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    Difference Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors

    What is the difference between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors? Read all about Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Semiconductors comparison on significant aspects.

    Difference Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors

    We have provided the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors listed in the table below.

    Key Differences Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors

    Intrinsic Semiconductors Extrinsic Semiconductors

    Semiconductor in its purest form.       Semiconductor in its impure form.

    It has low conductivity. It has a higher conductivity than an intrinsic semiconductor.

    The band gap between the conduction and valence bands is quite narrow. The energy gap is greater than that of an intrinsic semiconductor.

    Fermi level can be found in the forbidden energy gap. The presence of a Fermi level depends on the type of extrinsic semiconductor.

    Temperature alone determines electrical conductivity. Electrical conductivity in a pure semiconductor is affected by temperature as well as the quantity of impurity doping.

    Pure Silicon and Germanium crystalline forms are examples. Impurities such as As, Sb, P, In, Bi, Al, and others are doped with Germanium and Silicon atoms.

    What is an Intrinsic Semiconductor?

    An intrinsic semiconductor is made from an extremely pure semiconductor material, thus they are often referred to as pure semiconductors. These are fundamentally undoped semiconductors with no doped impurities. Intrinsic semiconductors have essentially no conductivity at ambient temperature. Because no other element is present in its crystalline form.

    Intrinsic semiconductors have essentially no conductivity at ambient temperature. Because no other element is present in its crystalline form. The periodic table's group IV elements combine to generate an inherent semiconductor. However, silicon and germanium are the most commonly used materials. This is because, in their instance, only a minimal amount of energy is required to break the covalent bond.

    What is an Extrinsic Semiconductor?

    Extrinsic semiconductors are those that have had an impurity supplied to them at a controlled rate in order to make them conductive. While insulating materials can be doped to form semiconductors, intrinsic semiconductors can also be doped to form extrinsic semiconductors. These are naturally extremely conductive. Extrinsic semiconductors, on the other hand, are of two types: p-type and n-type semiconductors.

    It is worth noting that the type of element doped to the pure semiconductor determines the categorization of the extrinsic semiconductor. By inserting group III elements or trivalent impurities into pure semiconductors, p-type semiconductors are created. Because a trivalent impurity contains just three electrons in its valence shell, it is also known as an acceptor impurity. The addition of group V elements or pentavalent impurities to a clean semiconductor produces n-type semiconductors. Because a pentavalent impurity has 5 electrons in its valence shell, these are known as donor impurities.

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    Distinguish Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductor. (Give Any Two Points).

    Distinguish Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductor. (Give Any Two Points).

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    Distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor. (Give any two points).

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    SOLUTION

    Intrinsic semiconductors Extrinsic semiconductors

    1) Semiconductor in the pure form is known as intrinsic

    semiconductor. The semiconductor, resulting from mixing of impurity in it, is known as extrinsic semiconductor

    2) Their conductivity is low Their conductivity is high.

    3) Its electrical conductivity is a

    function of temperature alone. Its electrical conductivity depends upon the temperature as well as on the quantity of impurity atoms doped in the structure

    4) The number of free electrons in conduction band is equal to the number of holes in valence

    band. In these semiconductors, number of free electrons and number of holes are unequal

    5) These are not practically used These are practically used

    6) In these, the Fermi energy level lies in the middle of valence band and conduction band. In these, the Fermi energy level shifts towards valence or conduction energy band.

    Concept: Extrinsic Semiconductor

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    Difference between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductor

    Difference between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductor - Semiconductor devices are extensively used in the field of electronics. A semiconductor is a substanc ...

    Difference between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductor

    DifferencesSemiconductor DeviceElectrical Engineering

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    Semiconductor devices are extensively used in the field of electronics. A semiconductor is a substance whose resistivity lies between conductors and insulators. Semiconductors have negative temperature co-efficient. The resistance in semiconductors increases with the decrease in temperature and vice versa. The conducting properties of a semiconductor changes, when a suitable metallic impurity is added to it.

    In this article, we will highlight the major differences between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors by considering different parameters such as doping level, conductivity, charge density, etc.

    What is an Intrinsic Semiconductor?

    A semiconductor material in its pure form is known as an intrinsic semiconductor. Thus, the intrinsic semiconductors are chemically pure, i.e. they are free from impurities.

    In case of intrinsic semiconductors, the number of charge carriers, i.e., holes and electrons are determined by the properties of the semiconductor material itself instead of the impurity. Also, the number of free electrons is equal to the number of holes in the intrinsic semiconductor. The common examples of the intrinsic semiconductors are germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si).

    What is an Extrinsic Semiconductor?

    When a small amount of chemical impurity is added to an intrinsic semiconductor, then the resulting semiconductor material is known as extrinsic semiconductor. The extrinsic semiconductor is also known as doped semiconductor. The process of adding impurity in the intrinsic semiconductor is known as doping. The doping of semiconductors increases their conductivity

    Based on the type of doping, the extrinsic semiconductors are classified into two types viz. N-type semiconductors and P-type semiconductors. When a pentavalent impurity is added to an intrinsic semiconductor, then the resulting semiconductor is termed as N-type semiconductor. On the other hand, when a trivalent impurity is added to a pure semiconductor, then the obtained semiconductor is known as P-type semiconductor.

    Difference between Intrinsic Semiconductor and Extrinsic Semiconductor

    The following table highlights the major differences between an intrinsic semiconductor and an extrinsic semiconductor −

    Parameter Intrinsic Semiconductor Extrinsic Semiconductor

    Definition The semiconductor in its pure form is known as intrinsic semiconductor. When a chemical impurity is added to an intrinsic semiconductor, then the resulting semiconductor is known as extrinsic semiconductor.

    Types There is no classification of intrinsic semiconductor. Based on the impurity added, the extrinsic semiconductors are of two types viz. P-type semiconductor and N-type semiconductor.

    Doping In case of intrinsic semiconductor, there is no doping or addition of impurity. In an extrinsic semiconductor, the doping is performed, i.e. a small amount of impurity is added in the pure semiconductor.

    Charge carrier density In an intrinsic semiconductor, the number of electrons is equal to number of holes. In case of extrinsic semiconductors, the number of holes and electrons are not equal. In a P-type semiconductor, the holes are more than electrons while in an N-type semiconductor, the electrons are more than holes.

    Conductivity The electrical conductivity of intrinsic semiconductors is low. The extrinsic semiconductors have high electrical conductivity.

    Dependency of conductivity The conductivity of intrinsic semiconductor is dependent on temperature only. The conductivity of extrinsic semiconductor is dependent on temperature as well as amount of impurity added.

    Conductivity at 0 Kelvin The intrinsic semiconductor does not conduct at 0 Kelvin temperature. The extrinsic semiconductor conducts at 0 Kelvin temperature.

    Cause of charge carrier production In the intrinsic semiconductors, the charge carriers are produced only due to thermal agitation. In case of extrinsic semiconductors, the charge carriers are produced due to thermal agitation as well as chemical impurities added to the semiconductor.

    Operating temperature Intrinsic semiconductors have low operating temperature. The operating temperature for extrinsic semiconductors is high.

    Fermi level At 0 Kelvin, the Fermi level in intrinsic semiconductors exactly lies between conduction band and valance band. At 0 Kelvin, the Fermi level in extrinsic semiconductor depends upon the types of semiconductor, i.e. in case of N-type semiconductor, it lies closer to conduction band and in the P-type semiconductor, it lies closer to valance band.

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