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    IoT Communication Protocols—IoT Data Protocols

    Dive deeper into the Internet of Things (IoT) communication through a brief overview of the different IoT data protocols.

    TECHNICAL ARTICLE

    IoT Communication Protocols—IoT Data Protocols

    June 16, 2022 by Ignacio de Mendizábal

    Dive deeper into the Internet of Things (IoT) communication through a brief overview of the different IoT data protocols.

    In the article before this one, we reviewed the main aspects of network protocols in the IoT, as well as the main communication protocols being used until now. In this article, we'll switch gears and talk about the data communication protocols. These data communication protocols are those that work in the low levels of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, without the need for an Internet connection.

    IoT Data Communication Protocols

    Below you'll find a brief breakdown of the some of the different IoT data protocols, namely:

    Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT)

    HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

    Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)

    Data Distribution Service (DDS)

    WebSocket

    Advanced Message Queue Protocol (AMQP)

    Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP)

    OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA)

    Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) 

    Designed to be lightweight, so it can work in very low bandwidth networks, MQTT allows communication between nodes in both reliable and unreliable networks. MQTT follows a publish/subscribe architecture, meaning that there are nodes (brokers) that make the information available, while others (clients) can read the available information after subscribing by accessing the corresponding URL.

    A use case of MQTT is in a smart factory where there are temperature sensors installed along with the production plant. The installed sensors will connect to the MQTT broker and will publish the data within sensor topics, as follows:

    sensors/temperature/assemblyLineInit

    Afterward, the MQTT clients, which can be of several types and quantities, will subscribe to the same topic in order to read the temperature data. An example of an MQTT architecture can be seen in Figure 1.

    Figure 1. MQTT's publish/subscribe architecture. Image used courtesy of MQTT

    In addition, MQTT defines three levels of quality of service, depending upon the reliability, from lowest to highest:

    Level 0: there is no guarantee of the message delivery.

    Level 1: the delivery is guaranteed, but it is possible to receive duplicate messages.

    Level 2: the delivery is guaranteed and there will be no duplicates.

    HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

    This protocol has been the origin of data communication for the World Wide Web (WWW), so logically it is being used in the IoT world. However, it is not optimized for it because of the following:

    The HTTP is made for two systems communicating to each other at a time, not more, so it is time and energy-consuming to connect several sensors to get information.

    The HTTP is unidirectional, made for one system (client) to be sending one message to another one (server). This makes it quite hard to escalate an IoT solution.

    Power consumption: HTTP relies on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which requires a lot of computing resources, so it is not suitable for battery-powered applications.

    Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)

    CoAP is a web transfer protocol to be used with limited networks with low bandwidth and low availability. It follows a client/server architecture and is built similarly to HTTP, supporting the REST model: servers make resources available with an URL, and clients can make requests of types GET, POST, PUT and DELETE.

    The CoAP communication links are 1:1 and UDP-based, so the delivery is not guaranteed. CoAP is made to work in highly congested networks, where nodes do not have a lot of intelligence and are not always working.

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    Data Distribution Service (DDS)

    Similar to MQTT, DDS follows a publish-subscribe methodology, with the main difference being that there are no brokers. It means that all publishers (i.e., temperature sensors) and subscribers (i.e., mobile phones) are all connected to the same network. This network is known as Global Data Space (GDS) and it interconnects each node with all the other ones to avoid bottlenecks. An example of the DDS GDS can be seen in Figure 2.

    Figure 2. A DDS Global Data Space. Image used courtesy of the DDS Foundation

    Furthermore, any node can leave or join the network, since they are dynamically discovered.

    WebSocket

    Linked to the HTTP protocol, the WebSocket technology establishes a TCP connection between a browser and a server, and then both of them exchange information until the connection is closed. Figure 3 shows a high-level comparison between HTTP and WebSocket.

    Figure 3. Comparison between HTTP and WebSocket. Image used courtesy of Scaleway

    Although this protocol can be seen as an improvement of the HTTP connection, the WebSocket is still very overloaded and heavy for IoT applications.

    स्रोत : www.allaboutcircuits.com

    Top 5 IoT Messaging Protocols

    Internet of Things (IoT) solutions employ some kind of messaging protocol for each individual IoT device to communicate in the system. These messaging

    Top 5 IoT Messaging Protocols

    By Chris Pietschmann | January 21, 2022 - 8:05 AM EST (14:05 UTC)

    Category: Internet of Things

    Internet of Things (IoT) solutions employ some kind of messaging protocol for each individual IoT device to communicate in the system. These messaging protocols are used to transmit device telemetry (or messages) from the IoT devices to the IoT Messaging Hub (or Broker). Two of the most common messaging protocols used for IoT solutions are MQTT and AMQP, however, there are many other protocols used and supported by various IoT hardware. This article will introduce you to several of the most common IoT messaging protocols used across a variety of industries.

    What is an IoT Messaging Protocol?

    Internet of Things (IoT) messaging protocols are used to transmit telemetry (aka messages) from IoT devices to an IoT Messaging Hub. These protocols can operate over TCP, or even a higher level abstraction such as HTTPS.

    Connecting IoT devices to a network, the Internet, or even each other may use one of a number of methods. IoT devices may be connected over Wifi, Cellular, Bluetooth, ZigBee, LoRaWAN, or some other connectivity method. Once the components of an IoT solution are connected to each other, there will be a messaging protocol used to transmit device telemetry (aka messages) to and from devices.

    The below list includes several of the most popular IoT Messaging Protocols used by devices:

    1) MQTT (Message Queue Telemetry Transport)

    The MQTT, or Message Queue Telemetry Transport, protocol is a lightweight, publish/subscribe network protocol for transporting telemetry messages between IoT devices. This protocol typically runs over TCP/IP, however, it can operate on top of other networking protocols so long as they provide ordered, lossless, bi-directional connections.

    MQTT is designed to be lightweight, and is ideal for connection scenarios where IoT devices may have limited bandwidth or other constraints requiring remote devices with small code footprints.

    Feature Highlights

    Lightweight protocol (great for constrained networks)

    Supports Publish / Subscribe messaging

    Low power usage

    Minimized data packet size

    OASIS standard protocol

    2) AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol)

    AMQP, or Advanced Message Queue Protocol, is an open standard application layer protocol. It’s a binary protocol designed to support a wide array of messaging applications and communications patterns. It’s not specifically built for Internet of Things (IoT) solutions, but it works very well for message communications which include many IoT scenarios.

    Feature Highlights

    Binary application layer protocol

    Can be used for Point-to-Point and Publish / Subscribe messaging

    Broad compatibility with messaging scenarios

    Supports end-to-end encryption of messaging

    3) DDS (Data Distributed Service)

    DDS, or Data Distributed Service, protocol is designed to be used with real-time systems, and is an Object Management Group (OMG) machine-to-machine standard. The goals of DDS are to enable dependable, high-performance, interoperable, real-time, scalable data exchanges using a Publish / Subscribe messaging pattern.

    The DDS protocol is designed to address the unique needs of application scenarios such as aerospace, defense, air-traffic control, autonomous vehicles, medical devices, robotics, power generation, transportation systems, and other real-time data exchange systems.

    Feature Highlights

    Designed for Real-Time systems

    Provides Publish / Subscribe messaging

    Connects devices directly to each other

    Low overhead

    4) XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol)

    XMPP, or Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol, is a communications protocol based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). It’s designed to provide near real-time exchange of structured XML data between two or more devices. The XMPP protocol was originally known as Jabber and was developed for near real-time messaging (IM), presence information, and contact list maintenance. More recently XMPP has been used for Publish / Subscribe messaging, VoIP (Voice over IP), Internet of Things (IoT), gaming, and other systems.

    Feature Highlights

    Designed to be extensible

    Open Standard

    Client / Server architecture

    5) CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol)

    The CoAP, or Constrained Application Protocol, is a specialized application protocol designed for constrained devices. It’s designed to require low power, work across lossy networks, and can be used to connect devices to each other or other general nodes on the Internet. CoAP is not just used for IoT scenarios, but is also in use on other systems such as SMS on mobile communication networks.

    Feature Highlights

    Low Power usage

    Used on constrained devices

    Wrap Up

    Depending on the IoT devices you are integrating into your solution, there may be multiple different message protocols you’ll be required to deal with. There are also times where you may be able to choose the specific protocol to implement as a “standard” across your solution. When integrating with Microsoft Azure services, such as IoT Central and Azure IoT Hub, the MQTT and AMQP protocols are the most widely supported.

    स्रोत : build5nines.com

    IoT Messaging Protocols

    Learn what are Messaging Protocols in IoT. See its various types like MQTT, AMQP, XMPP, CoAP with their advantages and features.

    IoT Messaging Protocols

    IoT devices use various kinds of messaging and communication protocols in every layer in order to communicate with each other. While constructing an IoT device it is important to keep in mind its type, its functionality, and the layer. There are a wide range of messaging and communication protocols available in the market and the most common ones are discussed below.

    Now, let us look at the common messaging protocol adapted in IoT.

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    IoT Messaging Protocols

    1. Message Queuing Telemetry Transport(MQTT Protocol in IoT)

    MQTT is an IoT communication protocol that is widely gaining popularity due to its lightweight publish/subscribe messaging transport. It is a protocol that transfers data between various machines. It has become one of important protocols in the internet of things.

    All devices communicate through a broker or server. You can install the broker in your PC, MAC, Linux system and even in Raspberry pie. Two of the most famous brokers available in the market these days are HIVEMQ and Mosquito.

    Client devices receive or accept information either from the broker or by just subscribing to specific topics. They can also publish specific topic messages to the broker. All devices communicate with each other through the broker.Topics categorize the kind of messages that can be sent. Clients subscribe to a specific topic and receive messages from those topics only. The broker receives these messages and forwards them to other devices that also subscribe to that topic.

    There are three different kinds of QoS(quality of service):

    QoS0: messages are sent once, regardless of any feedback from the broker.

    QoS1: messages are sent over and over until they receive a confirmation from broker

    QoS2: for every message sent, broker sends a confirmation message back

    MQTT is lightweight in size and data power transmission and it is hence available in a large number of devices. MQTT mainly transmits its data through the TCP/IP protocol.

    Features of MQTT

    Lightweight protocol suits best for constrained nodes

    Assists publish/subscribe messaging

    Reduces size of data packets

    OASIS standard protocol

    Pros of MQTT

    Flexible options to choose from for quality of service within functionality

    Easy to act upon Quick results

    Cons of MQTT

    Lack of encryption

    Uses high power due to the TCP connections

    MQTT Use Cases

    A parking space with sensors that can sense empty parking spots to guide vehicle in the right direction

    2. Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP)

    AMQP transfers business messages between various applications and companies. This protocol is not specifically built for IOT applications but has a wide range of uses in the internet of things. But, it works effectively in transferring message communication.

    It connects the system, serves the system with the required information and forwards the information to achieve the necessary goals.

    AMQP connects across various systems, technologies, time and space. There are three parts which manage the entire AMQP protocol:

    Exchange: receives messages from publishers and directs these messages to the messaging queues depending on the availability.Message Queue: Saves these messages in databases until they are put in use by an application.Binding: Distinguishes the relation between an Exchange and Message Queue and gives the message steering criteria.

    Features of AMQP

    Application layer protocol is binary

    Cabe used as point to point or publish/subscribe messaging

    Highly suits messaging scenarios

    Aids end to end encryption in communication

    Pros of AMQP

    Transfer messages through TCP or UDP

    End to end encryption

    Cons of AMQP

    Uses large amounts of power and memory

    Use Cases of AMQP

    This protocol is mostly used in the business sector. It uses back office data centres to specify devices like mobile phones, handsets etc.

    3. Data Distribution Service (DDS)

    DDS protocol acts as a bridge between databases and user applications in a network and hence it is a middleware protocol. The protocol combines the parts of a system together. The protocol uses low computing data, it is highly efficient and reliable and its architecture is extremely extensible.

    Since, DDS is a middleware software, its job is to provide effective communication and easy sharing of data. It handles the tiring and confusing job of managing the communication paths and allows developers to focus on building the applications.

    DDS is a vital protocol whose main aim is M2M( machine to machine) communication. Data exchange happens through the well known publish-subscribe methodology. This protocol differs from the above two protocols as it is brokerless. It serves high quality QoS to the applications with the help of multicasting. DDS protocols are developed from low footprint devices to cloud.

    स्रोत : techvidvan.com

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