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    indian constitution 1.  regulates citizenship 2. guarantees us fundamental rights 3. guarantees rights of religious freedom 4. all of the above


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    Fundamental rights in India

    Fundamental rights in India

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The Fundamental Rights in India enshrined in part III (Article 12-32) of the Constitution of India guarantee civil liberties such that all Indians can lead their lives in peace and harmony as citizens of India. These rights are known as "fundamental" as they are most essential for all-round development i.e., material, intellectual, moral and spiritual and protected by fundamental law of the land i.e. constitution.If the rights provided by Constitution i.e., The Fundamental rights have been damaged The Parliament can take strict actions, according to Article 32.

    These include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before law, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom to practice religion and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights by means of writs such as habeas corpus. Violations of these rights result in punishments as prescribed in the Indian Penal Code, subject to discretion of the judiciary. The Fundamental Rights are defined as basic human freedoms where every Indian citizen has the right to enjoy for a proper and harmonious development of personality and life. These rights apply universally to all citizens of India, irrespective of their race, place of birth, religion, caste or gender. They are enforceable by the courts, subject to certain restrictions. The Rights have their origins in many sources, including England's Bill of Rights, the United States Bill of Rights and France's Declaration of the Rights of Man.

    The six fundamental rights are:[1]

    Right to equality (Article 14–18)

    Right to freedom (Article 19–22)

    Right against exploitation (Article 23–24)

    Right to freedom of religion (Article 25–28)

    Cultural and educational rights (Article 29–30)

    Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32)

    Rights literally mean those freedoms which are essential for personal good as well as the good of the community. The rights guaranteed under the Constitution of India are fundamental as they have been incorporated into the and are enforceable in a court of law. However, this does not mean that they are absolute or immune from Constitutional amendment.[2]

    Fundamental rights for Indians have also been aimed at overturning the inequalities of pre-independence social practices. Specifically, they have also been used to abolish untouchability and hence prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth. They also forbid trafficking of human beings and forced labour. They also protect cultural and educational rights of ethnic and religious minorities by allowing them to preserve their languages and also establish and administer their own education institutions. When the Constitution of India came into force it basically gave seven fundamental rights to its citizens. However, Right to Property was removed as a Fundamental Right through 44th Constitutional Amendment in 1978. In 2009, Right to Education Act was added. Every child between the age of 6 to 14 years is entitled to free education.

    In the case of (1973)[1], it was held by the Apex Court that Fundamental Rights can be amended by the Parliament, however, such amendment should not contravene the basic structure of the Constitution.


    See also: Indian independence movement

    The first demand for fundamental rights came in the form of the “Constitution of India Bill, in 1895. Also popularly known as the Swaraj Bill 1895, it was written during the emergence of Indian nationalism and increasingly vocal demands by Indians for self-government. It talked about freedom of speech, right to privacy, right to franchise, etc.[]

    In the following period attempts were made from quarters asking the British government to grants rights for Indians. These demand were made in resolution by the INc between 1917 and 1919 in several reports ands bills

    In 1919, the Rowlatt Act gave extensive powers to the British government and allowed indefinite arrest and detention of individuals, warrantless searches and seizures, restrictions on public gatherings, and intensive censorship of media and publications. The public opposition to this act eventually led to mass campaigns of non-violent civil disobedience throughout the country demanding guaranteed civil freedoms, and limitations on government power. Indians, who were seeking independence and their own government, were particularly influenced by the independence of Ireland and the development of the Irish constitution. Also, the directive principles of state policy in Irish constitution were looked upon by the people of India as an inspiration for independent India's government to comprehensively tackle complex social and economic challenges across a vast, diverse nation and population.

    In 1928, the Nehru Commission composing of representatives of Indian political parties proposed constitutional reforms for India that apart from calling for dominion status for India and elections under universal suffrage, would guarantee rights deemed fundamental, representation for religious and ethnic minorities, and limit the powers of the government. In 1931, the Indian National Congress (the largest Indian political party of the time) adopted resolutions committing itself to the defence of fundamental civil rights, as well as socio-economic rights such as the minimum wage and the abolition of untouchability and serfdom.[3] Committing themselves to socialism in 1936, the Congress leaders took examples from the Constitution of the Soviet Union, which inspired the fundamental duties of citizens as a means of collective patriotic responsibility for national interests and challenges.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    The Constitution of India guarantees the Fundamental Right of Freedom of Religion to all its citizens. Which among the following is not true of this right?

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ The Constitution of India guarantees the Fundamental Right of Freedom of Religion to all its citizens. Which among the following is not true of this right?


    The Constitution of India guarantees the Fundamental Right of Freedom of Religion to all its citizens. Which among the following is not true of this right?


    It gives freedom of conscience and freedom to profess, practise and propagate any religion.


    It gives freedom to establish and maintain institution for religious and charitable purposes.


    The right is subject to public order, morality and health.


    The state cannot make any law which abrogates this right of citizens.

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    Updated on : 2022-09-05

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    Correct option is D)

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    Fundamental Rights

    The Constitution offers all citizens, individually and collectively, some basic freedoms. These are guaranteed in the Constitution in the form of six broad categories of Fundamental Rights, which are justifiable. Article 12 to 35 contained in Part III of the Constitution deal with Fundamental Rights. These are:

    Right to equality, including equality before law, prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth, and equality of opportunity in matters of employment.

    Right to freedom of speech and expression, assembly, association or union, movement, residence, and right to practice any profession or occupation (some of these rights are subject to security of the State, friendly relations with foreign countries, public order, decency or morality).

    Right against exploitation, prohibiting all forms of forced labour, child labour and traffic in human beings.

    Right to freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion.

    Right of any section of citizens to conserve their culture, language or script, and right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice; and

    Right to constitutional remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

    Source: India Book 2020 - A Reference Annual

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    India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world with a kaleidoscopic variety and rich cultural heritage. It has achieved all-round socio-economic progress since Independence. As the 7th largest country in the world, India stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.


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