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# in the integral cycle control method of ac voltage controller

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### Mohammed

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## Power Electronics

Power Electronics - Integral Cycle Control, Integral cycle controllers are converters with the ability to perform direct switching without losses. The process directly converts AC to AC without having to

## Power Electronics - Integral Cycle Control

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Integral cycle controllers are converters with the ability to perform direct switching without losses. The process directly converts AC to AC without having to perform the intermediate processes of AC to DC then DC to AC.

The basic integral control cycle is sinusoidal in nature. It operates by combining and eliminating higher frequency half cycles from AC input. The controllers are normally, turned ON of OFF during half cycles where the voltage input is at zero since only the full or half cycles are utilized. Therefore, integral cycle circuits achieve switching at zero voltage without requiring a resonant circuit.

The diagram below shows a simple integral cycle controller. It contains a load and a power switch, which performs the direct conversion. This diagram shows the conversion of source frequency from a factor of three to one.

## Power Factor Control

Power factor control, also known as correction of power factor, is the process of reducing the amount of reactive power. The power electronic device used in this case is called a power factor controller [Math Processing Error]

PFC

. From the power triangle [Math Processing Error]

whichcomprisesreactive,trueandapparentpower

, the reactive power is at right angle [Math Processing Error]

90°

to the true power and is used to energize the magnetic field. Although reactive power does not have a real value in electronic equipment, the bill for electricity comprises real and reactive power costs. This makes it necessary to have power factor controllers in electronic devices.

Power factor [Math Processing Error]

k

is defined as the ratio of the real power [Math Processing Error]

inkW

to the reactive power [Math Processing Error]

inkVAr

. Its value ranges from 0 to 1. If a device has a power factor of 0.8 and above, it is said to be using power efficiently. Incorporating a PFC ensures the power factor ranges from 0.95 to 0.99. Power factor controllers are mainly in industrial equipment to minimize reactive power generated by fluorescent lighting and electric motors.

To ensure power factor is improved without causing harmonic distortion, the conventional capacitors should not be used. Instead, filters [Math Processing Error]

combinationofcapacitorsandreactors

for harmonic suppression are used. The figure below shows a harmonic filter.

The above type of harmonic filter is referred to as a single tuned filter. A quality factor Q of this filter is defined as quality factor of its reactance (XL) at Q [Math Processing Error]

tuningfrequency

where Q is given by (nXL/R).

स्रोत : www.tutorialspoint.com

## Integral Cycle Control of AC Voltage Controller

Integral Cycle Control is a strategy to control the output voltage of AC voltage controller. In this strategy, load is connected to the source for an integral number of cycle of input supply and then disconnected by switching off the supply for a further number of integral cycles. This strategy is also known as on-off ... Read more

## Integral Cycle Control of AC Voltage Controller

Integral Cycle Control is a strategy to control the output voltage of AC voltage controller. In this strategy, load is connected to the source for an integral number of cycle of input supply and then disconnected by switching off the supply for a further number of integral cycles. This strategy is also known as on-off control, burst firing, zero-voltage switching, cycle selection or cycle syncopation.

For regulating the power flow in an AC voltage controller, control strategy are of two types: Phase Control or Integral Cycle Control.

In Phase control, the phase relationship between the start of load current and the input supply voltage is controlled by controlling the firing angle of the thyristor. You may refer “AC Voltage Controller” to better understand the phase control method. In this article, we will discuss Integral Cycle Control in detail.

In Integral Cycle Control, the AC input supply is switched ON for some integral cycles and turned OFF for further number of integral cycles. Integral cycle control is mainly used for applications where the mechanical time constant or thermal time constant is quite high of the order of some seconds. For example, mechanical time constant for many of the speed control drives, or the thermal time constant of the heating loads is usually quite high. For such applications, almost no variation in speed or temperature will be noticed if the control is achieved by connection the load to the source for some on-cycles and then disconnecting the load for some off-cycles. This form of power control is the integral cycle control.

Let us consider the circuit diagram of single phase full wave AC voltage controller.

Let us assume that ig1 & ig2 be the gate pulse of thyristors T1 & T2 respectively. Load is assumed resistive in the circuit diagram. Now, carefully observe the waveforms shown below.

Thyristor T1 is fired at every positive crossing of zero voltage till 3 cycles. Whereas, thyristor T2 is gated at every negative crossing of zero voltage till 3 cycles. This scheme of switching ON of T1 & T2 will result in continuous flow of power from source to load for three cycles of supply input. It should also be noted here that thyristor T1 & T2 are naturally commutated at every negative & positive crossing of zero voltage respectively. In the above waveform, the load is connected to the source for just three cycles. We may use this strategy to connect load to source for “n” number of cycles.

Now, after three cycles, none of the thyristors T1 & T2 are fired for two cycles. This will disconnect to load for two cycles. We may use this method to switch off the supply to the load for “m” number of cycles. During this period, no power flows from source to the load.

In this manner, process of turn-on and turn-off is repeated for the control of load power. By varying the number of “n” & “m” cycles, power delivered to the load can be regulated as desired. Thus, the average power delivered to the load is controlled in integral cycle control of AC voltage controller.

Integral Cycle Control introduces less harmonics into the supply system, therefore integral cycle control method is used for heating loads and for motor control drives.

स्रोत : electricalbaba.com

## In the integral cycle control method of ac voltage controllera)the average power delivered to the load is controlledb)the instantaneous power delivered to the load is controlledc)the frequency of output voltage is controlledd)none of the mentionedCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

In integral cycle control, power is delivered for m cycles and not delivered for n cycles. Hence, the average value of the power delivered is controlled by manipulating m and n.

Electrical Engineering (EE) Question  >  In the integral cycle control method of ac vo...

In the integral cycle control method of ac voltage controller

a)

the average power delivered to the load is controlled

b)

the instantaneous power delivered to the load is controlled

c)

the frequency of output voltage is controlled

d)

none of the mentioned

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In the integral cycle control method of ac voltage controllera)the average power delivered to the load is controlledb)the instantaneous power delivered to the load is controlledc)the frequency of output voltage is controlledd)none of the mentionedCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

In integral cycle control, power is delivered for m cycles and not delivered for n cycles. Hence, the average value of the power delivered is controlled by manipulating m and n.

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Mohammed 14 day ago

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