# ‘hasta’ was an ancient indian unit of a physical quantity. identify this quantity.

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## Indian units of measurement

## Indian units of measurement

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Before the introduction of the Metric system, one may divide the history of Indian systems of measurement into three main periods: the pre-Akbar's period, the period of the Akbar system, and the British colonial period.

During pre-Akbar period, weights and measure system varied from region to region, commodity to commodity, and rural to urban areas. The weights were based on the weight of various seeds (specially the wheat berry and Ratti) and lengths were based on the length of arms and width of fingers. Akbar realized a need for a uniform system. He elected the barley corn. This did not replace the existing system. Instead, it just added another system.

British entered India as traders. They accepted barley corn as a unit 'grain' for weighing gold. Eventually, British introduced their own system for weighing gold (Troy ounce). In 1956, Government of India passed the Standards of Weights Act, that came into effect in 1958.The metric weight mandatory by October 1960, and the metric measures mandatory by April 1962.

## Contents

1 Conversion 2 Ancient system 3 Medieval system

3.1 Akbar weights and measures

4 Weights before 1833

5 British system 6 References 7 External links

## Conversion[edit]

In 1956, for metrication, the Indian government defined the Standards of Measurements Act (No. 89 of 1956, amended 1960, 1964) as follows:

Indian System Metric System

1 Tola 11.6638038 g

The current definitions as per the UN are:

Indian System Metric System

1 Tola 11.664 g

## Ancient system[edit]

These are the weights and measures popular in North India before the adoption of the metric system. There were different systems in Bengal, the Presidency of Madras, and Bombay. The following nomenclature was prevalent in North India till the metric system came in:-

4 (grain of rice) = 1 Dhan (weight of one wheat berry)

4 Dhan = 1 Ratti ().

8 Ratti = 1 Masha

12 Masha (96 Ratti) = 1 bhari

24 Ratti (96 Dhan) = 1 Tak

1 Bhari = 11.66375 gram

3.75 Troy ounce = 10 bhari

Weight of 64 Dhan (Wheat berries) = Weight of 45 Jau (Barley corns)

Weight of 1 Barley corn = 64.79891 milligrams

1 bhari = 4 Siki 1 Kancha = 5 Siki

1 Chhataank = 4 Kancha

1 Chhataank = 5 bhari

1 Adh-pav = 2 Chhatank = 1/8 Seer

1 Pav = 2 Adh-pav = ¼ Seer (Pav means ¼)

1 Adher = 2 Pav = ½ Seer

In Hindi ½ Seer = Adha (½) Seer, or Adher

1 Ser = 2 Adher = 4 Pav = 16 Chattank = 80 Tola = 933.1 grams

1 Savaser = 1 Ser + 1 Pav (1¼ Seer)

1 Savaser weighed 100 Imperial rupees

In Hindi 1¼ Seer = Sava (1¼) Seer, or Savaser

1 Dhaser = 2 Savaser = 2½ Seer

In Hindi 2½ Seer = Dhai (2½) Seer, or Dhaser

1 Paseri = 2 Adisari = 5 Seer

In Hindi 5 Seer = Panch (5) Seer, or Paseri for short

1 Daseri = 2 Pasri = 10 Seer

In Hindi 10 Seer = Das (10) Seer, or Daseri for short

1 Maund ( or ) = 4 Daseri = 8 Pasri = 40 Seer

Grains were not weighed. Special hour-glass shaped measure were used to determine the volume.

Smallest unit = 1 Nilve

2 Nilve = 1 Kolve

2 Kolve = 1 Chipte (about quarter litre)

2 Chipte = 1 Mapte (about half litre)

2 Mapte = 1 Ser (about one litre)

These were hour glass shaped measure used for Milk, Ghee, Oils. The bottom was round like an inverted dome, the top was like flared rim. This shape helped in pouring the liquids.

4 Chhataank = 1 Pav 4 Pav = 1 Seer 40 Seer = 1 Maund

Measure of length is Gaz. To interpret Gaz, depends on what one is measuring and where they are. Bengal: 36", Bombay: 27", Madras: 33", Government Average: 33". The hand measurements were used.

Anguli (width of 3 fingers) = 1 Girah

8 Girah = 1 Hath (elbow to the end of the middle finger, approximately 18" )

5 5/6 Hath = One Kathi

20 Kathi = One Pand 1 Pand= 1 Beesa 20 Pand = One Begah 2 Hath = 1 Gaz 3 Gaz = Two Karam 3 Karams = 1 Kan

3 Square Kans = 1 Marla

20 Marlas = 1 Kanal

8 Kanals = 1 Ghamaon

9 Kanals 12 Marlas = 1 Acre[]

4 Kanals = 1 Begah

## Medieval system[edit]

### Akbar weights and measures[edit]

Akbar standardised weights and measurements using a barley corn (). For weights, he used the weight of a , while the width of a set the standard for length.

1. Length: Ilahi Gaz (33 to 34 inches or 840 to 860 millimetres); 1 Gaz = 16 Grehs; 1 Greh = 2 pais

At the time of Shah Jahan there existed three different Gaz:[1]

Indian System Metric System

101.6 cm

Shahijahani/ 95.85 cm

## What unit of measurement of time was used in Ancient India?

Answer: Calculation of time as per the Hindu Scriptures: A pot is to be made with six 'pala's of gold whose depth should be four fingers. Then four nails should be made with one one 'masha' of gold whose length should be four fingers. Then the golden pot should be punctured with the golden nails...

What unit of measurement of time was used in Ancient India?

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Calculation of time as per the Hindu Scriptures:

A pot is to be made with six 'pala's of gold whose depth should be four fingers. Then four nails should be made with one one 'masha' of gold whose length should be four fingers. Then the golden pot should be punctured with the golden nails. Then the golden pot should be kept on water. The time taken to fill the pot with water entering through the holes is called one Danda.

Two "Danda"s is called one "Muhurta". Four "Muhurta"s are called one "Prahara". Eight "Prahara"s are called one day-night. Fifteen day-nights are called one Paksha and two Pakshas are called one Maas (Month). Twelve Maases are called one Varsh (year). One month's time of human beings constitute one day-night of the "Pitru"s. The Shukla Paksha or the bright fortnight is the night and the Krushna Paksha or the dark fortnight is the day of the "Pitru"s. One human year constitute one day-night of the "Deva"s. Uttarayan is the day and Daksheenayan is the night of the "Deva"s.

Satya, Treta, Dwapara and Kali constitute one Chatur-Yuga whose time span is 12000 divya varsh or 12000 years of "Deva"s. For human beings it is 43 Lakh 20000 human years.

71 Yuga of "Deva"s constitute the lifespan of one Manu which is called as 'Manwantar'. There are 14 Manus who rule in cyclic order. The lifespan of one Manu is equal to the lifespan of an Indra.

One day of Brahma is equal to lifespan of 14 "Indra"s. The day and night of Brahma are of equal duration. One day of Brahma is a small Kalpa. In the night of Brahma (Kala Ratri) happens a small pralaya or dissolution in which the human beings, Manus and "Deva"s die. In 15 years of Brahma happens Dainandina Pralaya or Moharatri in which the Gods, Rakshashas, Manus, Indras, Rishis, Gandharvas, Human beings, all creatures and the Chiranjeevis or the immortals like Markandey etc. perish. After this Pralaya a new creation is initiated by Brahma.

The lifespan of Brahma is 100 Brahma years which constitute one full Kalpa. After this a Mahapralaya happens which is called as a Maharatri in which only Shiva and Narayana remain to exist. Then the Prakriti, Narayana, Shiva and Mahavishnu blink (called as 1 Nimesh) their eyes. After that a new creation is made by the wish of Sri Krishna. Sri Krishna never blinks because He is beyond the hold of Prakriti.

When Prakriti blinks for 1000 times, it constitute 1 Danda of Prakriti. 60 Dandas of Prakriti constitute 1 day of Prakriti. Then 30 days of Prakriti constitute 1 Maas (Month) of Prakriti and 12 Maas of Prakriti constitute 1 Year of Prakriti. Then after 100 years of Prakriti, it itself dissolutes and merges into Sri Krishna. This is called 'Prakruta Pralaya'.

[Reference: Brahma Vaivarta Purana]

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Which physical quantity was measured by using sundial in ancient times ?

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