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# freezing point of a solvent containing a nonvolatile solute

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## Freezing Point Depression

Freezing Point Depression

The freezing point of a solution is less than the freezing point of the pure solvent. This means that a solution must be cooled to a temperature than the pure solvent in order for freezing to occur.

The freezing point of the solvent in a solution changes as the concentration of the solute in the solution changes (but it does not depend on the identity of either the solvent or the solute(s) particles (kind, size or charge) in the solution).

Non-Volatile Solutes

The freezing point of the solvent in a solution will be less than the freezing point of the pure solvent whether the solution contains a non-volatile solute or a volatile solute. However, for simplicity, only non-volatile solutes will be considered here.

Experimentally, we know that the change in freezing point of the solvent in a solution from that of the pure solvent is directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solute:

T = Kfm

where:

T is the change in freezing point of the solvent,Kb is the molal freezing point depression constant, andm is the molal concentration of the solute in the solution.

Note that the molal freezing point depression constant, Kf, has a specific value depending on the identity of the solvent.

solvent normal freezing point, oC Kb, oC m-1

water 0.0 1.86

acetic acid 16.6 3.9

benzene 5.5 5.12

chloroform -63.5 4.68

nitrobenzene 5.67 8.1

The following graph shows the normal freezing point for water (solvent) as a function of molality in several solutions containing sucrose (a non-volatile solute). Note that the normal freezing point of water decreases as the concentration of sucrose increases. स्रोत : www.chem.purdue.edu

## Vapour pressure of a solvent containing nonvolatile solute is.

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Updated on : 2022-09-05

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At any given temperature, the vapor pressure of a solution containing a nonvolatile solute is less than that of the pure solvent. This effect is called vapor pressure lowering. The solid line in Figure is a plot of the vapor pressure of pure water versus temperature. The break in the curve at 0°C is the intersection of the curve of the vapor pressure of the solid with the curve of the vapor pressure of the liquid. The dashed line in is a plot of the vapor pressure of an aqueous solution of sugar versus temperature. Notice that the vapor pressure of the solution is always less than that of the pure solvent.

The vapor pressure of pure water is shown as a solid line; the vapor pressure of an aqueous solution is shown as a dashed line. Note the differences between the solution and the pure substance in melting point and boiling point.

The surface of a pure solvent is populated only by solvent molecules. Some of these molecules are escaping from the surface, and others are returning to the liquid state. The surface of a solution is populated by two kinds of molecules; some are solvent molecules,

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## Freezing point of a solvent containing a non volatile solute

When a non-volatile solute is added to the solvent, then vapour pressure of the solution decreases. A solute-solvent equilibrium exists at a lower temperature than the freezing point of pure solvent. As a result, the freezing point of the solution is lowered. The freezing point of the solution (T(f)) will be less than that of pure solvent (T(f)^(@)). Home > English > Class 12 > Chemistry > Chapter > Solutions >

Freezing point of a solvent co...

Freezing point of a solvent containing a non volatile solute

Updated On: 27-06-2022

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When a non-volatile solute is added to the solvent, then vapour pressure of the solution decreases. A solute-solvent equilibrium exists at a lower temperature than the freezing point of pure solvent. As a result, the freezing point of the solution is lowered. The freezing point of the solution

( T f ) (Tf)

will be less than that of pure solvent

( T ∘ f ) (Tf∘) . Answer

Step by step solution by experts to help you in doubt clearance & scoring excellent marks in exams.

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