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    explain in detail the various types of plant layout concepts that area available in operations management. give examples on where each of these types can be employed respectively. briefly explain a layout applicable for a restaurant format, highlighting the good points and bottlenecks, if any.

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    [Solved] Explain in detail the various types of plant layout concepts that

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    Anonymous Student 2 months ago

    Explain in detail the various types of plant layout concepts that area available in operations management. Give examples on where each of these types can be employed respectively. Briefly explain a layout applicable for a Retail store format, highlighting the good points and bottlenecks, if any.

    Like 0 All replies Expert Answer 2 months ago

    The arrangement of different machines in the manufacturing factory or site is called the plant layout. It is very essential to make sure that the manufacturing process is done most efficiently and in proper order.There are many layouts of arranging machines in a work area. The main among them are described below -

    Product Layout - In this layout, the arrangement of machines is in the order of steps involved in the manufacturing process of a specific product. This layout is also called line layout as all the machines are set out in line with the product.

    Process Layout - Here the arrangement of machines is done based on similarity in their functions. Machines performing similar functions are placed together and the materials are brought to the machines as per requirement. this layout is also called a functional layout.

    Fixed Layout - This layout is the one where the product is generally fixed at one position and all the machines and manpower required in its production are brought there. This is generally adopted in the case of heavy products or construction projects.

    Group Layout  - When more than one type of plant arrangement is needed in the manufacturing process, then this layout is adopted. This is a mix of multiple plant layouts like - product and process layouts.

    Instances of the manufacturing process where each one of the above-mentioned plant layouts can be adopted respectively are as follows -

    Product Layout - This layout can be used in sugar mills, food manufacturing units, or readymade textiles manufacturing factories.

    Process Layout - Assembly departments of most manufacturing firms use this plant layout.

    Fixed Layout - It is mostly suitable for the construction of bridges or railway lines or shipbuilding industries.

    Group Layout - This plant layout is frequently used in soap or cosmetics manufacturing units.

    Your question is too long, so unfortunately, we cannot answer it all with one single answer. So, here's the answer of part 1 and 2, please submit the next parts as separate questions so I can better explain each of them. (Please share the complete information of the question for the next parts for us to help you.)

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    Plant Layout: Concept, Objectives, Principles and Types

    ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the concept, objectives, principles, and types of plant layout. Concept of Plant Layout: The concept of plant layout may be described as follows: Plant layout is a plan for effective utilisation of facilities for the manufacture of products; involving a most efficient and economical arrangement of machines, materials, […]

    Plant Layout: Concept, Objectives, Principles and Types

    Article shared by : ADVERTISEMENTS:

    Read this article to learn about the concept, objectives, principles, and types of plant layout.

    Concept of Plant Layout:

    The concept of plant layout may be described as follows:

    Plant layout is a plan for effective utilisation of facilities for the manufacture of products; involving a most efficient and economical arrangement of machines, materials, personnel, storage space and all supporting services, within available floor space.

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    More defines plant layout as follows:

    “Plant layout is a plan of optimum arrangement of facilities including personnel, equipment’s, storage space, material handling equipment and all other supporting services along with the decision of best structure to contain all these facilities.”

    Points of comment:Certain useful observations on the concept of plant layout are as follows:

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    (i) Plant layout is very complex in nature; because it involves concepts relating to such fields as engineering, architecture, economics and business management.

    (ii) Most of managers now realize that after the site for plant location is selected; it is better to develop the layout and build the building around it – rather than to construct the building first and then try to fit the layout into it.

    Objectives/Advantages of Plant Layout:

    Following are the objectives/advantages of plant layout:

    (i) Streamline flow of materials through the plant

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    (ii) Minimise material handling

    (iii) Facilitate manufacturing progress by maintaining balance in the processes

    (iv) Maintain flexibility of arrangements and of operation

    (v) Maintaining high turnover of in-process inventory

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    (vi) Effective utilisation of men, equipment and space

    (vii) Increase employee morale

    (viii) Minimise interference (i.e. interruption) from machines

    (ix) Reduce hazards affecting employees

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    (x) Hold down investment (i.e. keep investment at a lower level) in equipment.

    Principles of Plant Layout:

    While designing the plant layout, the following principles must be kept in view: (i) Principle of Minimum Movement:

    Materials and labour should be moved over minimum distances; saving cost and time of transportation and material handling.

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    (ii) Principle of Space Utilization:

    All available cubic space should be effectively utilized – both horizontally and vertically.

    (iii) Principle of Flexibility:

    Layout should be flexible enough to be adaptable to changes required by expansion or technological development.

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    (iv) Principle of Interdependence:

    Interdependent operations and processes should be located in close proximity to each other; to minimize product travel.

    (v) Principle of Overall Integration:

    All the plant facilities and services should be fully integrated into a single operating unit; to minimize cost of production.

    (vi) Principle of Safety:

    There should be in-built provision in the design of layout, to provide for comfort and safety of workers.

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    (vii) Principle of Smooth Flow:

    The layout should be so designed as to reduce work bottlenecks and facilitate uninterrupted flow of work throughout the plant.

    (viii) Principle of Economy:

    The layout should aim at effecting economy in terms of investment in fixed assets.

    (ix) Principle of Supervision:

    A good layout should facilitate effective supervision over workers.

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    (x) Principle of Satisfaction:

    A good layout should boost up employee morale, by providing them with maximum work satisfaction.

    Types of Plant Layout:

    Two basic plans of the arrangement of manufacturing facilities are – product layout and process layout. The only other alternative is a combination of product and process layouts, in the same plant.

    Following is an account of the various types of plant layout:

    (a) Product Layout (or Line Layout):

    In this type of layout, all the machines are arranged in the sequence, as required to produce a specific product. It is called line layout because machines are arrange in a straight line. The raw materials are fed at one end and taken out as finished product to the other end.

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    Special purpose machines are used which perform the required jobs (i.e. functions) quickly and reliably.

    Product layout is depicted below:Advantages:

    1. Reduced material handling cost due to mechanized handling systems and straight flow

    2. Perfect line balancing which eliminates bottlenecks and idle capacity.

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    3. Short manufacturing cycle due to uninterrupted flow of materials

    4. Simplified production planning and control; and simple and effective inspection of work.

    5. Small amount of work-in-progress inventory

    6. Lesser wage cost, as unskilled workers can learn and manage production.

    Disadvantages:

    1. Lack of flexibility of operations, as layout cannot be adapted to the manufacture of any other type of product.

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    OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

    OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT   TYPES OF PLANT LAYOUT: There are four broad categories of plant layout: Product Layout Process Layout Fixed Layout Group Layout   PRODUCT LAYOUT:     In product layout, machines and equipment’s are arranged in the sequence of the manufacturing operations required for the product. The material is moved from one work station to another sequentially without backtracking or deviation. It is also known as Line Layout because machines are mostly arranged in a straight line. The raw materials are fed at one end and taken out as the finished product on the other. Output of one machine

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    HomeDIPLOMAOPERATIONS MANAGEMENTOPERATIONS MANAGEMENT- Types of Plant Layouts

    OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT- Types of Plant Layouts

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    OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

    OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TYPES OF PLANT LAYOUT:

    There are four broad categories of plant layout:

    Product Layout Process Layout Fixed Layout Group Layout

    PRODUCT LAYOUT:

    In product layout, machines and equipment’s are arranged in the sequence of the manufacturing operations required for the product.

    The material is moved from one work station to another sequentially without backtracking or deviation.

    It is also known as Line Layout because machines are mostly arranged in a straight line. The raw materials are fed at one end and taken out as the finished product on the other.

    Output of one machine becomes input to next machine.

    It is a grouping of machines in one sequence. A product layout may assume a straight line shape or U-shape or circular shape.

    Examples: Sugar refineries, Paper mills, Cement plants, Rolling mills, Automobile assembly plants, Food processing chains.

    ADVANTAGES:

    Low cost of material handling due to straight and short path and elimination of backtracking.

    Smooth and uninterrupted operations from free bottlenecks.

    Continuous flow of work permits mechanized handling of materials.

    Lesser investment in inventory and work in progress.

    Special purpose equipment can be operated by semi skilled labor.

    Optimum use of floor space and less congestion of work in the process.

    Shorter processing time.

    Simple and effective inspection of work and simplified production control.

    Lower cost of manufacturing per unit.

    DISADVANTAGES:

    High initial capital investment in special purpose machines.

    Heavy overhead charges.

    Breakdown of one machine results in work stoppage of the entire line of machines.

    Less flexibility of operations as layout cannot be adapted to the manufacture if any other type of product.

    SUITABILITY:

    Mass production of standardized products.

    Simple and repetitive manufacturing processes.

    Operation time for different processes is more or less equal.

    Reasonably stable demand for product.

    Interchangeability of parts.

    Continuous supply of materials.

    PROCESS LAYOUT:

    In process layout, the machines of similar type are located together according to their function.

    Products move between the groups of equipments in order of the operations required.

    The work which has to be done, is allocated to the machines according to the loading schedules with the object ensuring that each machine is fully loaded.

    It is used when the operations system must handle a wide variety of products in relatively small volumes.

    It is also known as Functional Layout.

    It is best suited for intermittent type of operation.

    Machines in this layout are general purpose machines.

    ADVANTAGES:

    Lower initial capital investment is required in machines and equipment. There is higher degree of machine utilization as a machine is not tied to a single product.

    Overhead costs are relatively low.

    Change in product design and volume can be more easily adapted to the output of a variety of products.

    Breakdown of one machine does not result in complete work stoppage.

    Supervision can be more effective and specialized.

    There is a greater flexibility and scope for expansion.

    Setup and maintenance costs are low.

    DISADVANTAGES:

    Material handling costs are high due to backtracking.

    More skilled labor is required resulting in higher labor cost.

    Processing time or time lag in production is higher.

    Work in process inventory is high requiring greater storage space.

    More frequent inspection is needed resulting in costly supervision.

    Production planning and control become difficult.

    SUITABILITY:

    Products are not standardized.

    Quantity produced is small.

    There are frequent changes in design and style of product.

    Job shop type of work is done.

    Machines are very expensive.

    FIXED POSITION LAYOUT:

    In fixed position layout, men and equipment are moved to the material, which remains at one place and the product is completed at that place where the material lies.

    This type of layout is used in Ship Building, Aircraft Manufacture, Big Pressure Fabrication etc.

    ADVANTAGES:

    It is possible to assign one or more skilled workers for a project from start to finish in order to ensure continuity of work.

    It involves least movement of materials.

    There is a maximum flexibility of all sorts of changes in product and processes.

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