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    how did colonial rule affect tribal lives class 8

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    How did colonial rule affect tribal lives Class 8

    Question of Class 8-How did colonial rule affect tribal lives : The plight of the tribals who had to go far away from their homes in search of work was even worse. Tribals were recruited in large numbers to work in the tea plantations of Assam and the coal mines of Jharkhand.

    HOW DID COLONIAL RULE AFFECT TRIBAL LIVES

    Tribals Dikus and the vision of a golden age of Class 8

    HOW DID COLONIAL RULE AFFECT TRIBAL LIVES Tribals Dikus and the vision of a golden age of Class 8 WHAT HAPPENED TO TRIBAL CHIEFS ?

    Before the arrival of the British, tribal chiefs enjoyed a certain amount of economic power and had the right to administer and control their territories. They had their own police and decided on the local rules of land and forest management.

    Under British rule, the functions and powers of the tribal chiefs changed considerably. They lost much of their administrative power and were forced to follow laws made by British officials in India, They had to pay tribute to the British, and discipline the tribal groups on behalf of the British. They lost the authority they had earlier enjoyed amongst their people, and were unable to fulfill their traditional functions.

    WHAT HAPPENED TO THE SHIFTING CULTIVATORS

    For British, settled peasants were easier to control and administer then people who were always on the move. To ensure a regular revenue source, the British introduced land settlements. Some peasants were declared landowners, others tenants. The tenants were to pay rent to the landowner who in turn paid revenue to the state.

    The British effort to settle jhum cultivators was not very successful. In fact, Pum cultivators who took to plough cultivation often suffered, since their fields did not produce good yields. Facing widespread protests, the British had to ultimately allow them the right to carry on shifting cultivation in some parts of the forest.

    FOREST LAWS AND THEIR IMPACT

    The life of tribal groups was directly connected to the forest. So changes in forest laws had a considerable effect on tribal lives. The British declared that forests were state property. Reserved forest produced timber which the British wanted. In these forests, people were not allowed to move freely, practise jhum cultivation. Collect fruits or hunt animals.

    Once the British stopped the tribal people from living inside forests, they faced a shortage of labor to cut trees for railway sleepers and to transport logs.

    Colonial officials came up with a solution. They decided that they would give jhum cultivators small patches of land in the forests and allow them to cultivate these on the condition that those who lived in the villages would have to provide labor to the forest department and look after the forests.

    Many tribal groups reacted against the colonial forest laws. They disobeyed the new rules, continued with practices that were declared illegal, and at times rose in open rebellion. Such was the revolt of Sonogram Sangma in 1906 in Assam and the forest satyagraha of the 1930s in the Central Provinces.

    THE PROBLEM WITH TRADE

    During the nineteenth century. Tribal groups found that traders and money-lenders were exploiting the tribals and making a good fortune for themselves. For e.g., the silk agents in Hazaribagh gave loans to the Santhai tribals who reared cocoons and collected the cocoons from them.

    The growers were paid a very low amount i.e. Rs. 3 to Rs. 4 for a thousand cocoons. These were then exported to Burdwan or Gaya and were sold at five times the price. The middlemen thus made huge profits. The silk growers earned very little. Understandably, many tribal groups saw the market and the traders as their main enemies.

    THE SEARCH FOR WORK

    The plight of the tribals who had to go far away from their homes in search of work was even worse. Tribals were recruited in large numbers to work in the tea plantations of Assam and the coal mines of Jharkhand. They were recruited through contractors who paid them miserably low wages, and prevented them from returning home.

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    How did colonial rule affected tribal lives?

    How did colonial rule affected tribal lives?

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    How did colonial rule affected tribal lives?

    CBSE Class 8 tribal-life Dhanalakshmi Jun '19

    How did colonial rule affected tribal lives?

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    Dhanalakshmi Jun '19

    Colonial rule affected the tribal lives in the following ways:

    Forests were the abode and the provider of food for the tribals. Tribal communities suffered when the British declared forests as state property.

    Forests were declared as reserved and protected. Problems arose when the tribals were not allowed to practise shifting cultivation and to collect fruits, food and woods.

    The tribal chiefs lost many of their administrative powers and had to follow the rules which were formulated by the British. They also had to pay taxes to the British.

    They were exploited by traders and moneylenders. Traders involved in the silk trade sent their agents to Santhals who reared cocoons. The Santhals were paid Rs 3–4 for a thousand cocoons. These cocoons were sold at much higher prices in Burdwan and Gaya. The middlemen gained huge profits from the trade. Thus, tribals began to see traders as their main enemies.

    The tribals who travelled to distant places away from their homes in search of work suffered many hardships. They were recruited at extremely low wages and were also prevented from returning to their homes.

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    How Did Colonial Rule Affect Tribal Lives? Class 8

    What happened to tribal chiefs? Before the arrival of the British, in many areas, the tribal chiefs were important people. They enjoyed a certain amount of economic power and had the right to administer and control their territories. In some places, they had their own police and decided on the local rules of land and ... Read more

    How Did Colonial Rule Affect Tribal Lives? Class 8 – Notes

    October 19, 2021 by admin

    What happened to tribal chiefs? Before the arrival of the British, in many areas, the tribal chiefs were important people. They enjoyed a certain amount of economic power and had the right to administer and control their territories. In some places, they had their own police and decided on the local rules of land and forest management.

    Under British rule, the functions and powers of the tribal chiefs changed considerably. They were allowed to keep their land titles over a cluster of villages and rent outlands, but they lost much of their administrative power and were forced to follow laws made by British officials in India.

    They also had to pay tribute to the British, and discipline the tribal groups on behalf of the British. They lost the authority they had earlier enjoyed amongst their people and were unable to fulfill their traditional functions.

    What happened to the shifting cultivators?

    The British were uncomfortable with groups who moved about and did not have a fixed home. They wanted tribal groups to settle down and become peasant cultivators since Settled peasants were easier to control and administer than people who were always on the move.

    The British also wanted a regular revenue source for the state. So they introduced land settlements – that is, they measured the land, defined the rights of each individual to that land, and fixed the revenue demand for the state. Some peasants were declared landowners, others tenants. As already studied, the tenants were to pay rent to the landowner who in turn paid revenue to the state.

    The British effort to settle jhum cultivators was not very successful. Settled plow cultivation is not easy in areas where water is scarce and the soil is dry. In fact, jhum cultivators who took to plow cultivation often suffered, since their fields did not produce good yields.

    So the jhum cultivators in northeast India insisted on continuing with their traditional practice. Facing widespread protests, the British had to ultimately allow them the right to carry on shifting cultivation in some parts of the forest.

    Forest laws and their impact

    The life of tribal groups, as you have seen, was directly connected to the forest. So changes in forest laws had a considerable effect on tribal lives. The British extended their control over all forests and declared that forests were state property.

    Some forests were classified as Reserved Forests for they produced timber which the British wanted. In these forests, people were not allowed to move freely, practice jhum cultivation, collect fruits, or hunt animals. Due to this, many were therefore forced to move to other areas in search of work and livelihood.

    The problem with trade

    During the nineteenth century, tribal groups found that traders and moneylenders were coming into the forests more often, wanting to buy forest produce, offering cash loans, and asking them to work for wages. It took tribal groups some time to understand the consequences of what was happening.

    The search for work

    The plight of the tribals who had to go far away from their homes in search of work was even worse. From the late nineteenth century, tea plantations started coming up and mining became an important industry.

    Tribals were recruited in large numbers to work the tea plantations of Assam and the coal mines of Jharkhand. They were recruited through contractors who paid them miserably low wages and prevented them from returning home.

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