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    Federalism

    Read formulas, definitions, laws from Federalism and Secularism here. Click here to learn the concepts of Federalism from Civics

    Federalism

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    DEFINITION

    Federalism

    This refers to the existence of more than one level of government in the country. In India, we have governments at the state level and at the centre. Panchayati Raj is the third tier of government. While each state in India enjoys autonomy in exercising powers on certain issues, subjects of national concern require that all of these states follow the laws of the central government. The Constitution contains lists that detail the issues that each tier of government can make laws on.

    SHORTCUT

    Features of federalism

    1. There are two or more levels (or tiers) of government.

    2. Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.

    3. The jurisdictions of the respective levels or tiers of government are specified in the constitution.

    4. The fundamental provisions of the constitution require the consent of both the levels of government.

    5.  Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels of government.

    6. Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial autonomy.

    7. The federal system thus has dual objectives: to safeguard and promote unity of the country, while at the same time accommodate regional diversity.

    SHORTCUT

    Federalism in the Indian context

    In India, we have governments at the state level and at the centre. Panchayati Raj is the third tier of government. These different tiers enjoy separate jurisdiction. The Constitution contains lists that detail the issues that each tier of government can make laws on. Since most federations that are formed by holding together do not give equal power to its constituent units all States in the Indian Union do not have identical powers. Jammu and Kashmir has its own Constitution. All persons in India are governed by laws and policies made by each of these levels of government.

    SHORTCUT

    Practice of federalism in India

    The real success of federalism in India can be attributed to the nature of democratic politics in our country. This ensured that the spirit of federalism, respect for diversity and desire for living together became a shared ideal in our country. The creation of Linguistic States was the first and a major test for democratic politics in our country. Many old States have vanished and many new States have been created. This was done to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same State. A second test for Indian federation is the language policy. Hindi was identified as the official language.  Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognised as Scheduled Languages by the Constitution. Restructuring the Centre-State relations was one more way in which federalism has been strengthened in practice. After 1990, the era of coalition government began. Since no single party secured a majority, they made an alliance with regional parties to form a government at the Centre. This led to a new culture of power sharing and respect for the autonomy of State Governments.

    SHORTCUT

    Decentralisation in India

    When power is taken away from Central and State governments and given to local government, it is called decentralisation. The basic idea behind decentralisation is that there are a large number of problems and issues which are best settled at the local level.  Besides, at the local level it is possible for the people to directly participate in decision making. This helps to inculcate a habit of democratic participation. A major step towards decentralisation was taken in 1992. Rural local government is popularly known by the name panchayati raj. The local government structure goes right up to the district level.

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    Federalism 2 mins

    Unitary and Federal Government

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    Federalism and its Features

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    Federalism Practice in India

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    India as a Federal State

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    Decentralisation in India

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    QUICK SUMMARY WITH STORIES

    Federalism and its feature

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    India as a Federal State

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    स्रोत : www.toppr.com

    Federalism

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    Federalism

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    This article is about the form of government. For other uses, see Federalism (disambiguation).

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    Federalism is a mixed or compound mode of government that combines a general government (the central or "federal" government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial, or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system, dividing the powers between the two. Federalism in the modern era was first adopted in the unions of states during the Old Swiss Confederacy.[1]

    Federalism differs from confederalism, in which the general level of government is subordinate to the regional level, and from devolution within a unitary state, in which the regional level of government is subordinate to the general level.[2] It represents the central form in the pathway of regional integration or separation, bounded on the less integrated side by confederalism and on the more integrated side by devolution within a unitary state.[3][4]

    Examples of a federation or federal province or state include Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Iraq, Canada, Germany, UAE, Mexico, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Switzerland, and United States. Some characterize the European Union as the pioneering example of federalism in a multi-state setting, in a concept termed the "federal union of states".[5]

    Contents

    1 Overview 1.1 Etymology 1.2 Origin

    1.3 Political theory

    1.4 Reasons for adoption

    2 Examples

    3 Europe vs. the United States

    4 Constitutional structure

    4.1 Division of powers

    4.2 Bicameralism

    4.3 Intergovernmental relations

    4.4 Constitutional change

    4.5 Other technical terms

    5 In relation to conflict

    6 See also

    7 Notes and references

    8 Sources 9 External links

    Overview[edit]

    The pathway of regional integration or separation

    Etymology[edit]

    The terms "federalism" and "confederalism" share a root in the Latin word , meaning "treaty, pact or covenant". Their common early meaning until the late eighteenth century was a simple league or inter-governmental relationship among sovereign states based on a treaty. They were therefore initially synonyms. It was in this sense that James Madison in had referred to the new US Constitution as "neither a national nor a federal Constitution, but a composition of both" (i.e. as constituting neither a single large unitary state nor a league/confederation among several small states, but a hybrid of the two).[6] In the course of the nineteenth century United States, the meaning of federalism would come to shift, strengthening to refer uniquely to the novel compound political form established at the Philadelphia Convention, while the meaning of confederalism would remain at a league of states.[7]

    Federal states Unitary states

    Origin[edit]

    In the narrow sense, federalism refers to the mode in which the body politic of a state is organized internally, and this is the meaning most often used in modern times. Political scientists, however, use it in a much broader sense, referring instead to a "multi-layer or pluralistic concept of social and political life."[][8]

    The first forms of federalism took place in ancient times, in the form of alliances between states. Some examples from the seventh to second century B.C. were the Archaic League, the Aetolic League, the Peloponnesian League, and the Delian League. An early progenitor of federalism was the Achaean League in Hellenistic Greece. Unlike the Greek city states of Classical Greece, each of which insisted on keeping its complete independence, changing conditions in the Hellenistic period drove many city states to band together even at the cost of losing part of their sovereignty. Subsequent unions of states included the first and second Swiss Confederations (1291–1798 and 1815–48), the United Provinces of the Netherlands (1579–1795), the German Bund (1815–66), the first American union known as the Confederation of the United States of America (1781–89), and second American union formed as the United States of America (1789–1865).[9]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Existence of more than one level of government in the country is referred to as .

    Existence of more than one level of government in the country is referred to as .

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    Existence of more than one level of government in the country is referred to as .

    Question

    Existence of more than one level of government in the country is referred to as ________.

    A dual government B democracy C federalism D

    parliamentary government

    Open in App Solution

    The correct option is C federalism

    Existence of more than one level of government in the country is referred to as federalism. Different levels of the government have been created to distribute power.

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    SIMILAR QUESTIONS

    Q.

    Consider the following facts about a country and decide if you would call it a democracy. Give reasons to support your decision.

    (a) All the citizens of the country have right to vote Elections are held regularly.

    (b) The country took loan from international agencies. One of the conditions for given loan was that the government would reduce its expenses on education and health.

    (c) People speak more than seven languages but education is available only in one language, the language spoken by 52 percent people of the country.

    (d) Several organisations have given a call for peaceful demonstrations and nation wide strikes in the country to oppose these policies. Government has arrested these leaders.

    (e) The government owns the radio and television in the country. All the newspapers have to get permission from the government to publish any news about government’s policies and protests.

    Q. Existence of more than one level of government in the country is referred to as ________.Q. What is the challenge of difficulty in transition to democracy from a non-democratic government in a country referred to as?Q. A government formed with more than one party is called a(n) _________ government.Q. The term, , refers to a set of government rules and ideas that affects the entire population of a country.

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