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    Substitute (association football)

    Substitute (association football)

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    The substitute bench of the national team of Argentina.

    In association football, a substitute is a player who is brought on to the pitch during a match in exchange for an existing player. Substitutions are generally made to replace a player who has become tired or injured, or who is performing poorly, or for tactical reasons (such as bringing a striker on in place of a defender). A player who has been substituted during a match takes no further part in the game, in games played under the standard International Football Association Board Laws of the Game.

    Substitutions were officially added to the Laws of the Game in 1958. Prior to this most games were played with no changes permitted at all, with occasional exceptions in cases of extreme injury or players not arriving to matches on time.

    The number of substitutes has risen over time as well as the number of reserve players allowed to be nominated. It is common for games to have a maximum of 5 substitutes, some competitions allow for an additional substitute when playing extra time, and during the COVID-19 pandemic many competitions moved to allowing 5 substitutes with a maximum of 3 substitution "windows" per side as well as after the half-time break. There have also been trials of an additional substitution beyond whatever limits the match is being played under to be used specifically for a players who has sustained a concussion.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

    Teams choose a substitute player from a pre-selected set of reserve players, these players typically sit in the technical area with the coaches, and are said to be "on the bench". When the substitute enters the field of play it is said they have or have been , while the player they are substituting for is , or being or . This pool of reserve players has also steadily increased in most competitions where they now allow 5, 7 or 9 reserves while in international competitive tournaments it is common that every player selected in the tournament squad (usually 23 players total) is an eligible substitute if they aren't suspended from the game.

    A player who is noted for frequently making appearances, or scoring important goals, as a substitute is often informally known as a "super sub".


    1 History 2 Procedure

    3 Concussion substitute

    3.1 Trial protocol 4 Super-sub 5 References


    The origin of football substitutes goes back to at least the early 1860s as part of English public school football games. The original use of the term in football was to describe the replacement of players who failed to turn up for matches. For example, in 1863, a match reports states: "The Charterhouse eleven played a match in cloisters against some old Carthusians but in consequence of the non-appearance of some of those who were expected it was necessary to provide three substitutes.[7]" The substitution of absent players happened as early as the 1850s, for example from Eton College where the term is used.[8] Numerous references to players acting as a "substitute" occur in matches in the mid-1860s[9] where it is not indicated whether these were replacements of absent players or of players injured during the match.

    While substitution during games was first added to the Laws of the Game in 1958,[10] there are recorded instances of substitution being permitted on earlier occasions. On 7 November 1885, Lockwood Brothers used a substitute in an FA Cup first round replay against Notts Rangers, after midfielder F. Brears suffered a broken leg.[11] The first use of a substitute in international football was on 15 April 1889, in the match between Wales and Scotland at Wrexham. Wales's original goalkeeper, Jim Trainer, failed to arrive; local amateur player Alf Pugh started the match and played for some 20 minutes until the arrival of Sam Gillam, who took over from him.[12] In 1940, in a match between Mandatory Palestine and Lebanon, Mandatory Palestine centre-half Zvi Fuchs was replaced at half-time by Lonia Dvorin following an injury.[13][14] Also during the qualifying phase for the 1954 World Cup, Horst Eckel of Germany is recorded as having been replaced by Richard Gottinger in their match with the Saarland on 11 October 1953.[15] The use of substitutes in World Cup Finals matches was not allowed until the 1970 tournament.[16]

    The number of substitutes usable in a competitive match has increased from zero, meaning that teams were reduced if players' injuries could not allow them to play on, to one in 1958; to two out of a possible five in 1988. With the later increases in substitutions allowed, the number of potential substitute players increased to seven.[17] The number of substitutes increased to two plus one (injured goalkeeper) in 1994,[18] to three in 1995;[19][20] and most recently to a fourth substitute in certain competitions (starting from UEFA Euro 2016) in extra time.[21]

    In 2020, following a proposal from FIFA, the International Football Association Board allowed for competition organisers to temporarily allow for a maximum of five substitutions (with an additional allowed in extra time, where applicable) to be made in official matches for the remainder of the year in order to lessen the impact of fixture congestion caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there will only be three opportunities to make substitutions (with an additional allowed in extra time, where applicable), excluding those made at half-time, before the start of extra time and at half-time in extra time.[22]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    How many substitutes are allowed at World Cup 2022?

    Brush up on the FIFA World Cup substitution rules including what happens if a game goes into extra time.

    How many substitutes are allowed at World Cup 2022?

    Three subs or five? How about six? Here's everything you need to know about World Cup substitutions…

    By Joe Short

    Published: Sunday, 20th November 2022 at 10:00 am

    Share on facebook Share on twitter Share on pinterest Share on reddit Email to a friend

    There are many unique things about the 2022 World Cup and one of them is the increased number of substitutes. For the first time in World Cup history there is the possibility that more players from the bench will finish a game than actually started it.


    Football’s substitution rules have undergone something of a transformation since COVID-19 and it looks like they’re here to stay.

    In fact, critics argue the changes have only further aided the strongest club teams in the world, and are likely to benefit the big guns on the international stage this winter too.

    So, what are the World Cup substitution rules all about? RadioTimes.com is here to bring you everything you need to know…

    For more World Cup features check out: World Cup 2022 TV schedule | World Cup 2022 kits ranked | World Cup 2022 stadiums | Best players at the World Cup

    How many substitutes are allowed at World Cup 2022?

    Teams will be able to make five substitutions at the 2022 World Cup. This is a step up from three permitted during the 2018 World Cup in Russia, and falls in line with many European domestic leagues, as well as Euro 2020 and the UEFA Nations League.

    However, managers will be restricted to when they can use their five subs. Each team will be given just three in-game opportunities to make changes, plus the chance to do so at half time. It means a manager cannot opt to make five separate substitutions over 90 minutes, but must at least combine two into one ‘break’ of play.

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    World Cup substitution rule change

    There was once a time when substitutes weren’t permitted in World Cup games. In fact, England’s 1966 triumph was the last time teams couldn’t field any more than the XI they started with for a game.

    Substitutions were permitted for the first time at a World Cup in 1970, and by the 1994 World Cup in the USA three subs were allowed. Having three permitted substitutions lasted for the next 26 years and it appeared as though FIFA wouldn’t budge on it.

    Indeed, FIFA considered introducing a fourth sub in extra time for the 2014 World Cup but decided against it. In the end it was only with the introduction of COVID-19 measures in 2020 that football increased its three-sub rule.

    More like this

    How many substitutes are allowed at Euro 2020?

    Managers argued that they needed extra subs in order to balance the workload on players who were competing in a congested fixture schedule because of the COVID-19 hiatus. The Premier League and a number of European leagues accepted this as a temporary measure, but have since made it permanent.

    How World Cup subs work in extra time

    These days a manager has five substitutions available to them per World Cup game. But they also get an additional sixth option if the game goes to extra time.

    Now, a team only gets one extra sub after 90 minutes. But they can still deploy any unused subs here too. IFAB’s rules state: “If a team has not used the maximum number of substitutes and/or substitution opportunities, any unused substitutes and substitution opportunities may be used in extra time.”

    So, if England have only used three in a game against Argentina and it goes to extra time, they have three more available.

    “The decision follows a global analysis of the ongoing impact of COVID-19 on football,” IFAB said in a statement last year.

    How many players on the bench at the World Cup?

    While FIFA has permitted teams to use more subs during World Cup games for the first time, they have also expanded the squad size for games. Managers can now pick 26 players to fill their squad, rather than the previous limit of 23.

    It means Gareth Southgate and co can test out a few more options before naming their starting XIs. Fifteen subs will fill each bench at the World Cup, with as many as 11 further seats available for team officials and staff members.

    Check out our World Cup hub for all the latest from Qatar 2022, including match previews, predictions and analysis.If you’re looking for something else to watch, check out our TV Guide or visit our Sport hub.


    The latest issue of Radio Times magazine is released on sale now – subscribe now. For more from the biggest stars in TV, listen to the Radio Times View From My Sofa podcast.

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    स्रोत : www.radiotimes.com

    How many substitutions allowed in Premier League in 2022/23? Why rules were changed

    Premier League clubs will be permitted to make up to five substitutions during each top-flight game in 2022/23 following a major rule change.


    How many substitutions allowed in Premier League in 2022/23? Why rules were changed

    Feargal Brennan , Kyle Bonn 10-01-2022 • 6 min read

    The 2022/23 Premier League season involves a key change after club shareholders agreed to a change on substitution rules back in March.

    Following a consultation and vote from all 20 Premier League CEOs, managers are now permitted to make five substitutions per game, within a new framework.

    Jenny Taft explores Qatar's culture ahead of the 2022 FIFA World Cup

    Pause Next video 0:00 / 0:00 Full-screen

    Five changes per match were initially allowed during the Covid-19 disrupted season of 2019/20, but that was reversed back to three ahead of the 2020/21 campaign.

    However, despite opinion appearing to be split within Premier League circles, clubs voted in favour of a return to the five-sub rule.

    MORE: Which teams are in the 2022-23 UEFA Champions League?

    How many substitutions allowed in Premier League in 2022/23?

    From the 2022/23 season, Premier League teams will be permitted to make up to five substitutions in a single game.

    The rules around the new allowance are subject to certain restrictions along the same lines as they initially were in 2019/20.

    Managers can now name a maximum of nine substitutes on their matchday team sheet, including goalkeepers, with in-game changes only allowed at three intervals.

    A total of five substitutions can be made in regular time (90 minutes plus added time) but each manager is only permitted three opportunities to make those changes, including halftime and hydration breaks.

    Why has the Premier League changed the subs rule?

    The Premier League has consistently stated its case as an issue of player welfare, particularly ahead of the 2022 World Cup this year.

    "The wellbeing of players and staff remains a priority and the Premier League continues to monitor the national Covid-19 situation and adapt protocols as required, in line with the latest guidance from public health authorities and medical experts," it said through an official statement.

    The bulk of major leagues across Europe opted to retain their own Covid-19-enforced five substitutions rule, with the Premier League remaining as an outlier.

    Pep Guardiola and Jurgen Klopp led the calls for change, but it was opposed by managers and fans of 'smaller' teams, due to its perceived benefit for bigger squads filled with star talent.

    However, despite the controversy, the Premier League change was backed by the Professional Footballers' Association.

    "The adoption of this rule is a welcome step forward in what needs to be an ongoing effort to address issues with player fatigue," said PFA Chief Executive Maheta Molango.

    Experts believe that the evolution of the game on and off the field lends to a more rigorous playing style, and along with the increased fixture schedule, this change was necessary.

    "Without a doubt, the tempo of the game his higher today than it was last season and the season before," Chris Barnes, a sports scientist for UEFA working alongside sports performance tech company Catapult, told The Sporting News, "and we have seen a trend now for over 12 years where the tempo of the game has increased."

    "This is probably the most random game in the world, and so in order to function effectively within that, players physically have to withstand repeated bouts of high intensity work interspersed by low intensity work," Barnes said. "What we've seen, quite simply, is the number of these bouts and the intensity of these bouts year over years has increased.

    "This change has been brought in because of the concerns expressed by coaches and staff. They are concerned to a multitude of factors that include travel and recovery, and ultimately it's about performance."

    Who will the rule help or hinder in 2022/23?

    The main criticism of the rule change is the ability of Premier League big-hitters, such as champions Manchester City, Liverpool, Chelsea and Tottenham Hotspur, to make extra substitutions from a star-studded squad.

    The argument goes that teams further down the Premier League food chain are restricted in what changes they can make, due to financial limitations and squad depth.

    An ability to make changes to punish a tired defence with fresh attacking options favours the likes of City and Liverpool, with the 2021/22 numbers backing up the concerns.

    As per data from March 2022, City and Liverpool were joint-second for goals scored by substitutes in Premier League action, with six each.

    Manchester United were No.1 on the list, with 10 goals off the bench, including four from England star Marcus Rashford.

    Squad depth also allows for greater scope on mid-game changes — particularly in the busy New Year period — with United again leading the way with 79 substitutions made in the first seven months of the 2021/22 season. Of course, United ended up enduring their worst ever Premier League season, with a return of 58 points.

    स्रोत : www.sportingnews.com

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