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    1951 Census of India

    1951 Census of India

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    1951 Census of India

    ← Pre-independence 1961 → General information Country India Results

    Total population 361,088,090 (13.32%)

    Most populous ​region Uttar Pradesh (60,274,800)

    Least populous ​region Sikkim (138,093)

    The 1951 Census of India was the ninth in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1872.[1] It is also the first census after independence and Partition of India.[2] 1951 census was also the first census to be conducted under 1948 Census of India Act. The first census of the Indian Republic began on February 10, 1951.[3]

    The population of India was counted as 361,088,090 (1:0.946 male:female)[4] Total population increased by 42,427,510, 13.31% more than the 318,660,580 people counted during the 1941 census.[5] No census was done for Jammu and Kashmir in 1951 and its figures were interpolated from 1941 and 1961 state census.[6] National Register of Citizens for Assam (NRC) was prepared soon after the census.[7][8] In 1951, at the time of the first population Census, just 18% of Indians were literate while life expectancy was 32 years.[9] Based on 1951 census of displaced persons, 7,226,000 Muslims went to Pakistan (both West and East Pakistan ) from India, while 7,249,000 Hindus and Sikhs moved to India from Pakistan (both West and East Pakistan).[10]


    1 Language demographics

    2 Religious demographics

    3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

    Language demographics[edit]

    Separate figures for Hindi, Urdu, and Punjabi were not issued, due to the fact the returns were intentionally recorded incorrect in states such as East Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, PEPSU, and Bilaspur.[11]

    Rank Language 1951 Census of India[11]

    Speakers Percentage

    1 Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi 149,944,311 42.01%

    2 Telugu 32,999,916 9.24%

    3 Marathi 27,049,522 7.57%

    4 Tamil 26,546,764 7.43%

    5 Bengali 25,121,674 7.03%

    6 Gujarati 16,310,771 4.57%

    7 Kannada 14,471,764 4.05%

    8 Malayalam 13,380,109 3.69%

    9 Odia 13,153,909 3.21%

    10 Assamese 4,988,226 1.39%

    Religious demographics[edit]

    Hindus comprised 305 million (84.1%), Sikhs were 6.86 million (1.9%) and Muslims were 35.4 million (9.8%) in the 1951 census.[2][12][13][a] 1951 Indian census showed that there were 8.3 million Christians.[12] Hindus comprised about 73 per cent of the population of India before partition and just after independence, Independent India in (1947) have roughly around 85 per cent Hindus.

    Population trends for major religious groups in India (1951)

    Religious group Population  % 1951

    Hinduism 84.1% Islam 9.8% Christianity 2.3% Sikhism 1.89% Buddhism 0.74%

    Animism, others 0.43%

    Jainism 0.46%

    See also[edit]

    India portal

    Census of India prior to independence

    1891 Census of India

    Demographics of India


    ^ Chennai-based Centre for Policy Studies states that the number of Muslims was 37.7 million (10.4%).[14]


    ^ Dr. M. Vijaynunni (26–29 August 1998). "Planning for the 2001 Census of India Based on the 1991 Census" (PDF). . Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Association of National Census and Statistics Directors of America, Asia, and the Pacific. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 November 2008. Retrieved 2013-11-08.

    ^ Jump up to:

    "India's religions by numbers". . 26 August 2015.

    ^ "HT This Day: Feb 10, 1951 -- First Census In Indian Republic Begins".^ "Census of India: Variation in Population since 1901". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2018-11-14.^ "Census data" (PDF). .^ "Budget data" (PDF). . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2014-07-01.^ "National Register of Citizens in Assam: Issue of illegal foreigners continues to be a major political one". . 14 June 2015.^ "Assam: Overhaul of National Register of Citizens sparks controversy". . 30 June 2015.^ Shashi Shekhar (13 August 2017). "Despite stains, democracy has thrived in India". .^ Vivek Shukla (14 August 2017). "When Muslims left Pakistan for India". .

    ^ Jump up to:

    Dasgupta, Jyotirindra (1970). . Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley. Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies. p. 47. ISBN 9780520015906.

    ^ Jump up to:

    "Muslims in Indian army". . 15 March 2010.

    ^ More citations:

    "Muslim population growth slows". . 25 August 2015.

    Abantika Ghosh; Vijaita Singh (24 January 2015). "Census: Hindu share dips below 80%, Muslim share grows but slower". .

    Aariz Mohammed (1–15 May 2013). "Demographic Dividend and Indian Muslims - i". .

    ^ Joshi, A. P.; Srinivas, M. D.; Bajaj, J. K. (2003), "Religious Demography of India" (PDF), , Centre for Policy Studies, p. 9

    Further reading[edit]

    Ponnapalli, Krishna Murthy; Ram, Faujdar (July 2010), (PDF), Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences, archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2012

    "Table 1.8: Population of India by Religion", , Ministry of Social justice and Empowerment, Government of India, archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2012

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    During The First Census Held After Independence, How Much Was The Total Population Of The Country? A) 27 Crore B) 36 Crore C) 47 Crore D) 61 Crore Show Answer Doubt Answers

    Get the answer to your question i.e. During the first census held after independence, how much was the total population of the country? A) 27 Crore B) 36 Crore C) 47 Crore D) 61 Crore Show Answer by Subject Matter Expert at Safalta for better learning. To learn more on this topic please register with us

    Rainbow Rainbow Class 10th Maths 2022-08-04 21:02:31

    During the first census held after independence, how much was the total population of the country? A) 27 Crore B) 36 Crore C) 47 Crore D) 61 Crore Show Answer

    1 Answer Dileep vishwakarma


    The first census after independence was held in 1951 and total population of India was 36 Crore.

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    First Census of India after independence was done in 1951. Know more about the history of census in India.

    The first complete census of an Indian city was done for Dacca (now in Bangladesh) by Henry Walter in 1830. In 1866-67, actual counting of heads was taken in most parts of the country and this came to be known as the Census of 1872. Read to know more about this and other important events that took place on this day in history in this article. For Civil Services Examination 2022 preparation, follow BYJU'S

    IAS PreparationThis Day in HistoryThis Day In History Feb - 09

    First Census of India - [February 9, 1951] This Day in History

    The first Census of Independent India began on 9 February 1951 and enumeration continued till 28 February 1951. The country’s population was counted as 36,10,88,090. Census is conducted every 10 years and so far it has been conducted 15 times, as of 2011. All censuses are conducted under the 1948 Census of India Act.

    Aspirants would find this article very helpful while preparing for the IAS Exam.

    UPSC Previous Year Questions now!!PIB Summary and AnalysisStay updated with Current AffairsDownload UPSC Notes PDF for FreeGS 1 Structure, Structure and SyllabusGS 2 Structure, Strategy and SyllabusGS 3 Structure, Strategy and SyllabusGS 4 Structure, Strategy and SyllabusTopic-wise GS 1 Questions for UPSC MainsTopic-wise GS 2 Questions for UPSC MainsTopic-wise GS 3 Questions for UPSC MainsTake the IAS Mock TestsDownload the NCERT Notes PDF for Free

    First Census of Independent India – Background

    India has a long history of the census. Even the literature from the Rig Veda reveals that population count was taken during those periods. Chanakya’s Arthashastra also indicates the importance of taking the census as a measure for taxation. In the middle ages, the Mughal Empire during the reign of Akbar also had some sort of population count.

    In the modern era, the census began with the British authorities holding census for the town of Allahabad in 1824. After that in 1827-28, Benares also had a census.

    The first complete census of an Indian city was done for Dacca (now in Bangladesh) by Henry Walter in 1830.

    Similarly, different regions had their census taken in various years. In 1865, the government of India decided that a general census of the country would be taken in 1871.

    In 1866-67, actual counting of heads was taken in most parts of the country and this came to be known as the Census of 1872. Not all territories were covered under this though. In this first nation-wide census, 17 questions were asked pertaining to name, age, religion, caste/class, nationality or race, ability to read/write, and whether attended school or college. Males were asked a separate question on occupation also.

    After that every ten years, the regular census has been conducted by the government.

    1941 saw the last census before independence. After India attained independence, the Bhore Committee recommended the government to appoint a Registrar General of Vital and Population Statistics at the central and the provincial levels.

    As per the Committee’s recommendations, the Census Act came into effect in 1948. The 1951 census was conducted in accordance with this act.

    The 1951 census’s enumeration period was from 9th to 28th February. Questions were asked pertaining to an individual’s name, age, religion, sex, relationship, economic status, principal and subsidiary means of livelihood, mother tongue and literacy.

    The National Register of Citizens of India (NRC) was prepared after this census.

    The whole state of Jammu & Kashmir was omitted during this census and the data for this state was taken based on past figures.

    This census revealed the population of the country to be 36,10,88,090. The male to female ratio was 1: 0.946.

    Only 18% of the population was literate and the average life expectancy was a mere 32 years.

    As per this census, 72,26,000 people migrated to Pakistan and 72,49,000 people migrated to India during the partition of India.

    The last census was taken in 2011.

    Also on this day1929: Birth of Abdul Rahman Antulay, former Chief Minister of Maharashtra.

    See previous ‘This Day in History’ here.

    Also see:

    Census of India 2011: Key Facts and Data

    Socio-Economic Caste Census

    Socio-economic caste census (SECC): A step in the right direction?

    The above details would help candidates prepare for UPSC 2022.

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