. For example solutions of sugar-water, alkane and kerosene etc.

Note:

Ideal solutions do not exist in practicality. This is because there are many factors that do not allow the solutions to behave ideally. Such as for a solution to be perfectly ideal, the size of the solute and solvent particles should be exactly equal; but this can only happen in real circumstances when both solute and solvent are the same compound chemically. But then that is not a solution.

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