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    A Complete Guide to JVM Languages

    There are a number of JVM languages you can choose from, for your next project. Here we bring a complete guide to most popular JVM languages.

    Blog Java A Complete Guide to JVM Languages

    A Complete Guide to JVM Languages

    By Aditi Malhotra JAVA

    Java Virtual Machine or JVM, has been a notable revolution in the world of development. This helps in the development and deployment of software. It was initially designed for powering applications that were written using Java language. On the other hand, language designers realized the potential of JVM in running different languages.

    Therefore, many JVM languages developed over the years with the massive class library and features provided by JVM. The following discussion would outline a brief insight into the top JVM languages along with some examples of the use cases. The discussion would start with a brief history of the JVM languages and would also include implementations of JVM programming languages and the Java converters.

    A Brief History of JVM Languages

    Before starting with what are JVM languages, it is essential to find out some details about history. The first one was Java, and it was the only programming language used for JVM. However, as we noted above, language designers recognized the potential of JVM and then many alternatives developed over the years.

    The main alternatives which made a mark included Jython, which was a Python implementation for JVM. The next additions were JavaScript engines and Rhino for JVM in 1997. Subsequently, BeanShell was launched in 2000, and JRuby was launched in 2001. The growth of alternative JVM languages was not completely based on scripting facilities.

    The backward-compatibility principles of Java were responsible for promoting the development of alternative programming languages. These improvements were primarily associated with the addition of innovative features that are not available in Java or the standard libraries. Therefore, the world witnessed some of the common names among top JVM languages such as Scala, Clojure, Kotlin and Groovy.

    List of Most Popular JVM Languages

    As mentioned earlier, Java is the main JVM language and after Java, a number of other JVM languages have been developed. Let’s dive deep and understand more about these JVM programming languages:

    1. Java

    The first entry in this discussion on JVM languages is Java. Java is a widely popular language among developers. Java has been a reliable choice for mobile developers, enterprise developers, and web developers. It would not be wrong to assume that Java has built up a massive support base through its wider adoption.

    As a result, the Java runtime or Java Virtual Machine has developed into a software ecosystem. Java has also provided the foundation for many other languages to use the JVM platform to become comprehensive software development tools. You can find through comparison of JVM languages that Java provides the most notable benefit of cross-platform portability.

    This feature is helpful for writing programs on a single platform and to execute them on any combination of hardware and software with the right amount of runtime support. Java is also popular for developing gradually with the addition of concepts such as functional programming. The use of Java runtime has many benefits associated with it. The original master among JVM languages, Java has ensured consistency in its standards as well as common features that have formed the benchmark for existing JVM landscape.

    Are you a Java developer aspired to level up your career? Here’s the must-have skills for Java developers.

    2. Kotlin

    The next addition based on JVM language popularity is Kotlin. JetBrains developed Kotlin in 2010, and till then it is available as an open-source offering. The simplicity, conciseness, and safety factors are better with Kotlin as compared to Java. Therefore, Kotlin can be accounted for as the same iteration of Java only with simpler usability. You would find that the syntax in Kotlin is comparatively less verbose than that of Java.

    One of the benefits of Kotlin as JVM languages is in the permission for functional programming styles. This surely presents an additional factor for superiority over Java. Also, you can find better ways of managing null values with Kotlin. Nowadays, android developers choose Kotlin over Java for different app development projects.

    The long-term path for Kotlin also appears to be better and more than the conventional scope of JVM. For example, one of the projects with JVM is associated with the compilation of Kotlin to machine-native code through using LLMV framework. The most noticeable benefit of Kotlin as JVM languages 2019 is the interoperability with Java. It can effectively use the existing libraries and frameworks in Java.

    Check out the top 5 Java Frameworks to choose as a developer.

    3. Scala

    Scala is the third addition to our discussion on JVM languages. The main objective of creating Scala was to improve the productivity of Java developers. The striking highlight of Scala involves the combination of functional as well as object-oriented programming in one language.

    This has been responsible for accessing the functional programming paradigm and improving the usefulness of Scala for the Java ecosystem. The syntax of Scala is also quite similar to that of Java, and this helps reduce the learning curve. As compared to the functional option of Clojure, Scala can be essentially the go-to option.

    स्रोत : www.whizlabs.com

    An Overview of the JVM Languages

    A high-level look at the most popular JVM languages

    An Overview of the JVM Languages

    Last modified: December 2, 2021

    by baeldung Programming

    If you have a few years of experience in the Java ecosystem, and you’d like to share that with the community, have a look at our Contribution Guidelines.

    1. Introduction

    Besides Java, other languages can run on the Java Virtual Machine like Scala, Kotlin, Groovy, Clojure.

    In the following sections, we'll take a high-level look at the most popular JVM languages.

    Of course, we'll start with the forerunner of JVM languages – Java.

    2. Java

    2.1. Overview

    Java is a general-purpose programming language embracing the Object-Oriented Paradigm.

    A core feature of the language is the cross-platform portability, which means that programs written on one platform are executable on any combination of software and hardware with adequate runtime support. This is achieved by compiling code into bytecode first, instead of directly to platform-specific machine code.

    Java bytecode instructions are analogous to the machine code, but they're interpreted by a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) specific to the host operating system and hardware combination.

    Although originally an object-oriented language, Java has started adopting concepts from other programming paradigms like functional programming.

    Let's have a quick look at some of Java's main features:


    Strongly statically typed


    Garbage-collected Multithreaded

    2.2. Examples

    Let's see how a simple “Hello, World!” example looks like:

    public class HelloWorld {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

    System.out.println("Hello, World!");

    } }

    In this example, we've created a class named HelloWorld and defined the main method which prints a message on the console.

    Next, we'll use the javac command to generate the bytecode which can be executed on a JVM:

    javac HelloWorld.java

    Finally, the java command executes the generated bytecode on JVM:

    java HelloWorld

    For more Java examples, check out our list of tutorials.

    3. Scala

    3.1. Overview

    Scala stands for “scalable language”. Scala's a statically typed language which combines two important programming paradigms, namely object-oriented and functional programming. 

    The language originated in 2004 but became more popular in recent years.

    Scala is a pure Object-Oriented language as it doesn't support primitives. Scala provides the ability to define classes, objects, methods along with functional programming features like traits, algebraic data types, or type classes.

    A few important features of Scala are:

    Functional, Object-oriented

    Strongly statically typed

    Algebraic Data Types

    Pattern Matching

    Enhanced Immutability Support

    Lazy Computation Multithreaded

    3.2. Examples

    First, let's take a look at the same “Hello, World!” example as before, this time in Scala:

    object HelloWorld {

    def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = println("Hello, world!")


    In this example, we've created a singleton object named HelloWorld and the main method.

    Next, to compile this, we can use scalac:

    scalac HelloWorld.scala

    The scala command executes the generated bytecode on JVM:

    scala HelloWorld

    4. Kotlin

    4.1. Overview

    Kotlin is a statically typed, general-purpose, open-source language developed by JetBrains team, which brings together the Object-oriented and functional paradigms.

    The main focus while developing Kotlin was Java interoperability, safety (exception handling), conciseness and better tooling support.

    Since the release of Android Studio 3.0, Kotlin is a fully supported programming language by Google on the Android Platform. It's also included in the Android Studio IDE package as an alternative to the standard Java compiler.

    Some important Kotlin features:

    Object-oriented + Functional

    Strongly statically typed


    Interoperable with Java

    Our introduction to Kotlin also contains more specifics on the features.

    4.2. Examples

    Let's see the “Hello, World!” example in Kotlin:

    fun main(args: Array) { println("Hello, World!") }

    We can write the code above in a new file called helloWorld.kt.

    Then, we'll use the kotlinc command to compile this and generates bytecode which can be executed on a JVM:

    kotlinc helloWorld.kt -include-runtime -d helloWorld.jar

    The -d option is used to indicate the output file for class files or a .jar file name. The -include-runtime option makes the resulting .jar file self-contained and runnable by including the Kotlin runtime library in it.

    Then, the java command executes the generated bytecode on JVM:

    java -jar helloWorld.jar

    Let's also see another example of printing a list of items using a for loop:

    fun main(args: Array) {

    val items = listOf(1, 2, 3, 4)

    for (i in items) println(i)


    5. Groovy

    स्रोत : www.baeldung.com

    List of JVM languages

    We usually invite the world to create the sum of all human knowledge. Now, we are inviting the world to create the sound of all human knowledge.

    [Help with translations!]

    List of JVM languages

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to navigation Jump to search

    This list of JVM Languages comprises notable computer programming languages that are used to produce computer software that runs on the Java virtual machine (JVM). Some of these languages are interpreted by a Java program, and some are compiled to Java bytecode and JIT-compiled during execution as regular Java programs to improve performance.

    The JVM was initially designed to support only the programming language Java. However, as time passed, even more languages were adapted or designed to run on the Java platform.


    1 JVM languages

    1.1 High-profile languages

    1.2 JVM implementations of existing languages

    1.3 New languages with JVM implementations

    1.3.1 Comparison of these languages

    2 See also 3 Notes 4 References

    JVM languages[edit]

    High-profile languages[edit]

    As of April 2022, according to the TIOBE Index[1] of the top 100 programming languages, the top JVM languages are:

    Java (#3), a statically-typed object-oriented language

    Kotlin (#27), a statically-typed language from JetBrains, the developers of IntelliJ IDEA[2] and Google's preferred language for Android

    Groovy (#32), a dynamic programming language (also with static typing) and scripting language[2]

    Scala (#36), a statically-typed object-oriented and functional programming language[3]

    Clojure (#49), a dynamic, and functional dialect of the Lisp programming language[2]

    JVM implementations of existing languages[edit]

    Language JVM implementations

    Golang jgo

    Arden Syntax Arden2ByteCode

    COBOL NTT Data Enterprise COBOL[4]

    Micro Focus Visual COBOL[5]

    Heirloom Elastic COBOL

    Veryant isCOBOL Evolve[6]

    ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML) Adobe ColdFusion

    Railo Lucee Open BlueDragon

    Common Lisp Armed Bear Common Lisp[7]

    Cypher Neo4j[8]

    Haskell Eta (programming language)

    JavaScript Rhino Nashorn Graal.js[9]

    LLVM Bitcode Sulong[10]

    Mercury Mercury (Java grade)

    OCaml OCaml-Java

    Component Pascal Gardens Point Component Pascal

    Pascal MIDletPascal Oxygene Raku Rakudo

    PHP Quercus[11][12] JPHP

    Prolog JIProlog TuProlog Python Jython ZipPy[13] Graal.Python[9] R Renjin FastR[14] Rexx NetRexx Ruby JRuby TruffleRuby[15] Scheme Bigloo Kawa SISC JScheme

    Simula Open Source Simula

    Smalltalk Redline[16]

    Standard ML MLj Tcl Jacl

    Visual Basic Jabaco[note 1]

    New languages with JVM implementations[edit]

    Ateji PX, an extension of Java for easy parallel programming on multicore, GPU, Grid and Cloud[21]

    Ballerina, a programming language for cloud applications with structural typing; network client objects, services, resource functions, and listeners; parallel concurrency with workers; image building; configuration management; and taint checking.[22]

    BeanShell, a scripting language whose syntax is close to Java

    EPL (Event Processing Language), a domain-specific, data manipulation language for analyzing and detecting patterns in timed event streams, which extends SQL 92 with event-oriented features. It is implemented by Esper: up to version 6 EPL was mostly a language interpreted by a Java library; since version 7 it is compiled to JVM bytecode.

    Concurnas, an open source JVM programming language designed for building reliable, scalable, high performance concurrent, distributed and parallel systems.

    Ceylon, a Java competitor from Red Hat[2]

    CFML, ColdFusion Markup Language, more commonly known as CFML, is a scripting language for web development that runs on the JVM, the .NET framework, and Google App Engine.[23]

    Quark Framework (CAL), a Haskell-inspired functional language

    E-on-Java, object-oriented programming language for secure distributed computing

    Eta, pure, lazy, strongly typed functional programming language in the spirit of Haskell[24]

    Fantom, a language built from the base to be portable across the JVM, .NET Common Language Runtime (CLR), and JavaScript[25][2]

    Flix, a functional, imperative, and logic programming language with first-class Datalog constraints and a polymorphic effect system.

    Flow Java

    Fortress, a language designed by Sun as a successor to Fortran, mainly for parallel scientific computing. Product development was taken over by Oracle when Sun was purchased. Oracle then stopped development in 2012 according to Dr. Dobb's.

    Frege, a non-strict, pure functional programming language in the spirit of Haskell[26]

    Golo, a simple, dynamic, weakly-typed language for the JVM developed at Institut national des sciences appliquées de Lyon, France, now an incubating project at the Eclipse Software Foundation.[27][28][29]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

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