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    The Five Stages of Team Development

    The Five Stages of Team Development

    LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Describe the five stages of team development.

    Explain how team norms and cohesiveness affect performance.

    Introduction

    Our discussion so far has focused mostly on a team as an entity, not on the individuals inside the team. This is like describing a car by its model and color without considering what is under the hood. External characteristics are what we see and interact with, but internal characteristics are what make it work. In teams, the internal characteristics are the people in the team and how they interact with each other.

    For teams to be effective, the people in the team must be able to work together to contribute collectively to team outcomes. But this does not happen automatically: it develops as the team works together. You have probably had an experience when you have been put on a team to work on a school assignment or project. When your team first gets together, you likely sit around and look at each other, not knowing how to begin. Initially you are not a team; you are just individuals assigned to work together. Over time you get to know each other, to know what to expect from each other, to know how to divide the labor and assign tasks, and to know how you will coordinate your work. Through this process, you begin to operate as a team instead of a collection of individuals.

    Stages of Team Development

    This process of learning to work together effectively is known as team development. Research has shown that teams go through definitive stages during development. Bruce Tuckman, an educational psychologist, identified a five-stage development process that most teams follow to become high performing. He called the stages: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Team progress through the stages is shown in the following diagram.

    Most high-performing teams go through five stages of team development.

    Forming stage

    The forming stage involves a period of orientation and getting acquainted. Uncertainty is high during this stage, and people are looking for leadership and authority. A member who asserts authority or is knowledgeable may be looked to take control. Team members are asking such questions as “What does the team offer me?” “What is expected of me?” “Will I fit in?” Most interactions are social as members get to know each other.

    Storming stage

    The storming stage is the most difficult and critical stage to pass through. It is a period marked by conflict and competition as individual personalities emerge. Team performance may actually decrease in this stage because energy is put into unproductive activities. Members may disagree on team goals, and subgroups and cliques may form around strong personalities or areas of agreement. To get through this stage, members must work to overcome obstacles, to accept individual differences, and to work through conflicting ideas on team tasks and goals. Teams can get bogged down in this stage. Failure to address conflicts may result in long-term problems.

    Norming stage

    If teams get through the storming stage, conflict is resolved and some degree of unity emerges. In the norming stage, consensus develops around who the leader or leaders are, and individual member’s roles. Interpersonal differences begin to be resolved, and a sense of cohesion and unity emerges. Team performance increases during this stage as members learn to cooperate and begin to focus on team goals. However, the harmony is precarious, and if disagreements re-emerge the team can slide back into storming.

    Performing stage

    In the performing stage, consensus and cooperation have been well-established and the team is mature, organized, and well-functioning. There is a clear and stable structure, and members are committed to the team’s mission. Problems and conflicts still emerge, but they are dealt with constructively. (We will discuss the role of conflict and conflict resolution in the next section). The team is focused on problem solving and meeting team goals.

    Adjourning stage

    In the adjourning stage, most of the team’s goals have been accomplished. The emphasis is on wrapping up final tasks and documenting the effort and results. As the work load is diminished, individual members may be reassigned to other teams, and the team disbands. There may be regret as the team ends, so a ceremonial acknowledgement of the work and success of the team can be helpful. If the team is a standing committee with ongoing responsibility, members may be replaced by new people and the team can go back to a forming or storming stage and repeat the development process.

    Team Norms and Cohesiveness

    When you have been on a team, how did you know how to act? How did you know what behaviors were acceptable or what level of performance was required? Teams usually develop norms that guide the activities of team members. Team norms set a standard for behavior, attitude, and performance that all team members are expected to follow. Norms are like rules but they are not written down. Instead, all the team members implicitly understand them. Norms are effective because team members want to support the team and preserve relationships in the team, and when norms are violated, there is peer pressure or sanctions to enforce compliance.

    स्रोत : courses.lumenlearning.com

    Stages Of Team Development Quiz

    In a workplace, it is highly recommended that you operate as a team so that the daily operations run smoothly. This 'Stage of team development' quiz is ...

    Stages Of Team Development Quiz

    10 Questions | Total Attempts: 18973

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    In a workplace, it is highly recommended that you operate as a team so that the daily operations run smoothly. This 'Stage of team development' quiz is designed to test your knowledge about team development practices and rules. To those of you who think you have good knowledge of this subject, should definitely take this quiz and see how well you can score. All you have to do is answer a few simple questions. So, are you ready to start the quiz?

    Questions and Answers

    1.

    Which of the following questions would be asked during the performing stage of team development?

    A.

    “What is the ideal way for our group to function most effectively?”

    B.

    “How fast can we bring new team members up to speed?”

    C.

    “Can I trust the other team members?”

    D.

    “Who has the most power to influence people on this team?”

    2.

    Which of the following group development stages finds members being more tolerant of each other and accepting of the diverse perspectives and personalities that each member brings to the group?

    A. Forming B. Storming C. Norming D. Performing 3.

    During this stage of team development, members may find that their initial expectations of the team are far different than the realities of trying to accomplish something together.

    A. Forming B. Storming C. Norming D. Transforming 4.

    During which group development stage would a recap meeting be held?

    A. Forming B. Storming C. Performing D. Transforming 5.

    Which of the following is not a question that individuals may ask during the forming stage of team development?

    A.

    “Why am I on this team, and how will I fit in?”

    B.

    “How will I benefit from working on this team?”

    C.

    “How can we best measure progress towards our goals?”

    D.

    “Are the team’s goals the same as mine?”

    6. Define forming. A.

    Team members learn to cooperate and support one another while establishing patterns of communication and behavior.

    B.

    Individuals become members of a group, are anxious about their roles and responsibilities, and are hesitant to participate in discussions.

    C.

    The group is preparing to disband or is facing major changes in its mission, membership, or environment. Members often regress to unproductive team behaviors.

    D.

    The team functions at its highest level of productivity and the focus of each member shifts from individual to group concerns.

    E.

    Marked by conflict within the group as team members push boundaries and challenge authority in attempt to clarify the team’s goals, values, and norms.

    7. What is storming? A.

    Team members learn to cooperate and support one another while establishing patterns of communication and behavior.

    B.

    Individuals become members of a group, are anxious about their roles and responsibilities, and are hesitant to participate in discussions.

    C.

    The group is preparing to disband or is facing major changes in its mission, membership, or environment. Members often regress to unproductive team behaviors.

    D.

    The team functions at its highest level of productivity and the focus of each member shifts from individual to group concerns.

    E.

    Marked by conflict within the group as team members push boundaries and challenge authority in attempt to clarify the team’s goals, values, and norms.

    8. What is norming? A.

    Team members learn to cooperate and support one another while establishing patterns of communication and behavior.

    B.

    Individuals become members of a group, are anxious about their roles and responsibilities, and are hesitant to participate in discussions.

    C.

    The group is preparing to disband or is facing major changes in its mission, membership, or environment. Members often regress to unproductive team behaviors.

    D.

    The team functions at its highest level of productivity and the focus of each member shifts from individual to group concerns.

    E.

    Marked by conflict within the group as team members push boundaries and challenge authority in attempt to clarify the team’s goals, values, and norms.

    9. Define performing. A.

    Marked by conflict within the group as team members push boundaries and challenge authority in attempt to clarify the team’s goals, values, and norms.

    B.

    Team members learn to cooperate and support one another while establishing patterns of communication and behavior.

    C.

    Individuals become members of a group, are anxious about their roles and responsibilities, and are hesitant to participate in discussions.

    D.

    The group is preparing to disband or is facing major changes in its mission, membership, or environment. Members often regress to unproductive team behaviors.

    E.

    The team functions at its highest level of productivity and the focus of each member shifts from individual to group concerns.

    स्रोत : www.proprofs.com

    The 5 Stages of Team Development DEFINED [+ Expert Advice]

    To ensure the team runs as smoothly as possible, and goals are hit, it’s in everyone's best interest to implement these stages of team development.

    Learn how to run great 1:1 meetings from expert Engineering Leaders (Oct 6th)

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    The 5 Stages of Team Development DEFINED [+ Expert Advice]

    Mara Calvello 04/21/2021 7 minute read

    Team development will have your team be as successful and as high performing as possible. Learn how these 5 stages will create a high-functioning unit.

    We’ve all heard the phrase “teamwork makes the dream work.”

    And although it may be slightly cliche, there’s a lot of truth to it. When you’re on a team full of high performers and go-getters, even the most daunting of goals or end-result becomes a lot easier to face head-on and accomplish.

    Of course, working on a cohesive team can sometimes be a struggle. There are a lot of different personalities, work preferences, senses of humor, and work preferences to consider. To ensure the team runs as smoothly as possible, and goals are hit, it’s in everyone’s best interest to implement the five stages of team development: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

    If you’re new to this concept, you’re not alone. Let’s break it down!

    Where do “Forming, Storming, …” come from?

    5 stages of team development

    Why group development is important

    How to help your team advance

    There’s no i in team

    Where do “Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning” come from?

    The terms we use for the stages of team development were developed by Bruce Tuckman, an educational psychologist, who published his findings in a paper titled Developmental Sequence in Small Groups in 1965. His theory, which is referred to as Tuckman’s Stages, is centered around his research on the dynamics of teams and team building. His common belief of team development that the stages are all necessary for a group to work together as effectively together as possible in order to see success.

    While his work started with only the first four stages, in 1977 Tuckman and his doctoral student Mary Ann Jensen added the fifth stage, adjourning, to indicate when a team has completed a project.

    Each of these five stages clearly represents a step that teams go through, from start to finish, to work on a project as they complete all of the necessary steps and tasks for it to be a success.

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    5 stages of team development

    Now that we know where the stages come from, let’s break down the ins and outs of each stage and what you can expect from your team in each.

    Forming 

    The first stage is forming, which is when the members within the team first come together to meet. It can be considered the period of orientation when everyone is getting to know one another and becoming acquainted.

    Think of the forming stage like the first day of school or the first day at a new job. There’s excitement in the air and everyone is ready to roll up their sleeves and get started on the project. Usually, group dynamics and roles have yet to be established, a team leader will typically emerge and take charge and direct the individual members.

    The forming stage is also where team members discuss things like:

    Team goals Individual roles Strategy Ground rules

    Storming

    Next up is storming. Stage two of five is considered the most critical but also the most difficult to go through. It can be riddled with conflict as the individual personalities and work styles clash within the team. It’s also common for team performance to dip a bit in the storming stage as members can sometimes disagree on goals, strategy, responsibilities, and roles. Also, keep an eye out for subgroups or cliques that can begin to form during this stage.

    In order to not get bottlenecked in the storming stage, members have to work together and play to each other’s strengths to overcome obstacles and stay on pace. Also, take the time to address and overcome conflicts early on so they don’t stay an issue throughout the other phases.

    Think of this phase like when you move in with a friend you’ve never lived with before, and you slowly start to notice the little things about them that get on your nerves. The same is likely to happen with members of your team. While some teams think they can skip this stage, it’s important to dive into it with the expectation that there may be some conflict.

    Norming 

    Once you’ve weathered the storm, pun intended, your team can move into norming. Here, team members have figured out how to work together and there’s no more conflict or internal competitions lingering.

    Unity is upon everyone and a consensus develops around who the leaders are, what everyone’s role is, and what comes next. There’s also a sense of bonding between the team and is more familiar with each other’s personalities and sense of humor. There should also be a sense of comfort in the norming stage when giving constructive feedback through online forms, or asking for help as you work through various tasks.

    Performing 

    Next up is the performing stage, which tends to be where there is the most cohesive work environment, people are happy and excited, and team performance is at an all-time high. There’s a clear and stable structure in place throughout the group and everyone is fully committed to achieving the goals put in place.  In the performing stage, there’s a sense of focus, purpose, and alignment from everyone on the team, no matter their role.

    स्रोत : fellow.app

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