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    Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles and Techniques, Videos, Q&A

    Do you know that Chemistry has two branches? Yes. They are- Inorganic and Organic Chemistry. While inorganic chemistry includes all elements, organic chemistry studies compounds of Carbon. Why is carbon so important that it is studied under a different branch? What are its unique properties?

    Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques

    Do you know that Chemistry has two branches? Yes. They are- Inorganic and Organic Chemistry. While inorganic chemistry includes all elements, organic chemistry studies compounds of Carbon. Why is carbon so important that it is studied under a different branch? What are its unique properties? What else does this branch include? Let’s study organic compounds and their properties in detail.

    General Introduction to Organic Compounds

    Classification of Organic Compounds

    Isomerism

    Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

    Purification of Organic Compounds

    Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds

    Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds

    Structural Representations of Organic Compounds

    Types of Organic Reactions

    Fundamental Concepts of Organic Reaction Mechanism

    Ldpe Low Density Polyethelene Properties And Uses

    स्रोत : www.toppr.com

    Organic chemistry

    Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In this unit of class 11 organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, how to name them, as well as the analytical (qualitative and quantitative) methods to characterise them. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules!

    Class 11 Chemistry (India)

    Unit: Organic chemistry - Some basic principles and techniques

    Unit: Organic chemistry - Some basic principles and techniques Intro to organic chemistry

    Learn

    Carbon as a building block of life

    (Opens a modal) Silicon-based life (Opens a modal)

    Tetravalence of carbon: Shapes of organic compounds

    Learn

    Dot structures I: Single bonds

    (Opens a modal)

    Dot structures II: Multiple bonds

    (Opens a modal)

    sp³ hybridized orbitals and sigma bonds

    (Opens a modal)

    sp² hybridized orbitals and pi bonds

    (Opens a modal) sp³ hybridization (Opens a modal) Steric number (Opens a modal) sp² hybridization (Opens a modal) sp hybridization (Opens a modal)

    Worked examples: Finding the hybridization of atoms in organic molecules

    (Opens a modal)

    Structural representations of organic compounds

    Learn

    Representing structures of organic molecules

    (Opens a modal)

    Condensed structures

    (Opens a modal)

    Bond-line structures

    (Opens a modal)

    Three-dimensional bond-line structures

    (Opens a modal)

    Tetrahedral bond angle proof

    (Opens a modal)

    Classification of organic compounds

    Learn Functional groups (Opens a modal) Practice

    Identify the functional groups

    Homologous series: General formula

    Nomenclature of organic compounds

    Learn

    Nomenclature of carbon compounds (Including functional groups)

    (Opens a modal)

    Naming simple alkanes

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    Naming alkanes with alkyl groups

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    Correction - 2-propylheptane should never be the name!

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    Common and systematic naming: iso-, sec-, and tert- prefixes

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    Naming alkanes with ethyl groups

    (Opens a modal)

    Alkane with isopropyl group

    (Opens a modal) Functional groups (Opens a modal)

    More functional groups

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    Identifying functional groups

    (Opens a modal)

    Organic chemistry naming examples 2

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    Organic chemistry naming examples 3

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    Naming a cycloalkane

    (Opens a modal)

    Naming two isobutyl groups systematically

    (Opens a modal)

    Organic chemistry naming examples 4

    (Opens a modal) Practice

    Name the unsaturated compounds

    Name the carbon compounds

    Naming alkanes, cycloalkanes, & benzene derivatives

    Learn

    Alkane and cycloalkane nomenclature I

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    Alkane and cycloalkane nomenclature II

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    Alkane and cycloalkane nomenclature III

    (Opens a modal)

    Naming benzene derivatives introduction

    (Opens a modal)

    Isomerism

    Learn Isomers (Opens a modal)

    Structural (constitutional) isomers

    (Opens a modal)

    Fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanism

    Learn

    Free radical reactions

    (Opens a modal)

    Nucleophilicity (nucleophile strength)

    (Opens a modal)

    Nucleophilicity vs. basicity

    (Opens a modal)

    Elimination vs substitution: reagent

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    Identifying nucleophilic and electrophilic centers

    (Opens a modal)

    Curly arrow conventions in organic chemistry

    (Opens a modal) Practice

    Halogenation of alkanes

    Free radical reactions: Kolbe's electrolysis

    Free radical reactions: Wurtz reaction

    Identifying electrophiles and nucleophiles (BASIC)

    Electron displacement effects

    Learn

    Resonance structures

    (Opens a modal)

    Resonance structure patterns

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    Resonance structures for benzene and the phenoxide anion

    (Opens a modal)

    Common mistakes when drawing resonance structures

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    Resonance structures and hybridization

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    Carbocation stability and rearrangement introduction

    (Opens a modal)

    Carbocation rearrangement practice

    (Opens a modal) Practice

    Stability of intermediates (all electronic effects)

    Identify aromatic, anti-aromatic and non-aromatic molecules

    Application of aromaticity

    Inductive effect on stability of intermediates

    Identifying the correct resonating structure.

    Resonance and stability of aliphatic intermediates.

    Resonance and stability of aromatic intermediates.

    Comparing the stabilities of aromatic and aliphatic intermediates using resonance.

    Inductive v/s Resonance.

    Hyperconjugation and stability of carbocations.

    Hyperconjugation and stability of alkenes.

    Who wins? Resonance, Hyperconjugation or Inductive? (ADVANCED)

    Methods of purification of organic compounds

    Learn

    Simple and fractional distillations

    (Opens a modal)

    Principles of chromatography

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    Basics of chromatography

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    Column chromatography

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    Thin layer chromatography (TLC)

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    Calculating retention factors for TLC

    (Opens a modal) Gas chromatography (Opens a modal)

    Acidic and Basic strength of organic molecules

    This lesson provides a holistic overview of acidic and basic strength of organic molecules and how to find it.

    स्रोत : www.khanacademy.org

    Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques Chemistry Chapter 12

    Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques Chemistry Chapter 12 • Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the study of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. The Shapes of Carbon Compounds: In organic or carbon compounds, s and p orbitals are involved in hybridisation. This leads to y three types of […]

    Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques Chemistry Chapter 12

    June 13, 2022 by Bhagya

    Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques Chemistry Chapter 12

    • Organic Chemistry

    Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the study of hydrocarbons and their derivatives.

    The Shapes of Carbon Compounds:

    In organic or carbon compounds, s and p orbitals are involved in hybridisation. This leads to y three types of hybridisation which are sp3(in alkanes) – Tetrahedral in shape sp2(in alkenes) – Planar structure sp(in alkynes) – Linear molecule

    Functional Group: The functional group are atom or group of atoms joined in a specific manner which determines the chemical properties of the organic compound. The examples are hydroxyl group (—OH), aldehyde group (—CHO) and carboxylic acid group (—COOH) etc.

    • Homologous Series

    A homologous series may be defined as a family of organic compounds having the same functional group, similar chemical properties and the successive members differ from each other in molecular formula by —CH2 units.

    The members of a homologous series can be represented by same general molecular formula.

    • Nomenclature of Organic CompoundsCommon name (Common system): Before the IUPAC system of nomenclature, organic compounds were named after the sources of origin, for example, urea was so named because it was obtained from the urine of mammals. Formic acid was so named since it was extracted from red ants called formica.

    • I UP AC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) System

    According to IUPAC system, the name of an organic compound contains three parts: (i) word root, (ii) suffix, (iii) prefix.

    (i) Word root: Word root represents the number of carbon atoms present in the principal chain, which is the longest possible chain of carbon atoms.

    (ii) Suffix: Suffix are of two types, primary suffix, secondary suffix.

    (a) Primary Suffix: It indicates the type of bond in the carbon atoms.

    (b) Secondary Suffix: Secondary suffix is used to represent the functional group.

    (iii) Prefix: Prefix is a part of IUPAC name which appears before the word root. Prefix

    are of two types:

    (a) Primary prefix: For example, primary prefix cyclo is used to differentiate cyclic compounds.

    (b) Secondary prefix: Some functional groups are considered as substituents and denoted by secondary prefixes.

    For example:

    Substituted Group            Secondary prefix.

    — F                                           Flupro

    — Cl                                         Chloro

    — Br                                        Bromo

    — NO                                      Nitroso

    — NO2                                              Nitro

    — CH3                                    Methyl

    — OCH3                                Methoxy

    Naming of Compounds Containing Functional Groups: The longest chain of carbon atoms containing the functional group is numbered in such a manner that the functional group is attached at the carbon atoms possessing lowest possible number in the chain.

    In case of polyfunctional compounds, one of the functional group is selected as principal functional group and the compound is named on that basis. The choice of principal functional group is made on the basis of order of preference.

    The order of decreasing priority for the functional group is

    • Isomerism

    When there are two or more compounds possessing the same molecular formula but different structural formula and different physical and chemical properties, the phenomenon is called isomerism. Such compounds are called isomers.

    It is of two types:

    (1) Structural Isomerism

    (2) Stereoisomerism

    (1) Structural Isomerism: Structural isomerism is shown by compounds having the same molecular formula but different structural formulae differing in the arrangement of atoms.

    (2) Stereoisomerism: When isomerism is caused by the different arrangements of atoms or groups in space, the phenomenon is called stereoisomerism. The steroeoisomers have same structural formula but differ in arrangement of atoms in space. Stereoisomerism is of two types:

    (i) Geometrical or Cis-Trans Isomerism

    (ii) Optical Isomerism

    • Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism

    Fission of a covalent bond: A covalent bond can undergo Fission in two ways:

    (i) By Homolytic Fission or Homolysis

    (ii) By Heterolytic Fission or Heterolysis

    Homolytic Fission: In this process each of the atoms acquires one of the bonding electrons.

    स्रोत : www.learncbse.in

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