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    Guru Gobind Singh

    Guru Gobind Singh

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    This article is about the tenth Guru of Sikhism. For the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see Gobind Singh (VC). For the Malaysian politician, see Gobind Singh Deo.

    Guru Gobind Singh ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ

    Contemporary painting of Guru Gobind Singh (seated) found within a Dasam Granth manuscript of Anandpur Sahib

    Personal Born Gobind Rai 22 December 1666[1]

    Patna Sahib, Bihar Subah, Mughal Empire

    Died 7 October 1708 (aged 41)

    Hazur Sahib, Bidah Subah, Mughal Empire

    Cause of death Assassination[6][7]

    Religion Sikhism Spouse Mata Jito Mata Sundari Mata Sahib Devan[2] Children Ajit Singh Jujhar Singh Zorawar Singh Fateh Singh

    Zorawar Singh Paut (Adopted)[3]

    Parents Guru Tegh Bahadur Mata Gujri Known for

    Founding the Khalsa[4]

    composed the following :

    Dasam Granth, known prayers of which include

    Jaap Sahib, Chandi di Var, Tav-Prasad Savaiye, Zafarnamah, Bachittar Natak, Akal Ustat, Chaupai (Sikhism) Sabad Patshahi 10 Ugardanti Chaubis Avtar Rudra Avtar Sarbloh Granth

    Founded Sikh festival of Hola Mohalla

    Fought the following Battles :

    Battle of Bhangani Battle of Nadaun

    Battle of Guler (1696)

    Battle of Anandpur (1700)

    Battle of Nirmohgarh (1702)

    Battle of Basoli

    First Battle of Chamkaur

    First Battle of Anandpur (1704)

    Second Battle of Anandpur

    Battle of Sarsa

    Second Battle of Chamkaur (1704)

    Battle of Muktsar

    Gave Jaikara or Slogan Bole So Nihal[5]

    Other names [8] Signature

    Religious career

    Predecessor Guru Tegh Bahadur

    Successor Guru Granth Sahib

    Sikhism

    PeopleOutlineHistory

    show Sikh gurus show

    Select revered saints

    show Philosophy show Practices show Scripture show Places and Takhts show

    General topics and terminology

    GlossarySikh Topics vte

    Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi pronunciation: [gʊɾuː goːbɪn̪d̪ᵊ sɪ́ŋgᵊ]; 22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708),[1][9] born Gobind Das or Gobind Rai[12][13][14][15] the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher. When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was executed by Aurangzeb,[a] Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs at the age of nine, becoming the tenth and final human Sikh Guru.[20] His four biological sons died during his lifetime – two in battle, two executed by the Mughal governor Wazir Khan.[21][22][23]

    Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are founding the warrior community called in 1699[4][24][25] and introducing , the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times. Guru Gobind Singh is credited with the whose hymns are a sacred part of Sikh prayers and Khalsa rituals.[26][27] He is also credited as the one who finalized and enshrined the as Sikhism's primary scripture and eternal Guru.[28][29]

    Contents

    1 Family and early life

    2 Founding the Khalsa

    3 Sikh scriptures 4 Wars

    4.1 Significant battles

    4.2 Mughal accounts

    4.3 Relationship with other religious groups

    5 Post-War years 5.1 Zafarnama

    6 Death of family members

    7 Final days

    8 In popular culture

    9 See also 10 References 11 External links

    Family and early life

    Guru Gobind Singh's birthplace in Patna, Bihar.

    Guru Tegh Bahadar and a young Gobind Rai at the Anandpur Darbar.

    Gobind Singh was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh guru, and Mata Gujri.[30] He was born in Patna, Bihar on 22 December 1666 while his father was visiting Bengal and Assam.[1] His birth name was Gobind Das/Rai, and a shrine named Takht Sri Patna Harimandar Sahib marks the site of the house where he was born and spent the first four years of his life.[1] In 1670, his family returned to Punjab, and in March 1672 they moved to Chakk Nanaki in the Himalayan foothills of north India, called the Sivalik range, where he was schooled.[1][24]

    His father Guru Tegh Bahadur was petitioned by Kashmiri Pandits[31] in 1675 for protection from the fanatic persecution by Iftikar Khan, the Mughal governor of Kashmir under Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.[1][] Tegh Bahadur considered a peaceful resolution by meeting Aurangzeb, but was cautioned by his advisors that his life may be at risk. The young Gobind Rai – to be known as Gobind Singh after 1699[9] – advised his father that no one was more worthy to lead and make a sacrifice than him.[1] His father made the attempt, but was arrested then publicly beheaded in Delhi on 11 November 1675 under the orders of Aurangzeb for refusing to convert to Islam and the ongoing conflicts between Sikhism and the Islamic Empire.[32][33] Before dying Guru Tegh Bahadur wrote a letter to Guru Gobind Rai (the letter was called Mahalla Dasven and it is part of the Guru Granth Sahib) as one last test to find the next Guru, after his father's martyrdom he was made the tenth Sikh Guru on Vaisakhi on 29 March 1676.[34]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    File:2 A view of Bhora Sahib Ji, Sirhind Fatehgarh Sahib Punjab India, sanctum where two sons of Guru Gobind Singh were buried alive by Islamic army.jpg

    File:2 A view of Bhora Sahib Ji, Sirhind Fatehgarh Sahib Punjab India, sanctum where two sons of Guru Gobind Singh were buried alive by Islamic army.jpg

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    English: Fatehgarh Sahib is an important historic site of Sikhs. A major Gurdwara marks the place where two sons of Guru Gobind Singh who were bricked alive in 1704 by the Mughal Empire commander Wazir Khan, with the orders of Aurangzeb.

    The historical wall in which the young sons of Guru Gobind Singh were bricked alive is preserved in the basement of this Gurudwara. It is called Gurudwara Bhora Sahib.

    Fateh Singh and Zorawar Singh, sons of Guru Gobind Singh were martyred here.

    Date 18 September 2017, 10:23:01

    Source Own work

    Author Ms Sarah Welch

    Camera location 30° 39′ 06.6″ N, 76° 23′ 38.39″ E    View this and other nearby images on: OpenStreetMap

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    Fatehgarh Sahib

    Gurdwara Fatehgarh Sahib

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    फतेहगढ़ साहिब

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    स्रोत : commons.wikimedia.org

    How Young Children of Guru Gobind Singh Were Buried Alive by Mughal Governor

    Here is an account of how the young sons of Guru Gobind Singh bravely defended their faith and accepted martyrdom instead of converting to Islam.

    MYINDIAMYGLORY

    MYINDIAMYGLORY ANCIENT. MEDIEVAL. POST-MEDIEVAL. PRESENT.

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    How Young Children of Guru Gobind Singh Were Buried Alive by Mughal Governor

    Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, founded the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa in 1699 especially for ‘the defence of Sikhism and Hinduism against the Mughals’. He was the only son of Mata Gujri and Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru. Guru Gobind Singh fought 13 battles against the Mughals; he won most of the battles.

    Among Guru Gobind Singh’s four sons, two of the eldest, aged 13 and 17, were martyred at the Battle of Chamkaur in December 1704 against the Mughal army. His younger sons Baba Zoravar Singh (9 years old) and Baba Fateh Singh (6 years old) were captured by Wazir Khan, the Muslim governor (Nawab) of Sirhind under Mughals. Wazir Khan executed the young sons by burying them alive into a wall after they refused to convert to Islam. Here is an account of how the young children of the 10th Sikh Guru bravely defended their faith and accepted martyrdom. It was 26th December 1705.

    The Nawab ordered them to be confined to a tower. They had to pass the cold December night lying on the bare and hard floor. The next day they were parted from their grandmother Mata Gujri and were taken to Wazir Khan’s court.

    On reaching there they shouted together loudly, “Wahe Guru Ji Da Khalsa, Wahe Guru JI Di Feteh!”

    A courtier of the Nawab advised the little princes to bow down before the Nawab.

    “No,” said Baba Zorawar Singh, the elder of the two, “we have been taught to bow down to none other than God and the Guru. We will not bow down before the Nawab.”

    The bold and unexpected reply astonished everybody including the Nawab.

    He said to the children, “Your two elder brothers have already been killed in the battle of Chamkaur. Your father is killed too. They were infidels and so they deserved the fate, but you are much more lucky. Good luck had brought you to an Islamic Darbar. Embrace Islam now and become one of us. You will be given Wealth, Rank and Honour and you will have the opportunity to live good lives. You will be honoured by the Mughal Emperor himself. But if you say No to my offer you will be treated as infidels, and will be put to death!”

    Baba Zorawar Singh looked at his younger brother and whispered, “My brother, the time to sacrifice our lives have arrived. What do you think we should reply?”

    Baba Fateh Singh who was just six years old replied, “Dear brother, our grandfather Guru Teg Bahadur parted with his head. He stoutly refused to part with his religion! We should follow his example. We have received the baptism of the spirit and the sword! We are the Guru’s lions! Why should we fear death? It’s best that we should give our lives for the sake of our religion!”

    Baba Zorawar Singh raised his voice, “You say that our father has been killed, but that’s a lie! He is alive and have yet to do a good deal of work in this world. He will have to shake your empire at its root! You know that we are his brave sons who at our age sent our father to sacrifice his life at Delhi. We hereby reject your offer of pleasure. It had been the custom of our family to give our life but not to give our faith! Let your swords do their job. We invite you to do the worst you can!”

    These words alone were enough to inflame the haughty Nawab.

    Sucha Nand, the courtier poured oil into the fire, “If such is their behaviour at this tender age, what will it be when they grow up? They will follow the example of their father and destroy your imperial armies! The offsprings of a cobra should be crushed!”

    The Nawab said, “You are true and wise, Sucha Nand, but I want them to embrace Islam. Let us give them sometime to think and consult with their grandmother. We shall try again tomorrow to make them yield.”

    Then he said to the two brothers, “I don’t want to act in haste, I will give you some time to think. If you refuse, you will be so much tortured that your cries will be heard far and wide! Then you will be cut into pieces!”

    Then he ordered to take them back to the tower where Mata Gujri had been waiting for them. A look at their faces convinced her they stayed firm in their faith and she said a brief prayer of thanks to God. Then she rushed towards them and hugged them lovingly to her bosom. Seating them on her lap she asked them to tell her what had happened.

    Baba Zorawar Singh narrated the whole account to his grandmother. Mata Gujri was immensely pleased to hear what her grandsons narrated to her.

    She said to them, “You should behave tomorrow in the same way as you did today. Remember your grandfather’s example and his teachings. If they torture you, pray to God for strength and think of your grandfather.”

    The next day when they were presented before the Nawab, he gave them the same threats and made the same offer if they embraced Islam. They refused his offer. Sucha Nand again pressed the Nawab to give them capital punishment. But the Nawab decided to give them one more day to think. He still hoped they would yield.

    The next day they were taken to the Court for the third time. The Nawab again gave them the same offer but the brave sons of Guru Govind Singh gave the same reply as the previous two occasions.

    स्रोत : www.myindiamyglory.com

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