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    Your Kidneys & How They Work

    Learn how your kidneys filter blood, why kidneys are important, and how kidneys help maintain a healthy balance of water, salts, and minerals in your body.

    Your Kidneys & How They Work

    On this page:

    Why are the kidneys important?

    How do my kidneys work?

    How does blood flow through my kidneys?

    Clinical Trials

    The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of your spine.

    Healthy kidneys filter about a half cup of blood every minute, removing wastes and extra water to make urine. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through two thin tubes of muscle called ureters, one on each side of your bladder. Your bladder stores urine. Your kidneys, ureters, and bladder are part of your urinary tract.

    You have two kidneys that filter your blood, removing wastes and extra water to make urine.

    Why are the kidneys important?

    Your kidneys remove wastes and extra fluid from your body. Your kidneys also remove acid that is produced by the cells of your body and maintain a healthy balance of water, salts, and minerals—such as sodium, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium—in your blood.

    Without this balance, nerves, muscles, and other tissues in your body may not work normally.

    Your kidneys also make hormones that help

    control your blood pressure

    make red blood cells

    keep your bones strong and healthy

    Watch a video about what the kidneys do External link.

    How do my kidneys work?

    Each of your kidneys is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron includes a filter, called the glomerulus, and a tubule. The nephrons work through a two-step process: the glomerulus filters your blood, and the tubule returns needed substances to your blood and removes wastes.

    Each nephron has a glomerulus to filter your blood and a tubule that returns needed substances to your blood and pulls out additional wastes. Wastes and extra water become urine.

    The glomerulus filters your blood

    As blood flows into each nephron, it enters a cluster of tiny blood vessels—the glomerulus. The thin walls of the glomerulus allow smaller molecules, wastes, and fluid—mostly water—to pass into the tubule. Larger molecules, such as proteins and blood cells, stay in the blood vessel.

    The tubule returns needed substances to your blood and removes wastes

    A blood vessel runs alongside the tubule. As the filtered fluid moves along the tubule, the blood vessel reabsorbs almost all of the water, along with minerals and nutrients your body needs. The tubule helps remove excess acid from the blood. The remaining fluid and wastes in the tubule become urine.

    How does blood flow through my kidneys?

    Blood flows into your kidney through the renal artery. This large blood vessel branches into smaller and smaller blood vessels until the blood reaches the nephrons. In the nephron, your blood is filtered by the tiny blood vessels of the glomeruli and then flows out of your kidney through the renal vein.

    Your blood circulates through your kidneys many times a day. In a single day, your kidneys filter about 150 quarts of blood. Most of the water and other substances that filter through your glomeruli are returned to your blood by the tubules. Only 1 to 2 quarts become urine.

    Unfiltered blood flows into your kidneys through the renal artery and filtered blood exits through your renal vein. The ureter carries urine from the kidney to your bladder.

    Clinical Trials

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions.

    What are clinical trials, and are they right for you?

    Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for you .

    What clinical trials are open?

    Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov .

    Last Reviewed June 2018

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    This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

    स्रोत : www.niddk.nih.gov

    GK Questions and Answers on Kidney and its diseases

    Let us find out the symptoms of kidney disease, function of kidney, how it works, and what is kidney failure etc.

    GK Questions and Answers on Kidney and its diseases

    Kidney is the excretory organ of human being which helps in removing toxic waste material from the body. It also regulates minerals in our body. This article deals about kidneys, its function, diseases etc. in the form of questions and answers which will help you to understand the symptoms of the people suffering from kidney disease and also enhance your knowledge.

    Shikha Goyal Updated: Jul 22, 2019 11:04 IST

    Kidney and its diseases

    The process of removal of toxic wastes from the body of an organism is called excretion. Excretion takes place in plants as well as in animals. The excretory system of human beings consists of two kidneys, two Ureters, Bladder and   Urethra.  Kidneys are bean shaped organ present at the back of our body just above the waist. Its function is to remove toxic, poisonous substance urea, other waste salts and excess of water from blood and excrete them in the form of yellowish liquid called urine.

    1. What is the function of Kidney?

    A. It cleans blood by filtering it and removes waste products.

    B. It regulates minerals in the body and produce hormones.

    C. Both A and B are correct

    D. Only A is correct

    Ans. C

    The main function of kidney is to remove poisonous substance like urea, other waste salts and excess water from the blood and excrete them in the form of urine. It produces rennin hormone that helps in controlling blood pressure.

    2. What is the shape of the kidney?

    A. It is an oval shaped organ.

    B. It is bean shaped organ

    C. It is rectangular in shape.

    D. It has no fixed shape.

    Ans. B

    The kidneys are bean shaped organs towards the back of our body just above the waist.

    What is Blood Pressure and how it is measured?3. Removal of waste from our body is due to the process of:

    A. Excretion B. Respiration C. Exhalation

    D. Double Circulation

    Ans. A

    Due to excretion waste is removed from our body with the help of organs. Kidney excrete urea and lungs carbon dioxide.

    4. If a person is put on dialysis, he is suffering from:

    A. Heart disease B. Kidney disease

    C. Respiratory problem

    D. None of the above

    Ans. B

    The procedure used for cleaning the blood of a person by separating the waste substance urea from it is called dialysis.

    5. What are the symptoms of suffering from kidney disease?

    A. High blood pressure

    B. Respiration problem

    C. Swelling on face, legs etc

    D. All of the above

    Ans. D

    At early stage kidney disease has no signs and symptoms. Gradually if a person is suffering from this disease then he or she will face problems like High blood Pressure, swelling in legs and face, Breathing problem, Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, back pain etc.

    6. Name the excretory unit in the human excretory system?

    A. Neuron B. Nephron C. Nephridia D. Nerve

    Ans. B

    Each kidney is made up of a large number of excretory units called nephrons.

    Do you know which Human Body Organs can be donated7. When bowman’s capsule and tubule taken together in kidney forms:

    A. Capillaries B. Nephron C. Glomerulus

    D. Urine Collecting duct

    Ans. B

    The Bowman’s capsule and the tubule taken together make a nephron.

    8. The best long term solution for kidney failure is:

    A. Kidney transplant

    B. Dialysis C. Both A and B D. Neither A nor B

    Ans. A

    Complete failure of the kidneys allows the urea and other waste products to build up in the blood. The best long term solution for kidney failure is the kidney transplant. In this the damaged kidney is removed and matching kidney donated by a healthy person is transplanted in its place by a surgical operation.

    9. The excretory system of human being consists of the following organs:

    A. Two kidneys and ureter

    B. Bladder C. Urethra D. All of the above

    Ans. D

    The excretory system in human beings collects the liquid wastes of the body and helps it get rid of them. It consists of two kidneys, two ureters, bladder and urethra.

    10. Where Kidneys are present in our body?

    A. At back, just above the waist.

    B. At back, behind  lungs

    C. Near belly button

    D. Behind pancreas gland

    Ans. A

    Kidneys are present on either side of spine at the lowest level of rib cage in a remote part of abdomen partially covered by ribs.

    Excretory System in Humans

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    Name the excretory unit of a kidney.

    Name the excretory unit of a kidney. - Get the answer to this question and access a vast question bank that is tailored for students.

    Academic QuestionsBiology QuestionsName The Excretory Unit Of A Kidney

    Name the excretory unit of a kidney.

    Nephron or uriniferous tubule is the excretory unit in the kidney. The process of removal of toxic waste from the body of an organism is called excretion. The production of urine is carried out by Nephron, and it is known as the primary unit of homeostasis. The main functions of Nephron include filtration of blood, reabsorption and secretion.

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