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    Environment protection and the India's Eleventh Five

    Request PDF | Environment protection and the India's Eleventh Five-Year Plan | Important feature of any environmental strategy is that environmental objectives require action in several areas, which typically lie in the... | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate


    Environment protection and the India's Eleventh Five-Year Plan

    March 2011 Authors:

    Prakash Shankar Kamble

    Shivaji University, Kolhapur

    B.D. Awaghade

    To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.


    Important feature of any environmental strategy is that environmental objectives require action in several areas, which typically lie in the purview of different ministries. The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) has the important role of monitoring the development process and its environmental impact in a perspective of sustainable development and to devise suitable regulatory structures to achieve the desired results. While this role is crucial, environmental objectives can only be achieved if environmental concerns are internalized in policy making in a large number of sectors. This would require sharing of responsibility at all levels of government and across sectors with respect to monitoring of pollution, enforcement of regulations and development of programmes for mitigation and abatement. The Eleventh Five Year Plan of India has taken the due note of the concerns in terms of threat to food security due to degradation of land, forest and overexploitation of groundwater, lack of access of the community to basic services particularly energy, drinking water, sanitation facilities, low level of socio-economic development, high incident of unemployment, stagnant infant mortality and under-nourishment amongst children and the deterioration in quality of life. There is a pathoply of evidence to indicate that poverty reduction and sustainable economic growth is undetermined by degradation of soil, scarcity of freshwater, over-exploitation of costal ecosystems, loss of forest cover, biodiversity as genetic, species and ecosystem level, and long term change in the climate. The Eleventh Plan, therefore, marks a paradigm shift as it visualizes that economic growth alone is not the objective of national planning and the development objective not to be GDP of per capita income, and to promote grater participation of the community in the decision making process. The eleventh plan has indicated the monitorable targets as indicators of human development as well as the human welfare as the determinant factor of the development strategy. The study of provisions regarding protection of the environment in XI th Five Year Plan reveals that definitely some attempts will be made in Indian economy to protect the environment. But it seems those are not adequate. Some additional provisions and efforts are necessary. This plan does not much talk on the problem of air pollution and noise pollution, which are very much important in urban areas and have very bad consequences. The plan also does not consider what can be role of the private, cooperative sectors and NGOs in the protection of the environment. Likewise, what responsibility a city in our country is expected to discharge concerning environment protection. The plan also lacks in providing for the problems of climate change and global warming.

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    स्रोत : www.researchgate.net

    Environmental issues in India

    Environmental issues in India

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    A satellite picture, taken in 2004, shows thick haze and smog along the Ganges Basin in northern India. More sources of aerosols in this area are believed to be smoke from biomass burning in the northwest part of India, and air pollution from large cities in northern India since the 1980s. Dust from deserts in Pakistan and the Middle East may also contribute to the mix of aerosols.

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    Solid waste adds to water pollution in India, 2005

    There are multiple environmental issues in India. Air pollution, water pollution, garbage, domestically prohibited goods and pollution of the natural environment are all challenges for India. Nature is also causing some drastic effects on India. The situation was worse between 1947 through 1995. According to data collected and environmental assessments studied by World Bank experts, between 1995 through 2010, India has made some of the fastest progress in addressing its environmental issues and improving its environmental quality in the world.[1][2] However, Pollution still remains a major challenge and opportunity for the country.

    Environmental issues are one of the primary causes of disease, health issues and long term livelihood impact for India.

    Law and policies[edit]

    Main articles: Environmental policy of India and Indian environmental law

    British rule of India saw several laws related to the environment. Amongst the earliest ones were Shore Nuisance (Bombay and Kolkata) Act of 1853 and the Oriental Gas Company Act of 1857. The Indian Penal Code of 1860, imposed a fine on anyone who voluntarily fouls the water of any public spring or reservoir. In addition, the Code penalised negligent acts. British India also enacted laws aimed at controlling air pollution. Prominent amongst these were the Bengal Smoke Nuisance Act of 1905 and the Bombay Smoke Nuisance Act of 1912. Whilst these laws failed in having the intended effect, British-enacted legislations pioneered the growth of environmental regulations in India.

    Upon independence from Britain, India adopted a constitution and numerous British-enacted laws, without any specific constitutional provision on protecting the environment. India amended its constitution in 1976. Article 48(A) of Part IV of the amended constitution, read: The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. Article 51 A (g) imposed additional environmental mandates on the Indian state.

    Other Indian laws from recent history include the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974, the Forest (Conservation) Act of 1980, and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1981. The Air Act was inspired by the decisions made at Stockholm Conference. The Bhopal gas tragedy triggered the Government of India to enact the Environment (Protection) Act of 1986. India has also enacted a set of Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules in 2000.

    In 1985, the Indian government created the Ministry of Environment and Forests. This ministry is the central administrative organisation in India for regulating and ensuring environmental protection.

    Despite the active passage of laws by the central government of India, the reality of environmental quality mostly worsened between 1947 and 1990. Rural poor had no choice, but to sustain life in whatever way possible. Air emissions increased, water pollution worsened, forest cover decreased.

    Starting in the 1990s, reforms were introduced. Since then, for the first time in Indian history, major air pollutant concentrations have dropped in every 5-year period. Between 1992 and 2010, satellite data confirms India's forest coverage has increased for the first time by over 4 million hectares, a 7% increase.[3] In August 2019, the Indian government imposed a nationwide ban on single-use plastics that will take effect on 2 Oct.[4]

    Possible causes[edit]

    Some have cited economic development as the cause regarding the environmental issues. It is suggested that India's growing population is the primary cause of India's environmental degradation. Empirical evidence from countries such as Japan, England and Singapore, each with population density similar to or higher than that of India, yet each enjoying environmental quality vastly superior to India's, suggests population density may not be the only factor affecting India's issues.[5]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Importance of Five Year Plan in India

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    Importance of Five Year Plan in India

    Last Updated : 05 Jan, 2023

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    In 1928, Joseph Stalin implemented the first-ever five-year plan in the Soviet Union (Russia). Several capitalist and communist nations adopted the concept and later devised their schemes. After the Second World War, many developing countries turned to economic planning. These plans, typically five years, would analyze the state of the economy and include investment and expenditure plans for almost every area, from transport and energy to agriculture and industry. The Indian economy was in shambles when it attained freedom. The Indian economy was hamstrung by British rule; therefore, the fathers of development created a 5-year plan to develop it. The Planning Commission of India draughts oversees and evaluates the five-year plan in India. The planning ideology sustained the Indian economy from 1947 to 2017. The Planning Commission (1951–2014) and the NITI Aayog created, carried out, and supervised this through the Five-Year Plans (2015-2017). The new government abolished the Planning Commission, headed by Narendra Modi. He was elected in 2014 and replaced with the NITI Aayog (an acronym for National Institution for Transforming India).

    Economic development is the primary focus of Indian planning. India’s economic development is measured by its rising Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and per capita income.

    Increment of number in Employment: A key goal for economic planning in India is to increase employment to utilize the nation’s human resources better.

    Planning in India has always emphasized social justice, which is connected to all other set targets. It attempts to decrease the number of poor individuals and give them access to social services and work.

    Raising the quality of life through increased per capita income and equitable income distribution is one of India’s primary economic expected outcomes.

    Social Welfare and the Provision of Efficient Social Services: Increasing labor welfare and social welfare for all socioeconomic sectors is one of the goals of all five-year plans and programs recommended by the NITI Aayog. Planning in India has included developing social services like healthcare, education, and emergency services.Reducing Economic Inequality: Since independence, India’s economic planning has placed a strong emphasis on measures that will reduce inequality through progressive taxation, job creation, and job reservation.

    Through careful economic planning, India wants to grow exports and achieve self-sufficiency in key commodities. During the third five-year plan, from 1961 to 1966, the Indian economy reached the take-off stage of development.

    Economic Stability: In addition to the country’s overall economic growth, India’s economic planning also attempts to maintain stable market conditions. This entails preventing price deflation but simultaneously maintaining a modest level of inflation. Economic planning seeks to prevent structural flaws in the system from being caused by extremely high or extremely low wholesale price index increases.Comprehensive and Sustainable Development: One of the main goals of economic planning is the development of all economic sectors, including agriculture, industry, and services.Regional Development: India’s economic planning tries to lessen development gaps between regions. For instance, whereas states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, Orissa, and Nagaland are economically underdeveloped, others like Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu have more advanced economies. Others, including Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, have had unequal development, with world-class economic hubs in their cities and a hinterland that has seen less growth. Planning in India seeks to understand these gaps and offer solutions.

    Growth of economy

    Economic equity and social justice

    Full employment

    Economic self-reliance

    Modernization of the economy

    Regional development

    Social welfare

    Standard of living increased

    Sustainable development

    In the 1940s and 1950s, the concept of planning as a method for restoring the economy rose to popularity.

    In 1944, a group of industrialists collaborated to create a proposal for establishing a planned economy in India. It is well-known as the Bombay Plan.

    After the country attained independence, planning for development was considered an important decision.

    In the Soviet Union, the Five-Year Plan was first implemented in 1928 by Joseph Stalin.

    After gaining its independence, India began a series of five-year plans to strengthen its economy.

    One of the most significant plans was the First Five Year Plans, which were essential to the beginning of Indian development following Independence.

    Jawaharlal Nehru, the country’s first prime minister, gave the First Five-Year Plan to the Indian Parliament.

    The First Five-Year Plan was based mainly on the Harrod-Domar paradigm. The total plan budget of Rs. 2069 crore ($2378 crore) was divided among seven significant categories, emphasizing agriculture, transportation, and communications.

    Five Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) were established as important technological institutes after the plan period in 1956.

    2.1% was the targeted growth rate, and 3.6% was the achieved growth rate.

    स्रोत : www.geeksforgeeks.org

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