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    in a ____________, respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other.

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    2.Survey: Measurement and Scaling 2.3 Non-Comparative Scales Classification of Scaling Techniques   Non-Comparative Scales: Continuous Rating Scale Continuous Rating Scale – Respondents rate objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other. Continuous Rating Scale: Perception Analyzer Itemized Rating Scales: […]

    2.Survey: Measurement and Scaling

    2.Survey: Measurement and Scaling 2.3 Non-Comparative Scales

    Classification of Scaling Techniques

    Non-Comparative Scales: Continuous Rating Scale

    Continuous Rating Scale – Respondents rate objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other.

    Continuous Rating Scale: Perception Analyzer

    Itemized Rating Scales: Likert Scale

    Likert Scale – Requires respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements about the stimulus object within typically five to seven response categories.

    NOTICE the reversed scoring of items 2,4,5, and 6. Reverse the scale for these items prior analyzing to be consistent with the whole set of items, i.e. a higher score should denote a more favorable attitude.

    Likert Scale: Examples

    Some Commonly Used Scales in Marketing

    Construct Scale Descriptors

    Attitude Very bad Bad

    Neither Bad Nor Good

    Good Very Good Importance

    Not at All Important

    Not Important Neutral Important Very Important Satisfaction Very Dissatisfied

    (Somewhat) Dissatisfied

    Neither Dissatisfied Nor Satisfied / Neutral

    (Somewhat) Satisfied

    Very Satisfied Purchase Intention

    Definitely Will Not Buy

    Probably will Not Buy

    Might or Might Not Buy

    Probably Will Buy Definitely Will Buy Purchase Frequency Never Rarely Sometimes Often Very Often Agreement Strongly Disagree Disagree

    Neither Agree Nor Disagree

    Agree Strongly Agree

    Itemized Rating Scales: Semantic Differential

    Semantic Differential – A rating scale with end point associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. Respondents are to indicate how accurately or inaccurately each term describes the object.

    NOTE: The negative adjective sometimes appears at the left side of the scale and sometimes at the right. This controls the tendency of some respondents, particularly those with very positive

    or very negative attitudes, to mark the right- or left-hand sides without reading the labels.

    Semantic Differential Scale: Example

    Measuring Self-Concepts, Person Concepts, and Product Concepts

    blue – Rating profiles of different objects / respondents / segments.

    orange – Each point corresponds to a mean or median of the respective scale.

    Semantic profiles of shampoo brands “Herbal Magic” and “Elseve” in comparison with an ideal shampoo from consumers’ point of view

    blue – Ideal shampoo

    orange – Elseve

    green – Herbal Magic

    Itemized Rating Scales: Stapel Scale

    Stapel Scale – An unipolar rating scale with 10 categories numbered from -5 to +5 without neutral point (zero).

    Used as an alternative to semantic differential, especially when a meaningful pair of opposed adjectives is difficult to construct.

    Basic Non-Comparative Scales

    Scale Basic Characteristics Examples Advantages Disadvantages

    Continuous Rating Scale

    Place a mark on a continuous line

    Reaction to TV commercials

    Easy to construct

    Scoring can be cumbersome, unless computerized

    Likert Scale

    Degrees of agreements on a 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) scale

    Measurement of attitudes

    Easy to construct, administer and understand

    More time-consuming

    Semantic Differential

    Seven-point scale with bipolar labels

    Brand, product, and company images

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    mkt 3413 Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like The assignment of numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain prespecified rules is called measurement. T or F, The generation of a continuum upon which measured objects are located is called sampling. T or F, When we measure the perceptions, attitudes, and preferences of consumers, we are not measuring the object but some characteristic of it.. t or f and more.

    mkt 3413

    Term 1 / 103

    The assignment of numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain prespecified rules is called measurement. T or F

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    Definition 1 / 103 TRUE

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    Created by sullivantaylor

    Terms in this set (103)

    The assignment of numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain prespecified rules is called measurement. T or F

    TRUE

    The generation of a continuum upon which measured objects are located is called sampling. T or F

    False

    When we measure the perceptions, attitudes, and preferences of consumers, we are not measuring the object but some characteristic of it.. t or f

    true

    A scale whose numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects with a strict one-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the objects is called an ordinal scale. T OR F

    False

    Nominal scales are recognized as the most basic or limited. T OR F

    True

    Preference rankings, market position, and social class are examples of interval scales. T or F

    False

    According to the text, interval scales are the simplest to use. T OR F

    FALSE

    The most complex of the primary scales of measurement is the ratio scale. T OR F

    TRUE

    Nominal scales are used for classification and identification purposes only. T OR F

    TRUE

    Mutually exclusive means that there is no overlap between classes and every object being measured falls into only one class. T OR F

    TRUE

    In marketing research, ordinal scales are used to measure market share. T OR F

    FALSE

    The numbers assigned in a nominal scale do not reflect relative amounts of the characteristic being measured. T OR F

    TRUE

    A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which some characteristic is possessed is called a nominal scale. T OR F

    FALSE

    A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which some characteristic is possessed is called an ordinal scale. T OR F

    TRUE

    Common examples of ordinal scales include educational levels and social security numbers. T OR F

    FALSE

    An interval scale is a scale in which the numbers are used to rate objects such that numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal distances in the characteristic being measured. T OR F

    TRUE

    A ratio scale is the highest level of measurement and allows the researcher to identify or classify objects, rank order the objects, and compare intervals or differences. T OR F

    TRUE

    Temperature scales such as Celsius and Fahrenheit are examples of interval scales. T OR F

    TRUE

    Because the zero point is fixed in interval scales, it is not meaningful to take ratios of scale values. T OR F

    FALSE

    The scaling techniques commonly used in marketing research can be classified into comparative and noncomparative scales. T OR F

    TRUE

    A noncomparative scale is one of the two types of scaling techniques in which there is direct comparison of stimulus objects with one another. T OR F

    FALSE

    A noncomparative scale is one of two types of scaling techniques in which each stimulus object is scaled independently of the others. T OR F

    TRUE

    The major benefit of comparative scaling is that it is the most widely used scaling technique. T OR F

    FALSE

    According to the text, noncomparative scales are also referred to as nonmetric scaling.

    FALSE

    Interval scales are widely used in marketing research.

    true

    According to the text, semantic differential scaling is a comparative scaling technique.

    false

    A comparative scaling technique in which a respondent is presented with two objects at a time and asked to select one object in the pair according to some criterion is called paired comparison scaling.

    true

    Paired comparison scaling is useful when the number of brands under consideration is limited to no more than seven

    false

    A comparative scaling technique in which respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion is called rank order scaling

    true

    The most popular comparative scaling technique is semantic differential scaling.

    false

    Constant sum scaling forces the respondent to discriminate among alternatives and also comes closer to resembling the shopping environment

    false

    In paired comparison scaling, respondents allocate a constant sum of units, such as points, dollars, or chips, among a set of alternatives according to some specified criterion.

    false

    According to the text, the constant sum should be considered an ordinal scale.

    true

    All the primary scales and all the comparative scales that have been discussed in the book can be easily implemented in social media with the exception of ratio scales.

    false

    An analysis of social media content can shed light on the level of measurement that is appropriate in a given project.

    true

    An analysis of social media content can provide guidance on the type of scaling techniques, comparative or noncomparative, to use.

    true

    A noncomparative scale is one of two types of scaling techniques in which each stimulus object is scaled independently of the other objects in the stimulus set.

    स्रोत : quizlet.com

    Attitude Scales

    Attitude is a resultant of number of external and internal factors. Depending upon the attitude to be measured, appropriate scales are designed.

    Attitude Scales - Rating Scales to measure data

    Attitude Scales - Rating Scales to measure data Scaling Techniques for Measuring Data Gathered from Respondents

    The term scaling is applied to the attempts to measure the attitude objectively. Attitude is a resultant of number of external and internal factors. Depending upon the attitude to be measured, appropriate scales are designed. Scaling is a technique used for measuring qualitative responses of respondents such as those related to their feelings, perception, likes, dislikes, interests and preferences.

    Types of Scales

    Most frequently used Scales

    Nominal Scale Ordinal Scale Interval Scale Ratio Scale

    Self Rating Scales

    Graphic Rating Scale

    Itemized Rating Scales

    Likert Scale

    Semantic Differential Scale

    Stapel’s Scale

    Multi Dimensional Scaling

    Thurston Scales

    Guttman Scales/Scalogram Analysis

    The Q Sort technique

    Four types of scales are generally used for Marketing Research.

    Nominal Scale

    This is a very simple scale. It consists of assignment of facts/choices to various alternative categories which are usually exhaustive as well mutually exclusive. These scales are just numerical and are the least restrictive of all the scales. Instances of Nominal Scale are - credit card numbers, bank account numbers, employee id numbers etc. It is simple and widely used when relationship between two variables is to be studied. In a Nominal Scale numbers are no more than labels and are used specifically to identify different categories of responses. Following example illustrates -

    What is your gender?

    [  ] Male[  ] Female

    Another example is - a survey of retail stores done on two dimensions - way of maintaining stocks and daily turnover.

    How do you stock items at present?

    [  ] By product category[  ] At a centralized store[  ] Department wise[  ] Single warehouse

    Daily turnover of consumer is?

    [  ] Between 100 – 200[  ] Between 200 – 300[  ] Above 300

    A two way classification can be made as follows

    Daily/Stock Turnover Method Product Category Department wise Centralized Store Single Warehouse

    100 – 200 200 – 300 Above 300

    is frequently used for response category.

    Ordinal Scale

    Ordinal scales are the simplest attitude measuring scale used in Marketing Research. It is more powerful than a nominal scale in that the numbers possess the property of rank order. The ranking of certain product attributes/benefits as deemed important by the respondents is obtained through the scale.

    Example 1: Rank the following attributes (1 - 5), on their importance in a microwave oven.

    Company Name Functions Price Comfort Design

    The most important attribute is ranked 1 by the respondents and the least important is ranked 5. Instead of numbers, letters or symbols too can be used to rate in a ordinal scale. Such scale makes no attempt to measure the degree of favourability of different rankings.

    Example 2 - If there are 4 different types of fertilizers and if they are ordered on the basis of quality as Grade A, Grade B, Grade C, Grade D is again an Ordinal Scale.Example 3 - If there are 5 different brands of Talcom Powder and if a respondent ranks them based on say, “Freshness” into Rank 1 having maximum Freshness Rank 2 the second maximum Freshness, and so on, an Ordinal Scale results.

    and are meaningful for ordinal scale.

    Interval Scale

    Herein the distance between the various categories unlike in Nominal, or numbers unlike in Ordinal, are equal in case of Interval Scales. The Interval Scales are also termed as Rating Scales. An Interval Scale has an arbitrary Zero point with further numbers placed at equal intervals. A very good example of Interval Scale is a Thermometer.

    Illustration 1 - How do you rate your present refrigerator for the following qualities. Company Name Less Known 1 2 3 4 5 Well KnownFunctions Few 1 2 3 4 5 ManyPrice Low 1 2 3 4 5 HighDesign Poor 1 2 3 4 5 Good Overall Satisfaction Very Dis-Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 Very Satisfied

    Such a scale permits the researcher to say that position 5 on the scale is above position 4 and also the distance from 5 to 4 is same as distance from 4 to 3. Such a scale however does not permit conclusion that position 4 is twice as strong as position 2 because no zero position has been established. The data obtained from the Interval Scale can be used to calculate the Mean scores of each attributes over all respondents. The Standard Deviation (a measure of dispersion) can also be calculated.

    Ratio Scale

    Ratio Scales are not widely used in Marketing Research unless a base item is made available for comparison. In the above example of Interval scale, a score of 4 in one quality does not necessarily mean that the respondent is twice more satisfied than the respondent who marks 2 on the scale. A Ratio scale has a natural zero point and further numbers are placed at equally appearing intervals. For example scales for measuring physical quantities like - length, weight, etc.

    The ratio scales are very common in physical scenarios. Quantified responses forming a ratio scale analytically are the most versatile. Rati scale possess all he characteristics of an internal scale, and the ratios of the numbers on these scales have meaningful interpretations. Data on certain demographic or descriptive attributes, if they are obtained through open-ended questions, will have ratio-scale properties. Consider the following questions :

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