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    Medium Earth orbit

    Medium Earth orbit

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Orbit size comparison of GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou-2, and Iridium constellations, the International Space Station, the Hubble Space Telescope, and geostationary orbit (and its graveyard orbit), with the Van Allen radiation belts and the Earth to scale.[a]

    The Moon's orbit is around 9 times as large as geostationary orbit.[b] (In the SVG file, hover over an orbit or its label to highlight it; click to load its article.)

    To-scale diagram of low, medium, and high Earth orbits

    A medium Earth orbit (MEO) is an Earth-centered orbit with an altitude above a low Earth orbit (LEO) and below a high Earth orbit (HEO) – between 2,000 and 35,786 km (1,243 and 22,236 mi) above sea level.[1]

    The boundary between MEO and LEO is an arbitrary altitude chosen by accepted convention, whereas the boundary between MEO and HEO is the particular altitude of a geosynchronous orbit, in which a satellite takes 24 hours to circle the Earth, the same period as the Earth’s own rotation. All satellites in MEO have an orbital period of less than 24 hours, with the minimum period (for a circular orbit at the lowest MEO altitude) about 2 hours.[2]

    Satellites in MEO orbits are perturbed by solar radiation pressure, which is the dominating non-gravitational perturbing force.[3] Other perturbing forces include: Earth's albedo, navigation antenna thrust, and thermal effects related to heat re-radiation.

    The MEO region includes the two zones of energetic charged particles above the equator known as the Van Allen radiation belts, which can damage satellites’ electronic systems without special shielding.[4]

    A medium Earth orbit is sometimes called mid Earth orbit[1] or intermediate circular orbit (ICO).[2]

    Use of MEO[edit]

    Two medium Earth orbits are particularly significant. A satellite in the semi-synchronous orbit at an altitude of approximately 20,200 kilometres (12,600 mi) has an orbital period of 12 hours and passes over the same two spots on the equator every day.[1] This reliably predictable orbit is used by the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation.[2] Other navigation satellite systems use similar medium Earth orbits including GLONASS (with an altitude of 19,100 kilometres, 11,900 mi),[5] Galileo (with an altitude of 23,222 kilometres, 14,429 mi)[6] and BeiDou (with an altitude of 21,528 kilometres, 13,377 mi).[7]

    The Molniya orbit has a high inclination of 63.4° and high eccentricity of 0.722 with a period of 12 hours, so a satellite spends most of its orbit above the chosen area in high latitudes. This orbit was used by the (now defunct) North American Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite Radio satellites and the Russian Molniya military communications satellites, after which it is named.[1]

    Communications satellites in MEO include the O3b and forthcoming O3b mPOWER constellations for telecommunications and data backhaul to maritime, aero and remote locations (with an altitude of 8,063 kilometres, 5,010 mi).[8]

    Communications satellites to cover the North and South Pole are also put in MEO.[9]

    Telstar 1, an experimental communications satellite launched in 1962, orbited in MEO.[10]

    In May 2022, Kazakhstani mobile network operator, Kcell, and satellite owner and operator, SES used SES's O3b MEO satellite constellation to demonstrate that MEO satellites could be used to provide high-speed mobile internet to remote regions of Kazakhstan for reliable video calling, conferencing and streaming, and web browsing, with a latency (delay) five times lower than on the existing platform based on geostationary orbit satellites.[11][12]

    See also[edit]

    Types of geocentric orbit

    Atmospheric reentry Escape velocity

    Geostationary Earth orbit (GEO)

    High Earth orbit (HEO)

    Highly elliptical orbit (HEO)

    Graveyard orbit

    International Space Station

    List of orbits

    Low Earth orbit (LEO)

    Satellite phone

    Suborbital spaceflight


    ^ Orbital periods and speeds are calculated using the relations 4π23 = 2 and 2 = , where is the radius of orbit in metres; is the orbital period in seconds; is the orbital speed in m/s; is the gravitational constant, approximately 6.673×10−11 Nm2/kg2; is the mass of Earth, approximately 5.98×1024 kg (1.318×1025 lb).^ Approximately 8.6 times (in radius and length) when the Moon is nearest (that is, 363,104 km/42,164 km), to 9.6 times when the Moon is farthest (that is, 405,696 km/42,164 km).


    ^ Jump up to:

    . NASA Earth Observatory. 4 September 2009. Accessed 2 May 2021.

    ^ Jump up to:

    "Definitions of geocentric orbits from the Goddard Space Flight Center". . NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2012.

    ^ Bury, Grzegorz; Sośnica, Krzysztof; Zajdel, Radosław; Strugarek, Dariusz (February 2020). "Toward the 1-cm Galileo orbits: challenges in modeling of perturbing forces". . 94 (2): 16. Bibcode:2020JGeod..94...16B. doi:10.1007/s00190-020-01342-2.^ "Popular Orbits 101". Aerospace Security. 26 October 2020. Accessed 2 May 2021.^ "The Global Navigation System GLONASS: Development and Usage in the 21st Century". 34th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting. 2002. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2019.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org


    Our understanding of orbits dates back to Johannes Kepler in the 17th century. Europe now operates a family of rockets at Europe’s Spaceport to launch satellites to many types of orbit.


    Types of orbits

    30/03/2020 580694 VIEWS 1822 LIKES

    ESA / Enabling & Support / Space Transportation

    Our understanding of orbits dates back to Johannes Kepler in the 17th century. Europe now operates a family of rockets at Europe’s Spaceport to launch satellites to many types of orbit.

    Mass affects orbiting bodies

    What is an orbit?

    An orbit is the curved path that an object in space (such as a star, planet, moon, asteroid or spacecraft) takes around another object due to gravity.

    Gravity causes objects in space that have mass to be attracted to other nearby objects. If this attraction brings them together with enough momentum, they can sometimes begin to orbit each other.

    Objects of similar mass orbit each other with neither object at the centre, whilst small objects orbit around larger objects. In our Solar System, the Moon orbits Earth, and Earth orbits the Sun, but that does not mean the larger object remains completely still. Because of gravity, Earth is pulled slightly from its centre by the Moon (which is why tides form in our oceans) and our Sun is pulled slightly from its centre by Earth and other planets.

    During the early creation of our Solar System, dust, gas, and ice travelled through space with speed and momentum, surrounding the Sun in a cloud. With the Sun being so much larger than these small bits of dust and gas, its gravity attracted these bits into orbit around it, shaping the cloud into a kind of ring around the Sun.

    Eventually, these particles started to settle and clump together (or ‘coalesce’), growing ever larger like rolling snowballs until they formed what we now see as planets, moons, and asteroids. The fact that the planets were all formed together this way is why all the planets have orbits around the Sun in the same direction, in roughly the same plane.

    Reaching orbit

    When rockets launch our satellites, they put them into orbit in space. There, gravity keeps the satellite on its required orbit – in the same way that gravity keeps the Moon in orbit around Earth.

    This happens in a way that is similar to throwing a ball out of the window of a tall tower – to get the ball going, you need to first give it a ‘push’ by throwing it, making the ball fall towards the ground on a curved path. Whilst it is your throw that gives the ball its initial speed, it is gravity alone that keeps the ball moving towards the ground once you let go.

    In a similar fashion, a satellite is put into orbit by being placed hundreds or thousands of kilometres above Earth’s surface (as if in a very tall tower) and then being given a ‘push’ by the rocket’s engines to make it start on its orbit.

    As shown in the figure, the difference is that throwing something will make it fall on a curved path towards the ground – but a really powerful throw will mean that the ground starts to curve away before your object reaches the ground. Your object will fall ‘towards’ Earth indefinitely, causing it to circle the planet repeatedly. Congratulations! You have reached orbit.

    In space, there is no air and therefore no air friction, so gravity lets the satellite orbit around Earth with almost no further assistance. Putting satellites into orbit enables us to use technologies for telecommunication, navigation, weather forecast, and astronomy observations.

    Artist's view of Europe's launcher family

    Launch to orbit 

    Europe’s family of rockets operate from Europe’s Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. On each mission, a rocket places one or more satellites onto their individual orbits.

    The choice of which launch vehicle is used depends primarily on the mass of the payload, but also on how far from Earth it needs to go. A heavy payload or a high altitude orbit requires more power to fight Earth’s gravity than a lighter payload at a lower altitude.

    Ariane 5 is Europe’s most powerful launch vehicle, capable of lifting one, two, or multiple satellites into their required orbits. Depending on which orbit Ariane 5 is going to, it is able to launch between approximately 10 to 20 tonnes into space – that is 10 000—20 000 kg, which is about the weight of a city bus.

    Vega is smaller than Ariane 5, capable of launching roughly 1.5 tonnes at a time, making it an ideal launch vehicle for many scientific and Earth observation missions. Both Ariane 5 and Vega can deploy multiple satellites at a time.

    ESA’s next generation of rockets includes Ariane 6 and Vega-C. These rockets will be more flexible and will extend what Europe is capable of getting into orbit, and will be able to deliver payloads to several different orbits in a single flight – like a bus with multiple stops.

    Types of orbit

    Upon launch, a satellite or spacecraft is most often placed in one of several particular orbits around Earth – or it might be sent on an interplanetary journey, meaning that it does not orbit Earth anymore, but instead orbits the Sun until its arrival at its final destination, like Mars or Jupiter.

    स्रोत : www.esa.int

    What do you mean by Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)?

    Medium Earth orbits (MEO) are Earth-centered orbits with an altitude from 2000 Km to 35,786 Km above the surface of the Earth. The most prominent satellites traversing th

    स्रोत : www.satnow.com

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