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    in a typical embedded systems, lm35 is a _________ and 5v electromagnetic relay to drive 230 lamp is a _________


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    get in a typical embedded systems, lm35 is a _________ and 5v electromagnetic relay to drive 230 lamp is a _________ from screen.

    Relays and Actuators

    Relays and actuators, electromechanical relays and solid state relays including necessary pictures.

    Relays and Actuators

    Relays and actuators are important hardware parts of an embedded system. While an actuator acts as a device which helps to bring about necessary mechanical movements a relay basically works as a switch. Relays are used instead of switches because of several of their advantages over the mechanical switches which will be discussed here in this chapter. So this chapter will tell you more about actuators and relays.


    As mentioned above, actuators are devices which bring about necessary mechanical movements in a physical process in a factory. Actuator constitutes two distinct modules which are the signal amplifier and the transducer. While the amplifier converts the low power control signal into a high power signal the transducer converts this amplified signal into the required energy form.

    Since the function of an actuator is similar to a transducer itself, actuators are classed as transducers. Just like a transducer, actuators convert an electrical signal into a corresponding physical quantity such as movement, force, sound etc. Actuators are normally operated by a low voltage command signal.

    Based on the number of stable states the actuator output possess, actuators are classified as binary or continuous devices.

    A relay is regarded as a binary actuator as it has two stable states. Relays are either energized and latched or de-energized and unlatched. Meanwhile, a motor is considered as a continuous actuator as it rotates through a full circle. Apart from the relays, lights, motors, and loudspeakers are also the most common types of output devices.


    Switches are very commonly used devices but they have several disadvantages when compared to other similar devices available in the market. One of the main disadvantages is their comparatively larger size. Another main disadvantage is that these switches have to be manually turned on and off. In order to overcome these drawbacks of switches, relays are used. Relays are those devices which can be turned on/off by the application of a low voltage across the relay terminals.

    Relays are commonly found in automatic control applications as they are able to control an equipment with the help of electric signals. According to the mode of operation, relays can be classified as normally open and normally closed. In the normally open relays, the contacts are connected when the actuation terminals are energized while in normally closed relays, it is connected to the power supply when the relay actuation terminals are not connected. There are relays with high current capacity and they are called contactors.

    There is single pole single throw (SPST) relay, double pole single throw (DPST) relay, single pole double throw (SPDT) and double pole double throw (DPDT) relays as in the case of mechanical switches.

    Electromechanical Relays

    A relay has electrical and mechanical components and therefore can be regarded as an electromechanical device. such a device consists of three contact terminal known as common (COM), normally closed (NC) and normally opened(NO). In order to control the electric circuit, the relays close and open these contacts. An electromechanical relay consists of three terminals namely common (COM), normally closed (NC) and normally opened (NO) contacts. These can either get opened or closed when the relay is in operation.

    Electromechanical relays can work on both AC and DC supply sources. Even though there are several differences in the constructional aspects, both the AC and DC relays work on the principle of electromagnetic induction. One of the major differences is that the AC relays have special circuit arrangement to provide continuous magnetic field as in an AC relay, the demagnetization of coil happens each time it reaches the current zero position.

    Most of the electromechanical relays are either attracted type or induction type. The basic working principle of attracted type relays is the electromagnetic attraction. The armature is attracted towards the electromagnet and this electromagnetic force is directly proportional to the square of the magnetic flux or square of the current in the air gap. The attracted type relays are further classified as hinged armature type, plunger type, balanced beam type, moving coil type and reed type.

    As is suggested by the name itself, the induction type electromechanical relays are working on the principle of electromagnetic induction and they can only work with AC sources. The force required for the operation which is otherwise called the actuation force is developed as two alternating magnetic fluxes interact. These types of relays are again classified into shaded pole, induction cup type, and watt-hour meter type relays.

    Solid State Relays

    Solid state relays came into existence as an answer to several drawbacks of electromechanical relays. The limitations of electromechanical relays include limited contact cycle life and high expenses to build. Besides, it switches very slowly and when it comes to larger power contactor relays, these limitations become more obvious. The solid state relays make use of TRIAC or transistor output to switch the controlled power, replacing the mechanical contacts.

    स्रोत : openlabpro.com

    LM35 Temperature Sensor Pin out, Interfacing guide, Circuit Construction and Working Principals

    LM35 is a temperature sensor that outputs an analog signal which is proportional to the instantaneous temperature. The output voltage can easily be interpreted to obtain a temperature reading in Celsius. The advantage of lm35 over thermistor is it does not require any external calibration. The coating also protects it from self-heating. Low cost (approximately…

    LM35 Temperature Sensor Pin out, Interfacing guide, Circuit Construction and Working Principals

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    LM35 is a temperature sensor that outputs an analog signal which is proportional to the instantaneous temperature. The output voltage can easily be interpreted to obtain a temperature reading in Celsius. The advantage of lm35 over thermistor is it does not require any external calibration. The coating also protects it from self-heating. Low cost (approximately $0.95) and greater accuracy make it popular among hobbyists, DIY circuit makers, and students. Many low-end products take advantage of low cost, greater accuracy and used LM35 in their products. Its approximately 15+ years to its first release but the sensor is still surviving and is used in any products.

    LM35 Temperature sensor Features

    Calibrated Directly in Celsius (Centigrade)

    Linear + 10-mV/°C Scale Factor

    0.5°C Ensured Accuracy (at 25°C)

    Rated for Full −55°C to 150°C Range

    Suitable for Remote Applications

    Operates from 4 V to 30 V

    Less than 60-µA Current Drain

    Low Self-Heating, 0.08°C in Still Air

    Non-Linearity Only ±¼°C Typical

    Low-Impedance Output, 0.1 Ω for 1-mA Load

    LM35 Pin Out

    LM35 Pin out

    ​LM35 can measure from -55 degrees centigrade to 150-degree centigrade. The accuracy level is very high if operated at optimal temperature and humidity levels. The conversion of the output voltage to centigrade is also easy and straight forward.

    ​The input voltage to LM35 can be from +4 volts to 30 volts. It consumes about 60 microamperes of current. Lm35 has many family members a few names are LM35C, LM35CA, LM35D, LM135, LM135A, LM235, LM335. All LM35 family members work on the same principles but temperature measuring capacity varies and also they are available in many packages (SOIC, TO-220, TO-92, TO ).

    LM35 Working Principle (Understanding LM35 Linear Scale Factor)

    LM35 scale factor

    In order to understand the working principle of LM35 temperature sensor we have to understand the linear scale factor. In the features of LM35 it is given to be +10 mills volt per degree centigrade. It means that with increase in output of 10 mills volt by the sensor vout pin the temperature value increases by one. For example, if the sensor is outputting 100 mills volt at vout pin the temperature in centigrade will be 10-degree centigrade. The same goes for the negative temperature reading. If the sensor is outputting -100 mills volt the temperature will be -10 degrees Celsius.

    LM35 temperature sensor circuit configuration

    LM35 can be used in two circuit configurations. Both yield different results. In the first configuration, you can only measure the positive temperature from 2 degrees Celsius to 150 degrees Celsius. In this first configuration, we simply power lm35 and connect the output directly to analog to digital converters. In the second configuration, we can utilize all the sensor resources and can measure the full range temperature from -55 degree centigrade to 150-degree centigrade. This configuration is a little complex but yields high results. We have to connect an external resistor, in this case, to switch the level of negative voltage upwards. The external resistor value can be calculated from the formula given below the configuration circuit. The second configuration circuit can be made in various ways.To see about the second configuration circuits visit the LM35 datasheet by Texas Instruments. Texas Instruments data sheet enlists the circuit with clear component values.

    Although the first configuration did not need a resistor at the output side, I recommend connecting an 80 k to 100 k resistor between vout and gnd pin. When I performed several experiments I noticed that the readings some time fluctuate and the vout pin floats. So a resistor between vout and gnd tights the vout pin low and prevents the pin from floating.

    LM35 accuracy level

    The accuracy parameters for both configurations are different. The average accuracy level is +- 1 degree Celsius for both configurations. But the accuracy level decreases for temperature between 2 degrees to 25-degree centigrade. Now that we have discussed the LM35 temperature sensor pinout, structure, linear scale factor and accuracy level its time to list down the steps on how to measure temperature using LM35 temperature sensor.

    Steps to calculate temperature using LM35 temperature sensor

    Build circuit.

    Power LM35 vcc to +5-20 volts and gnd to ground.

    Connect Vout to analog to digital converter input.

    Sample the ADC reading, vout output voltage.

    Convert the voltage to temperature.

    Formula to convert voltage to temperature

    The formula to convert the voltage to centigrade temperature for LM35 is

    Centigrade Temperature = Voltage Read by ADC / 10 mV(mills Volt) 

    I divided by 10 mV because Linear scale factor is for LM35 is 10mV.

    स्रोत : www.engineersgarage.com

    Interfacing 5V Relay Module with Arduino

    Interfacing 5V Relay Module with Arduino | microdigisoft.com

    Interfacing 5V Relay Module with Arduino

    October 3, 2021

    In this post we are going to understand the basic concept of Relays and there use with Arduino UNO to control AC household appliances. This tutorial explains how to control a relay module with the Arduino. We have seen earlier controlling relay module with ESP32 controller. Let us use of the same concept to build this simple Home Automation Project to control 230VAC bulb using Arduino Uno controller

    About Relays

    If you are from the electronics field, this word must be prevalent and if you are not let us discuss about it. Relays are the switches which aim at closing and opening the circuits electronically as well as electromechanically. It controls the opening and closing of the circuit contacts of an electronic circuit. When the relay contact is open (NO), the relay isn’t energize with the open contact. However, if it is closed (NC), the relay isn’t energize given the closed contact. However, when energy (electricity or charge) is supplied, the states are prone to change.

    Relays are normally used in the control panels, manufacturing and building automation to control the power along with switching the smaller current values in a control circuit. However, the supply of amplifying effect can help control the large amperes and voltages because if low voltage is applied to the relay coil, a large voltage can be switched by the contacts.

    A relay is an electrically operated switch and like any other switch, it that can be turned on or off. Relays are the low voltage controlled device which can be available from 3V to 24V based on your need for the control system.


    Multichannel Relay Modules

    There are different Relay modules with a different number of channels. You can find relay modules with one, two, four, eight and even sixteen channels.

    Relay Pinout

    In our project we are going to use Single-channel relay module. As Arduino board can supply max 3.3V or 5V we are using a 5V relay module. Any relay basically having three terminal contact to connect output load i.e. common (COM), Normally Closed (NC), and Normally Open (NO).

    COM (Common): This terminal features the user to connect what voltage you want to draw to run the load. for example 230VAC Bulb.NC (Normally Closed): The normally closed contact terminal is used when you want the relay to be closed by default. The NC are COM pins are connected. Means load is in always high or ON condition until we switch on the relays. As soon relay is ON the load will turn OFF by switching relay to NO contact.NO (Normally Open): The normally open contact terminal is used when you want to switch on the load based on your need. To switch on the output load we need to trigger the relay to High Status.

    Control or Trigger Pins

    Every relays has two voltage sides one is (i.e. input) low voltage to Turn ON the Relay and other side i.e (output) low to voltage side to control the output load. The first set consists of +V and -V to power up the module and to trigger or Turn ON the Relays has controls or Trigger Pins like (IN1, IN2…INn) as per number of relays channels you used. In our case only one Trigger (Trig) Pin in available. In many of the relays additional potentiometer is provide to adjust the Turn on time or Turn off time. this type relays also called as On-Delay or Off-Delay type relay.

    Components Required

    To build this project we need the following parts:

    Arduino UNO Relay Module 230VAC Bulb Breadboard Jumper wires

    Connecting a Relay Module to the Arduino UNO

    Connect the relay module to the Arduino UNO as shown in the following diagram. The diagram shows wiring for a Single-channel relay module, wiring a different number of channels is similar.

    Warning:  In this project we are dealing with high voltage (230VAC). Please be careful while making circuitry and connecting the load. Any misuse and wrong handling leads serious Injuries or heavy body shock. Also please use proper jumper and wire to interface Relay module with Arduino Uno to avoid damage to the board. Alternatively, you can use a 12V power source to control 12V appliances.

    Pinout and Schematic

    स्रोत : microdigisoft.com

    Do you want to see answer or more ?
    Mohammed 2 month ago

    Guys, does anyone know the answer?

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