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    Fundamental Duties of Indian Citizens

    Article 51-A under Part IV-A deals with Fundamental Duties. There are 11 Fundamental Duties (FDs) which are important for IAS Exam. Read about the Fundamental Duties article. Download the Fundamental Duties notes PDF. For UPSC 2023 preparation, follow BYJU'S.

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    Fundamental Duties in India - Article 51A (Indian Polity Notes)

    42nd Amendment Act of 1976 added 10 Fundamental Duties to the Indian Constitution. 86th Amendment Act 2002 later added 11th Fundamental Duty to the list. Swaran Singh Committee in 1976 recommended Fundamental Duties, the necessity of which was felt during the internal emergency of 1975-77.

    The Fundamental Duties are dealt with Article 51A under Part-IV A of the Indian Constitution. The topic is important for IAS Exam as questions are recurring in all its three stages- Prelims, Mains and Interview.

    This article will mention in detail the 11 Fundamental Duties and their importance in India. The topic forms a significant part of UPSC Political Science, which is one of the major subjects in Prelims, Mains GS-II and also optional under the UPSC Syllabus.

    UPSC Previous Year Question PapersCurrent AffairsUPSC Notes PDFIAS Mock Tests NCERT Notes PDFFundamental Duties – Indian Polity Notes:-Download PDF Here

    Introduction to 11 Fundamental Duties in India

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    The fundamental duties which were added by the 42nd Amendment Act of the Constitution in 1976, in addition to creating and promoting culture, also strengthen the hands of the legislature in enforcing these duties vis-a-vis the fundamental rights.

    The list of 11 Fundamental Duties under article 51-A to be obeyed by every Indian citizen is given in the table below:

    S.No 11 Fundamental Duties1. Abide by the Indian Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem2. Cherish and follow the noble ideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom3.  Uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India4. Defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so5. Promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women6. Value and preserve the rich heritage of the country’s composite culture7. Protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures8.  Develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform9. Safeguard public property and to abjure violence10. Strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement11.  Provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years. This duty was added by the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002

    The Fundamental Duties form an important topic for IAS Prelims as can be seen from the past year question papers. Aspirants preparing for UPSC 2023 are advised to cover the topic with all facts and figures. The topic once understood can fetch you a great score in prelims and mains both.

    Importance of Fundamental Duties- Part IV-A

    Fundamental Duties are an inalienable part of fundamental rights. The importance of these are given in the table below:

    S.No Importance of Fundamental Duties

    1. They remind Indian Citizens of their duty towards their society, fellow citizens and the nation

    2. They warn citizens against anti-national and anti-social activities

    3. They inspire citizens & promote a sense of discipline and commitment among them

    4. They help the courts in examining and determining the constitutional validity of a law

    Criticism of Fundamental Duties

    The Fundamental Duties mentioned in Part IVA of the Constitution have been criticized on the following grounds:

    They have been described by the critics as a code of moral precepts due to their non-justiciable character. Their inclusion in the Constitution was described by the critics as superfluous. This is because the duties included in the Constitution as fundamental would be performed by the people even though they were not incorporated into the Constitution.

    Some of the duties are vague, ambiguous and difficult to be understood by the common man.

    The list of duties is not exhaustive as it does not cover other important duties like casting vote, paying taxes, family planning and so on. In fact, the duty to pay taxes was recommended by the Swaran Singh Committee.

    The critics said that the inclusion of fundamental duties as an appendage to Part IV of the Constitution has reduced their value and significance. They should have been added after Part III so as to keep them on par with Fundamental Rights.

    Swaran Singh’s Committee recommended more than 10 Fundamental Duties, however, not all were included in the Constitution. Those duties recommended by the committee which were not accepted were:

    Citizens to be penalized/punished by the parliament for any non-compliance with or refusal to observe any of the duties.

    स्रोत : byjus.com

    The 11 Fundamental Duties of Indian Citizens

    As per the Constitution of India, there are 11 Fundamental Duties of Indian Citizens which are non-enforceable in the court of law. These fundamental duties of India are added to promote unity & harmony in the country.

    General Legal

    The 11 Fundamental Duties of Indian Citizens

    Fundamental Duties were incorporated in the Indian Constitution by the 42nd amendment. There are 11 Fundamental Duties for Indian Citizens drafted on the lines of moral, ethical and culture code of conduct followed by people. The duties are educative in nature and direct the citizens to behave in a virtuous and honorable manner.

    13-Sep-19

    Fundamental duties basically imply the moral obligations of all citizens of a country and today, there are 11 fundamental duties in India, which are written in Part IV-A of the Constitution, to promote patriotism and strengthen the unity of India.

    Originally, the fundamental duties of India was not a part of the Indian Constitution, in fact, they were added by the 42nd and 86th Constitutional Amendment Acts. The list of fundamental rights and duties and the Directive Principles of State Policy are sections of the Indian Constitution that elaborate on the essential obligations of the states to its citizens, along with the duties and rights that they hold as Indian citizens.

    Just like all citizens have equal rights, they also have an equal fundamental duty to uphold other rights (mentioned under Article 21)and also make sure that they do not violate these rights. A person cannot expect to enjoy all the privileges and freedom under the law without performing their corresponding fundamental duties.

    The Inception of the Indian Constitution 

    The Indian Constitution which is also known as The Law of the Land traces its significant emergence in the year 1946 when the first meeting of the constituent assembly was held post the grant independence of India. The constituent assembly onboard Dr. Rajendra Prasad as its president. The idea to elucidate the constitutional supremacy required a physical representation and hence on 29th August 1947, a drafting committee was appointed. Dr. BR Ambedkar was elected as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee to achieve a permanent and organized constitution. The underlying features of the constitution upon which the drafting committee kept it’s focus on was Republican State, Parliamentary Supremacy, an independent Judicial System, Fundamental Rights, and a Federal System. 

    On 4th November 1947, the drafting committee submitted the initial draft of the constitution and the final draft was submitted on 26th November 1949. On 24th January 1950, the handwritten Constitutional Draft, submitted by the Drafting Committee, got signed and came into legal force on the 26th January 1950.

    The Constitution of India is considered to be the longest constitution in the world contains a Preamble, 25 Parts along with 12 Schedules, 448 Articles and 101 Amendments till now. At the time of its origin, it had only 385 Articles in 22 Parts and 8 Schedules. The formulation of the Indian Constitution gained inspiration from different constitutions from various countries taking 2 years 11 months and 18 days to complete the supreme law of the land.

    “The incremental journey of formulation of the Indian Constitution provides a functional framework including principles, procedures, practices, rights, powers, and duties of the government. It also provides fundamental rights and fundamental duties that must be enjoyed and obeyed by a citizen respectively,” says Advocate Manuj Chadha.ParticularsFundamental DutiesCovered

    Part IV A, Article 51 –A

    Borrowed from

    USSR

    Amendment

    42nd Amendment 1976, introduced Article 51 A in the constitution

    Recommended by

    Swaran Singh Committee.

    Numbers

    Originally -10 duties Now -11 duties (added bye 86th Amendment ACT, 2002)

    List of Fundamental Duties

    Abide by the Constitution and respect national flag & National Anthem

    Follow ideals of the freedom struggle

    Protect sovereignty & integrity of India

    Defend the country and render national services when called upon

    Sprit of common brotherhood

    Preserve composite culture

    Preserve natural environment

    Develop scientific temper

    Safeguard public property

    Strive for excellence

    Duty fo all parents/guardians to send their children in the age group of 6-14 years to school.

    Defining Fundamental Duties at Length

    The Fundamental Duties were added in 1976, upon recommendation of the Swaran Singh Committee, that was constituted by Indira Gandhi just after the declaration of national emergency, to study and amend the constitution.

    This committee was under the Chairmanship of Sardar Swaran Singh, India's longest-serving union cabinet minister. Based on his recommendations, the government incorporated several changes to the Constitution including the Preamble, through the 42nd Amendment, which included the fundamental duties under the Indian Constitution.

    स्रोत : www.myadvo.in

    [Solved] How many Fundamental Duties are mentioned in Indian constitu

    Option 4 is correct, i.e. Eleven. There are 11 fundamental duties, they are: Abide by the Constitution and respect national flag & National Anthem.

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    How many Fundamental Duties are mentioned in Indian constitution?

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    Five Seven Nine Eleven

    Answer (Detailed Solution Below)

    Option 4 : Eleven

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    Detailed Solution

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    Option 4 is correct, i.e. Eleven.

    There are 11 fundamental duties, they are:

    Abide by the Constitution and respect national flag & National Anthem.

    Follow ideals of the freedom struggle.

    Protect sovereignty & integrity of India.

    Defend the country and render national services when called upon.

    Sprit of a common brotherhood.

    Preserve composite culture.

    Preserve the natural environment.

    Develop a scientific temper.

    Safeguard public property.

    Strive for excellence.

    Duty fo all parents/guardians to send their children in the age group of 6-14 years to school.

    Extra facts:

    The Swaran Singh Committee is related to the Fundamental Duties in India.

    On the recommendation of the Swaran Singh Committee, 11 Fundamental Duties were added to the Indian Constitution.

    Article 51A deals with the Fundamental Duties in the Indian Constitution.

    The Fundamental Duties in the Indian Constitution were added by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act 1976.

    The concept of fundamental duties of the Indian constitution was borrowed from the USSR(Union of Soviet Socialist Republics).

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    Staff Selection Commission will release the SSC JE EE 2023 Notification on 26th July 2023. The last date to apply will be 16th August 2023 and the Paper I exam will be conducted in October 2023. This is as per the exam calendar. For the year 2022, Paper I of the SSC JE was conducted from 14th November 2022 to 16th November 2022. The candidates who will clear the exam will get a salary range between Rs. 35,400/- to Rs. 1,12,400/-. To get a successful selection candidates can refer to the SSC JE EE previous year's papers to estimate the level and important questions for the exam.

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