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    Distributed control system

    Distributed control system

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    Part of a series of articles on

    Machine industry

    Manufacturing methods

    Batch productionJob productionFlow productionLean manufacturingAgile manufacturing

    Industrial technologies

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    Information and communication

    ISA-88ISA-95ERPIEC 62264B2MML

    Process control PLCDCSSCADA vte

    A distributed control system (DCS) is a computerised control system for a process or plant usually with many control loops, in which autonomous controllers are distributed throughout the system, but there is no central operator supervisory control. This is in contrast to systems that use centralized controllers; either discrete controllers located at a central control room or within a central computer. The DCS concept increases reliability and reduces installation costs by localising control functions near the process plant, with remote monitoring and supervision.

    Distributed control systems first emerged in large, high value, safety critical process industries, and were attractive because the DCS manufacturer would supply both the local control level and central supervisory equipment as an integrated package, thus reducing design integration risk. Today the functionality of SCADA and DCS systems are very similar, but DCS tends to be used on large continuous process plants where high reliability and security is important, and the control room is not geographically remote.

    Contents

    1 Structure

    1.1 Technical points

    2 Typical applications

    3 History

    3.1 Evolution of process control operations

    3.2 Origins 3.3 Development

    3.4 The network-centric era of the 1980s

    3.5 The application-centric era of the 1990s

    3.6 Modern systems (2010 onwards)

    4 See also 5 References

    Structure[edit]

    Functional levels of a manufacturing control operation

    The key attribute of a DCS is its reliability due to the distribution of the control processing around nodes in the system. This mitigates a single processor failure. If a processor fails, it will only affect one section of the plant process, as opposed to a failure of a central computer which would affect the whole process. This distribution of computing power local to the field Input/Output (I/O) connection racks also ensures fast controller processing times by removing possible network and central processing delays.

    The accompanying diagram is a general model which shows functional manufacturing levels using computerised control.

    Referring to the diagram;

    Level 0 contains the field devices such as flow and temperature sensors, and final control elements, such as control valves

    Level 1 contains the industrialised Input/Output (I/O) modules, and their associated distributed electronic processors.

    Level 2 contains the supervisory computers, which collect information from processor nodes on the system, and provide the operator control screens.

    Level 3 is the production control level, which does not directly control the process, but is concerned with monitoring production and monitoring targets

    Level 4 is the production scheduling level.

    Levels 1 and 2 are the functional levels of a traditional DCS, in which all equipment are part of an integrated system from a single manufacturer.

    Levels 3 and 4 are not strictly process control in the traditional sense, but where production control and scheduling takes place.

    Technical points[edit]

    Example of a continuous flow control loop. Signalling is by industry standard 4–20 mA current loops, and a "smart" valve positioner ensures the control valve operates correctly.

    The processor nodes and operator graphical displays are connected over proprietary or industry standard networks, and network reliability is increased by dual redundancy cabling over diverse routes. This distributed topology also reduces the amount of field cabling by siting the I/O modules and their associated processors close to the process plant.

    The processors receive information from input modules, process the information and decide control actions to be signalled by the output modules. The field inputs and outputs can be analog signals e.g. 4–20 mA DC current loop or two-state signals that switch either "on" or "off", such as relay contacts or a semiconductor switch.

    DCSs are connected to sensors and actuators and use setpoint control to control the flow of material through the plant. A typical application is a PID controller fed by a flow meter and using a control valve as the final control element. The DCS sends the setpoint required by the process to the controller which instructs a valve to operate so that the process reaches and stays at the desired setpoint. (see 4–20 mA schematic for example).

    Large oil refineries and chemical plants have several thousand I/O points and employ very large DCS. Processes are not limited to fluidic flow through pipes, however, and can also include things like paper machines and their associated quality controls, variable speed drives and motor control centers, cement kilns, mining operations, ore processing facilities, and many others.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Distributed control system design chart: comparing location of the...

    Download scientific diagram | Distributed control system design chart: comparing location of the operating points of system at Device level and at the Supervisory level. from publication: Multilevel control under communication constraints | The performance of distributed control systems, apart from the sampling period, depends on many parameters, such as the control loop execution time, jitter and communication parameters of data transmission channels. Limited throughput of transmission channels, combined with... | Distributed Control Systems, Networked Control Systems and Robust Control | ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists.

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    Distributed control system design chart: comparing location of the operating points of system at Device level and at the Supervisory level.

    Source publication

    Multilevel control under communication constraints

    Conference Paper Full-text available Oct 2010 Wojciech Grega

    The performance of distributed control systems, apart from the sampling period, depends on many parameters, such as the control loop execution time, jitter and communication parameters of data transmission channels. Limited throughput of transmission channels, combined with non-optimized hardware and software components introduce non-determinism in...

    Citations

    ... The paper [13] discusses the issues of formalization of knowledge using the semantic wiki. The article [14] examines the issues of eliminating nondeterminism in the control system and analyzes two algorithms improving the time stability of a distributed control system. ...

    Approach to formalization of the intelligent information control systems based on the topos theory

    Article Full-text available Dec 2021J Phys Conf

    D AvsykevichYu TupitsinE Shishkin

    The approach to formalization of complex organizational and technical systems based on the toposes theory is substantiated. The article presents a review of the literature on the formalization of knowledge. An integrated control system for technical complexes is considered. The description of blocks of intelligent information and control systems based on the toposes theory is developed. An algorithm for formalizing intelligent information and control systems and an example of constructing toposes and functors for the general case are presented. The conclusion is made about the possibility of applying the proposed approach to the formalization of the intelligent information and control systems in the process of formation of their appearance.

    Wi-Fi-based hierarchical Wireless Networked Control Systems

    Article Jun 2015

    Esraa A. MakledHassan H. Halawa

    Ramez M. Daoud Hassanein H. Amer Tarek K. Refaat

    This paper proposes a novel architecture for a hierarchical Wireless Networked Control System (WNCS). It consists of three cascaded workcells each containing 30 sensors, 30 actuators and one controller. The wireless communication protocol used is IEEE 802.11g with multicasting. The hierarchy of the system is such that the lowest level is that of the sensors and actuators, the intermediate level is the controllers, and the highest level is a supervisory node. This supervisor can be either active or passive. System performance is measured using OPNET simulations and the results are confirmed analytically. The system is shown to tolerate all possible controller failure scenarios. The supervisor can handle the entire control load of all three controllers, should the need arise. The system exhibits zero packet drops and delay constraints are met in all scenarios. The effect of interference is then investigated and the maximum interference that can be tolerated by the system is quantified.

    A Characterization of the Minimal Average Data Rate That Guarantees a Given Closed-Loop Performance Level

    Article Full-text available

    Jul 2014IEEE T AUTOMAT CONTR

    Eduardo~I. Silva Milan S. Derpich Jan Ostergaard Marco A. Encina

    This paper studies networked control systems closed over noiseless digital channels. By focusing on noisy LTI plants with scalar-valued control inputs and sensor outputs, we derive an absolute lower bound on the minimal average data rate that allows one to achieve a prescribed level of stationary performance under Gaussianity assumptions. We also present a simple coding scheme that allows one to achieve average data rates that are at most 1.254 bits away from the derived lower bound, while satisfying the performance constraint. Our results are given in terms of the solution to a stationary signal-to-noise ratio minimization problem and builds upon a recently proposed framework to deal with average data rate constraints in feedback systems. A numerical example is presented to illustrate our findings.

    Information theoretic conditions for tracking in leader-follower systems with communication constraints

    Article Full-text available

    Aug 2013J Contr Theor Appl

    Yongxiang RuanSudharman K. Jayaweera

    Chaouki T. Abdallah

    In this paper, we introduce a general framework for tracking in leader-follower systems under communication constraints, in which the leader and follower systems as well as the corresponding controllers are spatially distributed and connected over communication links. We provide necessary conditions on the channel data rate of each communication link for tracking of the leader-follower systems. By considering the forward and feedback channels as one cascade channel, we also provide a lower bound for the data rate of the cascade channel for the system to track a reference signal such that the tracking error has finite second moment. Examples and simulations are provided to demonstrate some of the results.

    स्रोत : www.researchgate.net

    Distributed Control System (DCS)

    Our distributed control system (DCS) enables automation and control of industrial processes and enhanced business performance. | Yokogawa Electric Corporation

    Home Products Control System Distributed Control System (DCS)

    Distributed Control System (DCS)

    OpreX Control – Distributed Control System (DCS)

    Operators from over 10,000 plants entrust Yokogawa’s DCS technology and solutions to meet their production targets year after year.

    A distributed control system (DCS) is a platform for automated control and operation of a plant or industrial process. A DCS combines the following into a single automated system: human machine interface (HMI), logic solvers, historian, common database, alarm management, and a common engineering suite.

    Yokogawa distributed control systems provide the industry’s highest field-proven system availability, enterprise-wide interoperability, extensive advanced solutions portfolio, and third-party-certified defense-in-depth cybersecurity to increase productivity and improve plant operations.

    Delivering simplified upgrades and backward compatibility by design for over 40 years, Yokogawa exceeds the needs of operators throughout the product lifecycle.

    CENTUM VP

    CENTUM VP has a simple and common architecture consisting of human machine interfaces, field control stations, and a control network.

    See More

    DCS Migration / Replacement

    Transition to a "future-proof" system with DCS migration services designed to help you meet the evolving needs of your processes.

    See More

    Agile Project Execution

    Agile Project Execution provides new engineering possibilities and changes the way projects can be planned and executed, reducing risk and adding flexibility to the schedule.

    See More

    Details

    Partners Standards ISA

    Yokogawa is joining hands with leading high technology companies worldwide to supply highly reliable and sophisticated distributed control systems.

    HIRSCHMANN(BELDEN INC.)

    Belden Inc. supplies Hirschmann brand of industrial network switches to use with Yokogawa Vnet/IP® high-speed control network. Our partnership ensures the long and stable supply of highly reliable network switches as well as the maintenance support.

    Belden Inc. Press Release

    PEPPERL+FUCHS

    Pepperl+Fuchs GmbH has developed a range of intrinsically safe and non-intrinsically safe termination boards and IO modules that work with CENTUM and ProSafe-RS systems. Technical information is available by following the links below.

    For more detailed information please visit the below sites.

    Pepperl+Fuchs and Yokogawa Partner Portal

    MTL

    MTL Instruments Group Limited, part of Eaton's Crouse-Hinds Series portfolio, has developed a range of intrinsically safe and non-intrinsically safe termination boards and IO modules that work with CENTUM and ProSafe-RS systems. Technical information is available by following the links below.

    For more detailed information please visit the below sites.

    Yokogawa Solutions

    CENTUM's complied standards

    CENTUM system hardware conforms to the standards listed below. Please use the CENTUM system in the industrial environment only.

    Safety Standards EMC Standards

    Standards for Hazardous Location Equipment

    FDA Marine Standards

    1. Safety Standards

    Standard name

    CSA CAN/CSA-C22.2 No.61010-1

    CE Marking

    Low Voltage Directive EN 61010-1

    EN 61010-2-030

    2. EMC Standards

    Standard name

    CE Marking EMC Directive EN 55011 ClassA Group1

    EN 61000-6-2 EN 61000-3-2 EN 61000-3-3

    C-Tick Mark EN 55011 ClassA Group1

    KC Mark Korea Electromagnetic Conformity Standard

    3. Standards for Hazardous Location Equipment

    Standard name CSA Non-Incendive

    (for 100-120V AC and 24V DC power supply) ClassI, Division2, Groups A,B,C and D Temperature code T4

    CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 0-M91

    CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 0.4-04

    CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 157-92

    C22.2 No. 213-M1987 TN-078 FM Non-Incendive

    (for 100-120V AC, 220-240V AC and 24V DC power supply) ClassI, Division2, Groups A,B,C and D Temperature code T4

    Class3600: 1998 Class3611: 2004 Class3810: 2005 Type n

    (for 24V DC power supply) EN 60079-15: 2010

    EN 60079-0: 2009 EN 60079-0: 2012

    4. FDA

    Standard name FDA:21 CFR Part 11

    5. Marine Standards

    Standard name

    ABS (American Bureau of Shipping)

    BV (Bureau Veritas) Lloyd's Register

    Note: The standard specifications are different for each hardware apparatus and for each software package. For more information, please see the document "General Specification (GS)."

    CENTUM's conformed specifications

    Fieldbus

    Specifications

    FOUNDATION™ fieldbus H1(Low Speed Voltage Mode)

    PROFIBUS-DP(PROFIBUS Specification EN 50170 Volume 2)

    HART Protocol Revision5.7

    Batch

    Specifications

    ANSI/ISA S88.01 (Batch Control Part1:model and terminology)

    OPC

    Specification

    स्रोत : www.yokogawa.com

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