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    how many functions have been assigned to panchayati raj institutions in the 11th schedule by the 73rd constitutional amendment?


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    73rd Amendment of Panchayati Raj in India

    The 73rd Amendment 1992 added a new Part IX to the constitution titled “The Panchayats” covering provisions from Article 243 to 243(O); and a new Eleventh Schedule covering 29 subjects within the functions of the Panchayats.

    Significance of the amendment

    This amendment implements the article 40 of the DPSP which says that “State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government” and have upgraded them from non-justifiable to justifiable part of the constitution and has put constitutional obligation upon states to enact the Panchayati Raj Acts as per provisions of the Part IX. However, states have been given enough freedom to take their geographical, politico-administrative and others conditions into account while adopting the Panchayati Raj System.

    Salient Featuresa) Gram Sabha

    Gram Sabha is a body consisting of all the persons registered in the electoral rolls relating to a village comprised within the area of Panchayat at the village level. Since all the persons registered in electoral rolls are members of Gram Sabha, there are no elected representatives. Further, Gram Sabha is the only permanent unit in Panchayati Raj system and not constituted for a particular period. Although it serves as foundation of the Panchayati Raj, yet it is not among the three tiers of the same. The powers and functions of Gram Sabha are fixed by state legislature by law.

    b) Three Tiers of Panchayati Raj

    Part IX provides for a 3 tier Panchayat system, which would be constituted in every state at the village level, intermediate level and district level. This provision brought the uniformity in the Panchayati Raj structure in India.  However, the states which were having population below 20 Lakh were given an option to not to have the intermediate level.

    All the members of these three level are elected. Further, the chairperson of panchayats at the intermediate and district levels are indirectly elected from amongst the elected members. But at the village level, the election of chairperson of Panchayat (Sarpanch) may be direct or indirect as provided by the state in its own Panchayati Raj Act.

    c) Reservation in Panchayats

    There is a provision of reservation of seats for SCs and STs at every level of Panchayat. The seats are to be reserved for SCs and STs in proportion to their population at each level.  Out of the Reserved Seats, 1/3rd have to be reserved for the women of the SC and ST.  Out of the total number of seats to be filled by the direct elections, 1/3rd have to be reserved for women. There has been an amendment bill pending that seeks to increase reservation for women to 50%. The reserved seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in the Panchayat.  The State by law may also provide for reservations for the offices of the Chairpersons.

    d) Duration of Panchayats

    A clear term for 5 years has been provided for the Panchayats and elections must take place before the expiry of the terms. However, the Panchayat may be dissolved earlier on specific grounds in accordance with the state legislations. In that case the elections must take place before expiry of 6 months of the dissolution.

    e) Disqualification of Members

    Article 243F makes provisions for disqualifications from the membership. As per this article, any person who is qualified to become an MLA is qualified to become a member of the Panchayat, but for Panchayat the minimum age prescribed is 21 years.  Further, the disqualification criteria are to be decided by the state legislature by law.

    f) Finance Commission

    State Government needs to appoint a finance commission every five years, which shall review the financial position of the Panchayats and to make recommendation on the following:

    •    The Distribution of the taxes, duties, tolls, fees etc. levied by the state which is to be divided between the Panchayats.

    •    Allocation of proceeds between various tiers.

    •    Taxes, tolls, fees assigned to Panchayats

    •    Grant in aids.

    This report of the Finance Commission would be laid on the table in the State legislature. Further, the Union Finance Commission also suggests the measures needed to augment the Consolidated Funds of States to supplement the resources of the panchayats in the states.

    g) Powers and Functions: 11th Schedule

    The state legislatures are needed to enact laws to endow powers and authority to the Panchayats to enable them functions of local government.  The 11th schedule enshrines the distribution of powers between the State legislature and the Panchayats. These 29 subjects are listed below:

    11th Schedule of the Constitution

    1. Agriculture, including agricultural extension.

    16. Poverty alleviation programme.

    2. Land improvement, implementation of land reforms, land consolidation and soil conservation.

    17. Education, including primary and secondary schools.

    3. Minor irrigation, water management and watershed development.

    18. Technical training and vocational education.

    4. Animal husbandry, dairying and poultry.

    19. Adult and non-formal education.

    5. Fisheries. 20. Libraries.

    6. Social forestry and farm forestry.

    स्रोत : secforuts.org

    Panchayati Raj (73rd Constitutional Amendment Act)

    Panchayati Raj is a form of government at the village level where each village is responsible for its own activities.

    Panchayati Raj (73rd Constitutional Amendment Act)


    What was 73rd Amendment Act? What are the objectives and Constitutional Provisions of the Panchayati Raj? What are the salient features of Panchayati Raj? Read here to know more about Panchayati Raj.

    Panchayati Raj is the oldest system of local government in the Indian subcontinent. Panchayati Raj Institutions as local government units have existed in India for a long time.

    However, it was only in 1992 officially established by the Indian Constitution as the third level of India’s federal democracy through the 73rd Amendment Act.

    Although the Rajiv Gandhi and VP Singh governments attempted to grant the PRI constitutional status, Narasimha Rao’s administration was the only one to succeed thanks to the adoption of the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act.

    Table of Contents

    What is the 73rd amendment act? (Panchayati Raj)?

    The 73rd Amendment Act was enacted by the Indian national government in 1992 to address these issues and improve local self-governance. Both houses agreed on the legislation, and it became law on April 24th, 1993.

    The 73rd Amendment envisages the Gram Sabha as the foundation of the Panchayat Raj System to perform functions and powers entrusted to it by the State Legislatures.

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    A three-tier Panchayat Raj System at the village, intermediate, and district levels is provided by the amendment. With the help of this clause, India’s Panchayati Raj system became uniform. At every level of the Panchayat, there is a provision for the reservation of seats for SCs and STs.

    The Act empowered state governments to take the necessary steps that would lead to the formalisation of the gram panchayats and help them operate as units of self-governance.

    Objectives of the 73rd Amendment Act

    The 73rd Amendment Act’s primary goal was to democratically decentralise authority and resources from the centre to locally elected officials in order to increase citizen participation in governance.

    Its goal relates to Article 40 of the constitution, which calls for the state to set up village panchayats and give them the requisite authority and powers to function as self-governing entities.

    Constitutional Provisions of Panchayati Raj

    Through this amendment, the constitution gained the 11th schedule, which listed 29 Panchayat-related topics.

    Additionally, Part IX, which included provisions from Articles 243 to 243 O, was introduced to the Constitution by this measure.

    The state governments were now required by this modification to implement the new Panchayati Raj system in conformity with the act’s stipulations.

    Salient features Panchayati Raj

    1. Gram Sabha:

    It is a village assembly consisting of all the registered voters in the area of a panchayat.

    It can perform such functions as the state legislature entrusts it with

    2. Three-tier system:

    It suggests PRI at the village, intermediate and district levels. Thus, bringing uniformity to the PRI.

    However, states having a population of less than 20 lakh may not setup PRI

    3. Election:

    All the members at the village, intermediate and district levels shall be elected directly by the people.

    The chairperson of the intermediate and district level shall be indirectly elected chairman of the panchayat shall be elected in such a manner as the state legislature provides for

    4. Reservation of seats:

    In every Gram Panchayat, seats must be set aside for members of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The percentage of these seats to the total number of seats in the Panchayat that will be filled through direct election must be as close to equal as possible.

    Women from Scheduled Castes or, where applicable, Scheduled Tribes must have access to at least one-third of the seats that are set aside for them.

    Not less than one-third (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes) of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every Gram Panchayat shall be reserved for women and such seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Gram Panchayat in such manner as may be prescribed.

    The above reservation is provided for the position of chairperson tooThe act also authorizes the legislature of the state to make any reservations for backward classes

    5. Duration of Panchayats:

    Every level of panchayat is given a five-year term of office under the statute. PRI, however, may be dissolved prior to the end of the natural term.

    Before the PRI’s natural term expires or, in the event of its dissolution, before a period of six months has passed since that date, new elections must be held.

    6. Qualification & Disqualification:

    A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as or for being a member of the panchayat if he is so disqualified:

    Under any law for the time being in force for the purpose of elections to the legislature of the state concerned.

    No person can be disqualified on the ground that he is less than 25 years of age if he has attained the age of 21 years.

    स्रोत : www.clearias.com

    [Solved] How many items are there in the 11th Schedule of the Co

    The Correct Answer is 29.  Key Points The 11th Schedule of the Indian Constitution was added in 1992 by the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act. This sche

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    How many items are there in the 11th Schedule of the Constitution of India?

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    22 24 29 32

    Answer (Detailed Solution Below)

    Option 3 : 29

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    The Correct Answer is 29.

    Key Points

    The 11th Schedule of the Indian Constitution was added in 1992 by the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act.

    This schedule contains 29 subjects.

    This schedule covers important topics such as Panchayat's powers, rural development, poverty alleviation, market, roads and drinking water, etc.

    Additional InformationThe 29 Subjects are 

    Agriculture including agricultural expansion

    Land improvement, implementation of land reforms, land consolidation and soil conservation.

    Animal Husbandry, Dairying and poultry

    Fisheries Industry

    Minor irrigation, water management and watershed development

    Social forestry and farm forestry

    Small scale industries in which food processing industry is involved

    Minor forest produce

    Safe water for drinking

    Khadi, village and cottage industries

    Rural housing Fuel and fodder

    Rural electrification, including distribution of electricity

    Road, culverts, bridges, ferries, waterways and other means of communication

    Education including primary and secondary schools

    Non-conventional sources of energy

    Technical training and vocational education

    Adult and non-formal education

    Public distribution system

    Maintenance of community assets

    The welfare of the weaker sections of the in particular of the schedule caste and schedule tribes

    Social welfare, including the welfare of the handicapped and mentally retarded

    Family welfare

    Women and child development

    Markets and Fairs

    Health and sanitation including hospitals, primary health centres and dispensaries

    Cultural activities Libraries

    Poverty Alleviation Programmes

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