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    Anorexia (symptom)

    Anorexia (symptom)

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    For other uses, see Anorexia (disambiguation).

    Anorexia

    Specialty Endocrinology

    Symptoms Not wanting to eat, no hunger, dizziness, weakness

    Anorexia is a medical term for a loss of appetite. While the term in non-scientific publications is often used interchangeably with anorexia nervosa, many possible causes exist for a loss of appetite, some of which may be harmless, while others indicate a serious clinical condition or pose a significant risk.

    Anorexia is a symptom, not a diagnosis. Anorexia is not to be confused with the mental health disorder anorexia nervosa. Because the term 'anorexia' is often used as a short-form of anorexia nervosa, to avoid confusion a provider must clarify to a patient whether they are simply referring to a decreased appetite or the mental health disorder. Anyone can manifest anorexia as a loss of appetite, regardless of their gender, age, or weight.

    The symptom also occurs in other animals, such as cats,[1][2] dogs,[3][4] cattle, goats, and sheep.[5] In these species, anorexia may be referred to as inappetence. As in humans, loss of appetite can be due to a range of diseases and conditions, as well as environmental and psychological factors.[2][4]

    Contents

    1 Etymology

    2 Common manifestations

    3 Physiology of anorexia

    4 Common causes 4.1 Drugs 4.2 Other 5 Complications

    5.1 Sudden cardiac death

    5.2 Refeeding syndrome

    6 Management

    7 "Anorexia" vs "anorexic" vs anorexia nervosa

    8 References 9 External links

    Etymology[edit]

    The term is from Ancient Greek: ανορεξία (ἀν-, 'without' + όρεξις, spelled , meaning 'appetite').[6]

    Common manifestations[edit]

    Anorexia simply manifests as a decreased or loss of appetite. This can present as not feeling hungry or lacking the desire to eat.[7] Sometimes people do not even notice they lack an appetite until they begin to lose weight from eating less. In other cases, it can be more noticeable, such as when a person becomes nauseated from just the thought of eating. Any form of decreased appetite that leads to changes in the body (such as weight loss or muscle loss) that is not done intentionally as part of dieting is clinically significant.[8]

    Physiology of anorexia[edit]

    Appetite stimulation and suppression is a complex process involving many different parts of the brain and body by the use of various hormones and signals. Appetite is thought to be stimulated by interplay between peripheral signals to the brain (taste, smell, sight, gut hormones) as well as the balance of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the hypothalamus.[8] Examples of these signals or hormones include neuropeptide Y, leptin, ghrelin, insulin, serotonin, and orexins (also called hypocretins). Anything that causes an imbalance of these signals or hormones can lead to the symptom of anorexia. While it is known that these signals and hormones help control appetite, the complicated mechanisms regarding a pathological increase or decrease in appetite are still being explored.[8]

    Common causes[edit]

    Acute radiation syndrome

    Addison's disease Alcoholism Alcohol withdrawal Anemia Anorexia nervosa Anxiety Appendicitis Babesiosis

    Benzodiazepine withdrawal

    Bipolar disorder Cancer[9][10]

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome

    Cannabis withdrawal Celiac disease[11]

    Chronic kidney disease

    Chronic pain Common cold Constipation COPD COVID-19 Crohn's disease Dehydration Dementia Depression Ebola Fatty liver disease Fever Food poisoning Gastroparesis Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Hypercalcemia Hyperglycemia Hypervitaminosis D

    Hypothyroidism and sometimes hyperthyroidism

    Irritable bowel syndrome

    Ketoacidosis Kidney failure[12] Low blood pressure Mania

    Metabolic disorders, particularly urea cycle disorders

    MELAS syndrome Nausea Opioid use disorder Pancreatitis Pernicious anemia Psychosis Schizophrenia

    Side effect of drugs

    Stimulant use disorder

    Stomach flu Stress

    Sickness behavior[13][14]

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

    Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion[15]

    Tuberculosis Thalassemia Ulcerative colitis Uremia[16]

    Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Zinc deficiency

    Infection: Anorexia of infection is part of the acute phase response (APR) to infection. The APR can be triggered by lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycans from bacterial cell walls, bacterial DNA, and double-stranded viral RNA, and viral glycoproteins, which can trigger production of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines. These can have an indirect effect on appetite by a number of means, including peripheral afferents from their sites of production in the body, by enhancing production of leptin from fat stores. Inflammatory cytokines can also signal to the central nervous system more directly by specialized transport mechanisms through the blood–brain barrier, via circumventricular organs (which are outside the barrier), or by triggering production of eicosanoids in the endothelial cells of the brain vasculature. Ultimately, the control of appetite by this mechanism is thought to be mediated by the same factors normally controlling appetite, such as neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, histamine, norepinephrine, corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone).[17]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Loss Of Appetite: Causes & Treatment

    A loss of appetite is a symptom that refers to not feeling hungry or you don’t have the desire to eat. The medical term for a loss of appetite is anorexia.

    Loss of Appetite

    A loss of appetite is a symptom that can have many causes. This occurs when you don’t feel hungry. The medical term for a loss of appetite is anorexia. This is different from the eating disorder anorexia nervosa. Identifying and treating the underlying cause of a loss of appetite will help you feel better.

    OVERVIEW

    What is a loss of appetite?

    A loss of appetite occurs when you don’t feel hungry or have the desire to eat food. This could cause you to:

    Feel full.

    Not enjoy the taste, sight or smell of food (food aversion).

    Not want to have meals with others.

    There are several possible causes for a loss of appetite. It can happen suddenly or gradually over a long period of time. A loss of appetite is usually a sign of concern if it lasts for longer than a week.

    A loss of appetite can come with additional symptoms like:

    Fatigue or low energy.

    Nausea or vomiting. Muscle weakness.

    Constipation or diarrhea.

    Changes to your skin, hair or nails.

    Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

    What’s the difference between a loss of appetite and anorexia?

    The medical term for a loss of appetite is anorexia. When you have a loss of appetite, you don’t feel hungry. Anorexia isn’t the same as the eating disorder anorexia nervosa. A person diagnosed with anorexia nervosa may feel hungry but restricts food intake. When you have a loss of appetite (anorexia), you don’t feel the need to eat food because you’re not experiencing the feeling of hunger.

    What are the signs of a loss of appetite?

    Signs that you have a loss of appetite could include:

    Having little to no interest in food.

    Not eating your favorite foods.

    Missing meals.

    Changes to your weight.

    POSSIBLE CAUSES

    What are the most common causes of a loss of appetite?

    There are several possible causes of a loss of appetite. The most common causes are:

    Physical changes to your body.

    Emotional changes to your mental health.

    An underlying health condition.

    A side effect of a medication.

    Physical causes of a loss of appetite

    Changes to your body can affect your ability to feel hunger and could cause a loss of appetite. These causes could include:

    Pain. Dehydration.

    Dental problems or tooth pain.

    An injury.

    A loss or reduction of taste or smell.

    Recovering from surgery.

    Emotional and psychological causes for a loss of appetite

    Your emotions play a role in your appetite and your ability to desire food. Emotional causes of a loss of appetite could include:

    Anxiety. An eating disorder.

    An emotional reaction like grief, fear, sadness or shock.

    Depression. Stress.

    Underlying health conditions that cause a loss of appetite

    An underlying condition could change your appetite. Some of the common conditions that cause a loss of appetite include but aren’t limited to:

    A common cold. An infection. Cancer. Dementia. Diabetes. Food poisoning.

    Heart, lung, kidney or liver disease.

    HIV and AIDS. Hypothyroidism.

    Medications that cause a loss of appetite

    A loss of appetite could be the result of medications or supplements you take to treat an underlying health condition. Common medications that have a side effect of a loss of appetite include but aren’t limited to:

    Antibiotics. Amphetamines. Chemotherapy. Digoxin. Fluoxetine. Hydralazine. Opioids. CARE AND TREATMENT

    How is a loss of appetite treated?

    The treatment for a loss of appetite depends on what’s causing it. Your healthcare provider may run some diagnostic blood or imaging tests to learn more about the causes of your symptoms to help treat them. Treatment could include:

    Eating small meals regularly throughout the day.

    Managing any illnesses, infections or underlying conditions.

    Taking medications to stimulate your appetite like low-dose corticosteroids, cyproheptadine, megestrol and dronabinol.

    Receiving IV nutrients which are liquid vitamins and minerals that you receive through a needle into your vein.

    Talking with a mental health specialist about your eating habits if they’re irregular.

    Changing the dosage or type of medication you take. Your provider will make this change for you.

    Meeting with a dietician to help you manage your eating habits.

    Taking vitamins or supplements under your provider’s recommendations.

    Visiting a dentist if you have tooth pain or dental problems.

    When the underlying cause of a loss of appetite receives treatment or resolves, your appetite should return to normal. If your appetite doesn’t return to normal after you recover from an illness, injury or infection, contact your healthcare provider.

    What can I do at home to treat a loss of appetite?

    You can treat a loss of appetite at home by:

    Eating regular meals: These meals can be smaller than normal. Try to eat small meals for breakfast, lunch and dinner, even if you’re not hungry.Consume liquid meals: If you’re not feeling well, consuming your daily amount of calories via a liquid meal may be easier to keep down. Choose liquid meals like soup broths, fruit juices or sports drinks with electrolytes. Follow your healthcare provider’s instructions for a liquid meal.

    स्रोत : my.clevelandclinic.org

    Loss of Appetite: Causes, Symptoms, and More

    Decreased appetite, also called loss of appetite, occurs when you have a reduced desire to eat. Read on to learn about the wide variety of conditions that can cause you to lose your appetite.

    What Causes Loss of Appetite?

    Medically reviewed by Alana Biggers, M.D., MPH — By Kati Blake — Updated on April 29, 2019

    Overview

    A decreased appetite occurs when you have a reduced desire to eat. It may also be known as a poor appetite or loss of appetite. The medical term for this is anorexia.

    A wide variety of conditions can cause your appetite to decrease. These range between mental and physical illnesses.

    If you develop loss of appetite, you may also have related symptoms, such as weight loss or malnutrition. These can be serious if left untreated, so it’s important to find the reason behind your decreased appetite and treat it.

    What causes a decreased appetite?

    A number of conditions can lead to a decreased appetite. In most cases, your appetite will return to normal once the underlying condition or reason is treated.

    Bacteria and viruses

    Loss of appetite can be caused by bacterial, viral, fungal, or other infections at any location.

    Here are just a few of what it could result from:

    an upper respiratory infection

    pneumonia gastroenteritis colitis a skin infection meningitis

    After proper treatment for the illness, your appetite will return.

    Psychological causes

    There are various psychological causes for a decreased appetite. Many older adults lose their appetites, though experts aren’t exactly sure why.

    Your appetite may also tend to decrease when you’re sad, depressed, grieving, or anxious. Boredom and stress have also been linked to a decreased appetite.

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, can also lead to a decreased appetite overall. A person with anorexia nervosa undergoes self-starvation or other methods to lose weight.

    People who have this condition are typically underweight and have a fear of gaining weight. Anorexia nervosa can also cause malnutrition.

    Medical conditions

    The following medical conditions may cause your appetite to decrease:

    chronic liver disease

    kidney failure heart failure hepatitis HIV dementia hypothyroidism

    Cancer can also cause loss of appetite, particularly if the cancer is concentrated in the following areas:

    colon stomach ovaries pancreas

    Pregnancy can also cause a loss of appetite during the first trimester.

    Medications

    Some medications and drugs may reduce your appetite. These include illicit drugs — such as cocaine, heroin, and amphetamines — along with prescribed medications.

    Some prescription medications that reduce appetite include:

    certain antibiotics codeine morphine chemotherapy drugs

    When to seek emergency treatment

    Always contact your doctor right away if you begin to lose weight rapidly for no apparent reason.

    It’s also important to seek immediate medical help if your decreased appetite could be a result of depression, alcohol, or an eating disorder such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia.

    How is a decreased appetite treated?

    Treatment for a decreased appetite will depend on its cause. If the cause is a bacterial or viral infection, you won’t usually require specific treatment for the symptom, as your appetite will quickly return once your infection is cured.

    Home care

    If loss of appetite is due to a medical condition such as cancer or chronic illness, it can be difficult to stimulate your appetite. However, taking pleasure from food by eating with family and friends, cooking your favorite foods, or going out to eat at restaurants may help to encourage eating.

    To help handle your lack of appetite, you might consider focusing on eating just one large meal per day, with light snacks in between. Eating frequent small meals can also be helpful, and these are usually easier on the stomach than large meals.

    Light exercise may also help increase appetite. To ensure you’re getting enough nutrients from food, meals should be high in calories and protein. You may also want to try liquid protein drinks.

    It can be useful to keep a diary of what you eat and drink over a period of a few days to a week. This will help your doctor to assess your nutritional intake and the extent of your decreased appetite.

    Medical care

    During your appointment, your doctor will try to create a full picture of your symptoms. They’ll measure your weight and height and compare this to the average for the population.

    You’ll also be asked about your medical history, any medications you take, and your diet. Be prepared to answer questions about:

    when the symptom started

    whether it’s mild or severe

    how much weight you’ve lost

    if there were any triggering events

    if you have any other symptoms

    It may then be necessary to conduct tests to find the cause of your decreased appetite.

    Possible tests include:

    an ultrasound of your abdomen

    a complete blood count

    tests of your liver, thyroid, and kidney function (these usually require only a blood sample)

    an upper GI series, which includes X-rays that examine your esophagus, stomach, and small intestine

    a CT scan of your head, chest, abdomen, or pelvis

    In some cases, you will be tested for pregnancy and HIV. Your urine may be tested for traces of drugs.

    If your decreased appetite has resulted in malnutrition, you may be given nutrients through an intravenous line.

    स्रोत : www.healthline.com

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