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    Fluoride occurrences, health problems, detection, and remediation methods for drinking water: A comprehensive review

    Fluoride contamination has become a considerable threat to our society worldwide. Fluoride in drinking water is primarily due to rich fluoride soil, volcanic activity, forage, grasses and grains, and anthropogenic reasons. World Health Organization has regulated the upper limit for fluoride in drink …

    Review

    . 2022 Feb 10;807(Pt 1):150601.

    doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150601. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

    Fluoride occurrences, health problems, detection, and remediation methods for drinking water: A comprehensive review

    Yogendra Singh Solanki  1 , Madhu Agarwal  2 , A B Gupta  3 , Sanjeev Gupta  4 , Pushkar Shukla  4

    Affiliations

    Affiliations

    1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017, India.

    2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017, India. Electronic address: madhunaresh@gmail.com.

    3 Department of Civil Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017, India.

    4 Grasim Industries Limited (Aditya Birla Group), Bharuch, Gujrat 392012, India.

    PMID: 34597567

    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150601

    Review

    Fluoride occurrences, health problems, detection, and remediation methods for drinking water: A comprehensive review

    Yogendra Singh Solanki et al. Sci Total Environ. 2022.

    . 2022 Feb 10;807(Pt 1):150601.

    doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150601. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

    Authors

    Yogendra Singh Solanki  1 , Madhu Agarwal  2 , A B Gupta  3 , Sanjeev Gupta  4 , Pushkar Shukla  4

    Affiliations

    1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017, India.

    2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017, India. Electronic address: madhunaresh@gmail.com.

    3 Department of Civil Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017, India.

    4 Grasim Industries Limited (Aditya Birla Group), Bharuch, Gujrat 392012, India.

    PMID: 34597567

    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150601

    Abstract

    Fluoride contamination has become a considerable threat to our society worldwide. Fluoride in drinking water is primarily due to rich fluoride soil, volcanic activity, forage, grasses and grains, and anthropogenic reasons. World Health Organization has regulated the upper limit for fluoride in drinking water to be 1.5 mg/L while different countries have set their standards according to their circumstances. Excess amounts of fluoride ions in drinking water can cause dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, arthritis, bone damage, osteoporosis, muscular damage, fatigue, joint-related problems, and chronicle issues. In extreme conditions, it could adversely damage the heart, arteries, kidney, liver, endocrine glands, neuron system, and several other delicate parts of a living organism, briefed in the present article. Moreover, a comprehensive scenario for the situations in countries like, China, Canada, Mexico, United States, Yemen, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Iran, Turkey, Australia, and India affected with high fluoride levels in ground water has been described. To analyze the presence of fluoride molecule, out of different detections methods, ion selective and colorimetric method has been adopted for real situation in the field of water application. Also, different methods to remove fluoride from water like reverse osmosis, nano filtration, adsorption, ion-exchange, and precipitation/coagulation with their removal mechanism were highlighted in the review. Moreover, the applicability of the approach with the prospect of country's economic status has been discussed, due to high cost and maintenance the membrane technology is not popular in developing countries like India, Senegal, Tanzania, and Kenya which employ adsorption and coagulation-precipitation for fluoride removal. It is noticeable from literature study that different approaches show unique potential for defluoridation. Some key parameters and mechanistic adaptations which could pave the defluoridation methods to newer horizons have been put forward.

    Keywords: Adsorption; Coagulation; Fluoride; Removal; Reverse osmosis.

    Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Conflict of interest statement

    Declaration of competing interest Authors have no conflict of interest.

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    [Solved] Excess of fluoride in drinking water causes ______.

    Excess of fluoride in drinking water causes mottling of teeth, also referred as Dental Fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is caused by a higher than normal amount o

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    Excess of fluoride in drinking water causes ______.

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    SSC JE ME Previous Paper 4 ( Held on: 25 Jan 2018 Morning)

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    lung disease

    intestinal infection

    mottling of teeth

    No option is correct.

    Answer (Detailed Solution Below)

    Option 3 : mottling of teeth

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    Detailed Solution

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    Excess of fluoride in drinking water causes mottling of teeth, also referred as Dental Fluorosis.

    Dental fluorosis is caused by a higher than normal amount of fluoride ingestion whilst teeth are forming.

    It occurs mostly in childhood stages.

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    Latest SSC JE CE Updates

    Last updated on Sep 22, 2022

    The Staff Selection Commission has released the admit card for all regions for Paper I of the SSC JE CE 2022 exam on 9th November 2022. Paper I of the SSC JE CE will be conducted from 14th November 2022 to 16th November 2022. Candidates can check out SSC JE CE Admit Card in the linked article. Candidates can refer to the SSC JE CE previous years' papers to analyze the pattern of the exam and important questions. The candidates who will clear the exam will get a salary range between Rs. 35,400/- to Rs. 1,12,400/-.

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    Q1. Which of the following are airborne diseases?Q2. Which of the following changes occurring during adolescence is not associated with boys?Q3. The third trophic level in a food chain is always occupied by _________.Q4. Bone matrix is rich in _____.Q5. Which one of the following diseases is caused mainly by the deficiency of Vitamin C?Q6. Amoebiasis or amoebic diarrhea is a common parasitic infection of the intestine, caused by _______ group of amoeba.Q7. Mycology is the study of _______.Q8. Small bead-like structures inside the ovary of a flower are called _______.Q9. Artificial radio isotope Co60 finds application inQ10. Which organ of the Elimentary canal absorbs water and some salts from undigested food?

    स्रोत : testbook.com

    Fluoride: Risks, uses, and side effects

    Fluoride is found naturally in soil, water, and foods. It is added to water to help prevent tooth decay, but not everyone agrees with this. Find out more.

    Fluoride is found naturally in soil, water, and foods. It is also produced synthetically for use in drinking water, toothpaste, mouthwashes and various chemical products.

    Water authorities add fluoride to the municipal water supply, because studies have shown that adding it in areas where fluoride levels in the water are low can reduce the prevalence of tooth decay in the local population.

    Tooth decay is one of the most common health problems affecting children. Many people worldwide cannot afford the cost of regular dental checks, so adding fluoride can offer savings and benefits to those who need them.

    However, concerns have arisen regarding fluoride’s effect on health, including problems with bones, teeth, and neurological development.

    Fast facts about fluoride

    Fluoride comes from fluroine, which is a common, natural, and abundant element.

    Adding fluoride to the water supply reduces the incidence of tooth decay.

    Fluoride protects teeth from decay by demineralization and remineralization.

    Too much fluoride can lead to dental fluorosis or skeletal fluorosis, which can damage bones and joints.

    Risks

    Excessive exposure to fluoride has been linked to a number of health issues.

    Dental fluorosis

    A fluoride content of 0.7 ppm is now considered best for dental health. A concentration that is above 4.0 ppm could be hazardous.

    Exposure to high concentrations of fluoride during childhood, when teeth are developing, can result in mild dental fluorosis. There will be tiny white streaks or specks in the enamel of the tooth.

    This does not affect the health of the teeth, but the discoloration may be noticeable.

    Breastfeeding infants or making up formula milk with fluoride-free water can help protect small children from fluorosis.

    Children below the age of 6 years should not use a mouthwash that contains fluoride. Children should be supervised when brushing their teeth to ensure they do not swallow toothpaste.

    Skeletal fluorosis

    Excess exposure to fluoride can lead to a bone disease

    Trusted Source Trusted Source

    known as skeletal fluorosis. Over many years, this can result in pain and damage to bones and joints.

    The bones may become hardened and less elastic, increasing the risk of fractures. If the bones thicken and bone tissue accumulates, this can contribute to impaired joint mobility.

    Thyroid problems

    In some cases, excess fluoride can damage the parathyroid gland. This can result in hyperparathyroidism, which involves uncontrolled secretion of parathyroid hormones.

    This can result in a depletion of calcium in bone structures and higher-than-normal concentrations of calcium in the blood.

    Lower calcium concentrations in bones make them more susceptible to fractures.

    Neurological problems

    In 2017, a report was published suggesting that exposure to fluoride before birth could lead to

    Trusted Source Trusted Source

    poorer cognitive outcomes in the future.

    The researchers measured fluoride levels in 299 women during pregnancy and in their children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. They tested cognitive ability at the ages of 4 years and between 6 and 12 years. Higher levels of fluoride were associated with lower scores on IQ tests.

    In 2014, fluoride was documented as a neurotoxin that could be hazardous

    Trusted Source Trusted Source

    to child development, along with 10 other industrial chemicals, including lead, arsenic, toluene, and methylmercury.

    Other health problems

    According to the International Association of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (IAOMT), an organization that campaigns against the use of added fluoride, it may also contribute to the following health problems:

    acne and other skin problems

    cardiovascular problems, including arteriosclerosis and arterial calcification, high blood pressure, myocardial damage, cardiac insufficiency, and heart failure

    reproductive issues, such as lower fertility and early puberty in girls

    thyroid dysfunction

    conditions affecting the joints and bones, such as osteoarthritis, bone cancer, and temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ)

    neurological problems, possibly leading to ADHD

    One review describes fluoride

    Trusted Source Trusted Source

    as an “extreme electron scavenger” with an “insatiable appetite for calcium.” The researchers call for the balance of risks and benefits to be reconsidered.

    Fluoride poisoning

    Acute, high-level exposure to fluoride can lead to:

    abdominal pain excessive saliva nausea and vomiting

    seizures and muscle spasms

    This will not result from drinking tap water. It is only likely to happen

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    in cases of accidental contamination of drinking water, due, for example to an industrial fire or explosion.

    It is worth remembering that many substances are harmful in large quantities but helpful in small amounts.

    Uses

    Fluoride is added to many dental products.

    स्रोत : www.medicalnewstoday.com

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