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    Malware is the short form for malicious software and used to

    Malware is the short form for malicious software and used to refer to

    Lem-Claisha Desamito

    3 years ago

    Malware is the short form for malicious software and used to refer to

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    OM TIWARI : 2 years ago Worm

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    What are malware, viruses, Spyware, and cookies, and what differentiates them ?

    What are malware, viruses, Spyware, and cookies, and what differentiates them? DigiCert helps consumers and organizations secure and manage their information-driven world.

    Defining Them


    Spyware is a type of program that is installed with or without your permission on your personal computers to collect information about users, their computer or browsing habits tracks each and everything that you do without your knowledge and send it to remote user. It also can download other malicious programs from internet and install it on the computer.Spyware works like adware but is usually a separate program that is installed unknowingly when you install another freeware type program or application.


    A Trojan horse is not a virus. It is a destructive program that looks as a genuine application. Unlike viruses, Trojan horses do not replicate themselves but they can be just as destructive. Trojans also open a backdoor entry to your computer which gives malicious users/programs access to your system, allowing confidential and personal information to be theft.

    Example: - JS.Debeski.Trojan

    Trojan horses are broken down in classification based on how they infect the systems and the damage caused by them. The seven main types of Trojan horses are:

    • Remote Access Trojans

    • Data Sending Trojans

    • Destructive Trojans

    • Proxy Trojans • FTP Trojans

    • Security software disabler Trojans

    • Denial-of-service attack Trojans


    Worms are malicious programs that make copies of themselves again and again on the local drive, network shares, etc. The only purpose of the worm is to reproduce itself again and again. It doesn’t harm any data/file on the computer. Unlike a virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Worms spread by exploiting vulnerabilities in operating systems

    Examples of worm are:

    W32.SillyFDC.BBY Packed.Generic.236 W32.Troresba

    Due to its replication nature it takes a lot of space in the hard drive and consumes more CPU uses which in turn makes the pc too slow also consumes more network bandwidth.

    Following are different type of VirusFile Virus:This type of virus normally infects program files such as .exe, .com, .bat. Once this virus stays in memory it tries to infect all programs that load on to memory.Macro Virus: These type of virus infects word, excel, PowerPoint, access and other data files. Once infected repairing of these files is very much difficult.Master boot record files: MBR viruses are memory-resident viruses and copy itself to the first sector of a storage device which is used for partition tables or OS loading programs .A MBR virus will infect this particular area of Storage device instead of normal files. The easiest way to remove a MBR virus is to clean the MBR area,Boot sector virus: Boot sector virus infects the boot sector of a HDD or FDD. These are also memory resident in nature. As soon as the computer starts it gets infected from the boot sector.  Cleaning this type of virus is very difficult.Multipartite virus: A hybrid of Boot and Program/file viruses. They infect program files and when the infected program is executed, these viruses infect the boot record. When you boot the computer next time the virus from the boot record loads in memory and then start infecting other program files on diskPolymorphic viruses: A virus that can encrypt its code in different ways so that it appears differently in each infection. These viruses are more difficult to detect.Stealth viruses: These types of viruses use different kind of techniques to avoid detection. They either redirect the disk head to read another sector instead of the one in which they reside or they may alter the reading of the infected file’s size shown in the directory listing. For example, the Whale virus adds 9216 bytes to an infected file; then the virus subtracts the same number of bytes (9216) from the size given in the directory.Adware

    Generically adware is a software application in which advertising banners are displayed while any program is running. Adware can automatically get downloaded to your system while browsing any website and can be viewed through pop-up windows or through a bar that appears on a computer screen automatically. Adwares are used by companies for marketing purpose.

    Tracking cookies

    A cookie is a plain text file that is stored on your computer in a cookies folder and it stores data about your browsing session. Cookies are used by many websites to track visitor information A tracking cookie is a cookie which keeps tracks of all your browsing information and this is used by hackers and companies to know all your personal details like bank account details, your credit card information etc. which is dangerous.


    Spamming is a method of flooding the Internet with copies of the same message. Most spams are commercial advertisements which are sent as an unwanted email to users. Spams are also known as Electronic junk mails or junk newsgroup postings. These spam mails are very annoying as it keeps coming every day and keeps your mailbox full.

    Misleading applications

    Misleading applications misguide you about the security status of your computer and shows you that your computer is infected by some malware and you have to download the tool to remove the threat. As you download the tool it shows some threats in your computer and to remove it you have to buy the product for which it asks some personal information like credit card information etc. which is dangerous.

    स्रोत : www.websecurity.digicert.com

    What is Malware? Definition, Types, Prevention

    In this definition, learn what the types of malware are, how to detect malicious software, how to keep endpoints secure and more!

    Tech Accelerator

    What is data security? The ultimate guide

    Home Threats & Vulnerabilities Internet acronyms and lingo malware



    Ben Lutkevich, Technical Writer

    What is malware?

    Malware, or malicious software, is any program or file that is intentionally harmful to a computer, network or server.

    Types of malware include computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware and spyware. These malicious programs steal, encrypt and delete sensitive data; alter or hijack core computing functions and monitor end users' computer activity.

    What does malware do?

    Malware can infect networks and devices and is designed to harm those devices, networks and/or their users in some way.

    Depending on the type of malware and its goal, this harm may present itself differently to the user or endpoint. In some cases, the effect malware has is relatively mild and benign, and in others, it can be disastrous.

    No matter the method, all types of malware are designed to exploit devices at the expense of the user and to the benefit of the hacker -- the person who has designed and/or deployed the malware.

    How do malware infections happen?

    Malware authors use a variety of physical and virtual means to spread malware that infects devices and networks. For example, malicious programs can be delivered to a system with a USB drive, through popular collaboration tools and by drive-by downloads, which automatically download malicious programs to systems without the user's approval or knowledge.


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    Phishing attacks are another common type of malware delivery where emails disguised as legitimate messages contain malicious links or attachments that deliver the malware executable file to unsuspecting users. Sophisticated malware attacks often feature the use of a command-and-control server that enables threat actors to communicate with the infected systems, exfiltrate sensitive data and even remotely control the compromised device or server.

    Emerging strains of malware include new evasion and obfuscation techniques designed to not only fool users, but also security administrators and antimalware products. Some of these evasion techniques rely on simple tactics, such as using web proxies to hide malicious traffic or source IP addresses. More sophisticated threats include polymorphic malware that can repeatedly change its underlying code to avoid detection from signature-based detection tools; anti-sandbox techniques that enable malware to detect when it is being analyzed and to delay execution until after it leaves the sandbox; and fileless malware that resides only in the system's RAM to avoid being discovered.

    A diagram of the various types of malware.

    What are the different types of malware?

    Different types of malware have unique traits and characteristics. Types of malware include the following:

    A virus is the most common type of malware that can execute itself and spread by infecting other programs or files.

    A worm can self-replicate without a host program and typically spreads without any interaction from the malware authors.

    A Trojan horse is designed to appear as a legitimate software program to gain access to a system. Once activated following installation, Trojans can execute their malicious functions.

    Spyware collects information and data on the device and user, as well as observes the user's activity without their knowledge.

    Ransomware infects a user's system and encrypts its data. Cybercriminals then demand a ransom payment from the victim in exchange for decrypting the system's data.

    A rootkit obtains administrator-level access to the victim's system. Once installed, the program gives threat actors root or privileged access to the system.

    A backdoor virus or remote access Trojan (RAT) secretly creates a backdoor into an infected computer system that enables threat actors to remotely access it without alerting the user or the system's security programs.

    Adware tracks a user's browser and download history with the intent to display pop-up or banner advertisements that lure the user into making a purchase. For example, an advertiser might use cookies to track the webpages a user visits to better target advertising.

    Keyloggers, also called system monitors, track nearly everything a user does on their computer. This includes emails, opened webpages, programs and keystrokes.

    How to detect malware

    Users may be able to detect malware if they observe unusual activity such as a sudden loss of disk space, unusually slow speeds, repeated crashes or freezes, or an increase in unwanted internet activity and pop-up advertisements.

    Antivirus and antimalware software may be installed on a device to detect and remove malware. These tools can provide real-time protection or detect and remove malware by executing routine system scans.

    स्रोत : www.techtarget.com

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