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    Explain the physiological factors determining strength.

    Explain the physiological factors determining strength.

    Explain the physiological factors determining strength.

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    Physiology and Sports Class 12 Notes Physical Education

    Physiology and Sports class 12 Notes Physical Education ch-8 in PDF format for free download. Latest chapter Wise notes for CBSE board exams.

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    CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Revision Notes Physiology and Sports

    key points

    gender differences on physical and physiological parameters

    Physiological factors for deteming components of Physical Fitness

    Effects of exercise on Cardivascular, Respiratory and muscular system

    Physiological changes due to ageing

    Role of exercise in slowing ageing process

    Gender differences between physical and physiological parameters

    There are following physical differences between males and females:

    Body size: there is a lot of difference in body size of males and females. The size of body of males is larger in comparison to females.

    Body shape: In males ‘V’ Shaped body is considered the best whereas in females slim constitution of body is considered the best.

    Vertebrae, legs and knees: The vertebrae in females is long in comparison to hands and legs whereas in males the vertebra is small in comparison to hands and legs.

    Centre of gravity: The height of female is usually found is less in comparison to males. The centre of gravity of females is less high and the height of centre of gravity of males if high. This is the reason why the stability in females is more than males.

    Abdomen: females have larger abdominal cavity than males. This is due to the fact that females have additional organs of reproduction.

    Bones of shoulders: The shoulder bones of females are found to be weak in comparion to shoulder bones of males. Due to this reason, females are provided low weight equipments in throwing events.

    The physiological difference in females and males are follows:

    Muscular strength: The muscular strength of females is less than males. The contraction and extension of muscles of females is less forceful whereas males have more forceful contraction and extension of muscles.

    Blood circulation: The size of heart in females is smaller in comparison to males.and also there is less amount of blood in females than males. Generally, the heart rate of females remain more than males.

    Respiratory organs: Lungs of females are smaller in comparison to males. That’s why, females have less endurance than males. In fact, lung capacity of normal healthy female is 10% less in comparison to male of similar shape and size.

    Menstrual cycle: Females should not perform strenuous and vigorous works during menstrual cycle whereas in males there is no such type of cycle.

    Physiological factors for determining strength.

    The following are the factors for determining strength:

    Muscle composition: There are two types of fibres in muscles i.e. fast twitch fibres and slow twitch fibres. The muscles which consist of more percentage of fast twitch fibres will produce more strength.

    Size of the muscle: The strength of an individual depends on the size of muscle. As larger and bigger muscle produce more force and with the help of different methods of strength training , the size of the muscle can be increased.

    Body weight: there is a positive relation between body weight and strength. The individuals who are heavier are stronger than the individuals who are lighter in weight.

    Intensity of nerve impulse: A muscle is composed of no. of motor units. The total force of muscle depends upon the number of contracting motor units. Whenever, a stronger nerve impulse from central nervous system excite more number of motor units , the muscle will contract more stongly or it can be said that the muscle will produce more force or strength.

    Physiological factors for determining speed.

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