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    saturated and unsaturated carbon compounds class 10

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    Difference between saturated and unsaturated compounds?

    Difference between saturated and unsaturated compounds?

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    Difference between saturated and unsaturated compounds?

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    Difference between saturated and unsaturated compounds?

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    The difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons are given below:

    Saturated hydrocarbons Unsaturated hydrocarbons

    1.Saturated hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only single covalent bonds between two carbon atoms. 1. Unsaturated hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain double and triple covalent bonds between two carbon atoms.

    2. Saturated hydrocarbons are known alkanes. 2. Unsaturated hydrocarbons are known as alkenes and alkynes.

    3. Saturated hydrocarbons are less reactive as compared to unsaturated hydrocarbons. 3. Unsaturated hydrocarbons are more reactive due to

    π − electron density.

    4. Saturated hydrocarbons burn with a blue flame. 4. Unsaturated hydrocarbons burn with a sooty flame.

    5. Saturated hydrocarbon undergoes substitution reaction.

    Example: Sunstitution reaction between methane

    ( C H 4 ) and chlorine ( C l 2 ) . C H 4 + C l 2 ⟶ C H 3 − C l + H C l

    5. Unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo an addition reaction.

    Example: Addition of hydrogen

    H 2 to ethene ( C H 2 = C H 2 ) C H 2 = C H 2 + H 2 ⟶ C H 3 − C H 3 Suggest Corrections 100

    SIMILAR QUESTIONS

    Q. What are saturated and unsaturated compounds? Give examples.Q. Difference between saturated and unsaturated solution .Q.

    difference between saturated solution unsaturated solution and super saturated solution?

    Q. Write two difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons.Q. Give an experiment to differentiate b/w saturated and unsaturated compounds?

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    Carbon Compounds

    Learn about Carbon Compounds topic of Chemistry in details explained by subject experts on Vedantu.com. Register free for online tutoring session to clear your doubts.

    Carbon Compounds

    Chemistry Carbon Compounds Download PDF NCERT Solutions

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    Definition of Carbon Compounds

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    Carbon is the fourth element of the Periodic Table which is abundant in nature as well as the universe. It exists not only in atomic and crystalline forms but also as several compounds. Each carbon compound has distinctive properties and applications of its own.

    An Overview

    Carbon is such a versatile element that it is present in almost everything around us. From foods to clothes, medicines to books- carbon is the base of almost all structures including the living ones. Carbon is present in minerals in 0.02% amount and in the atmosphere, it is present as carbon dioxide in 0.03% amount. All products of coal and petroleum contain carbon in them. In fact, carbon continues to stay even in the organisms after death. Carbon is a non-metal element.

    Basic Information about Carbon

    Symbol C Atomic number 6 Atomic structure 2, 4 Valence electrons 4, tetravalent Nature Non-metal

    As carbon has a valency of four it refers to the fact that it can react with four atoms of elements (same or different) while forming a compound.

    How does Carbon Bond with Other Elements?

    Carbon uses covalent bonds for achieving stability. By the use of this, carbon shares the valence electrons with other carbon atoms or different element atoms. If carbon did not use a covalent bond, it had two ways to attain stability one of them is gaining four electrons and the other being losing four electrons. But in the former way, it will be difficult for the six protons to carry on with ten electrons and in the latter way, a large amount of energy will be needed for removing four electrons. By forming a covalent bond, carbon uses shared electrons on the outermost shell and achieves the configuration of a noble gas.

    In covalent bonds, the intermolecular forces are less while the bonded molecules have strong bonds within the molecule. Also, no formation of charged particles is observed here. This contributes to the nature of being a poor electricity conductor.

    What are the Versatile Features of Carbon?

    Carbon has two basic natures which make it the most extensively present element in organic compounds. These are catenation and tetravalent nature.

    Catenation

    Each and everything is surrounded by carbon compounds in the field of Organic Chemistry. Carbon compounds are one of the quintessential components of living organisms. Carbon consists of two stable isotopes namely 12C and 13C. Apart from these two isotopes there is another isotope of carbon existing in nature. It is 14C. Radiocarbon dating is done by the carbon and it is also a radioisotope with a half-life of 5770 years.

    One of the most unique properties of carbon is that it is able to make long carbon chains and rings. This unique feature of carbon is termed as catenation.

    Another amazing property of carbon is that carbon forms p-pπ bonds which are double and triple bonds with itself and with other electronegative atoms such as oxygen and nitrogen.

    Carbon has a number of allotropic structures just because of these two properties of carbon i.e. catenation and multiple bond formation.

    The small size of the carbon atom and the carbon-carbon bond strength enables it to form stable multiple bonds too with itself and other element atoms. Propane and butane are two such straight-chain elements while 2-methylpropane and 2,2-dimethylpropane are two branched-chain elements. Cyclohexane and cyclobutane are two ring-structured elements.

    Tetravalent Nature

    This enables carbon bonds with four atoms of carbon itself or atoms of other elements with the help of a single, double or triple bond.

    What does the Allotrope of Carbon Actually Mean?

    If an element is present in nature in various forms with various physical properties and similar chemical properties then its forms are termed as allotropes of allotropic forms. Two or more physical forms of one element actually define allotropes. Allotropes are formed on the basis of carbon atoms but exercise different physical properties, mainly with regard to hardness.

    Diamond and graphite are the two most common crystalline allotropes of carbon. Recent researches reveal that all the amorphous carbons consist of microcrystal of graphite. In spite of the difference in the crystal structure and physical properties of these allotropes, their chemical properties are the same. Diamond and graphite bear the symbol C and both release carbon dioxide when strongly heated in the presence of oxygen.

    What are Some Important Carbon Compounds?

    Ethyl alcohol or ethanol and ethanoic acid are two of the most important carbon compounds.

    Ethanol

    Its chemical formula is CH3CH2-OH or C2H5OH. It is a colorless inflammable liquid that, when added to water, forms a homogeneous mixture in all proportions. Litmus paper does not change color when brought in contact with ethanol.

    Some of its chemical properties are as follows:

    It reacts with sodium to form sodium ethoxide

    Ethanol reacts with concentrated H2SO4 which removes water from ethanol.

    2.   Ethanoic Acid

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    Difference Between Saturated and Unsaturated Compounds

    What is the difference between Saturated and Unsaturated Compounds? Saturated compounds do not undergo polymerizations while unsaturated compounds undergo..

    Difference Between Saturated and Unsaturated Compounds

    February 1, 2018by Madhusha5 min read

    43Share

    Main Difference – Saturated vs Unsaturated Compounds

    In organic chemistry, a chemical compound can be either saturated or unsaturated based on the type of chemical bonding between carbon atoms. These terms are to describe alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes. A saturated compound is only composed of carbon-carbon single bonds. For example, alkanes are composed of C-C single bonds. Unsaturated compounds can have double bonds and triple bonds as well. For example, alkenes contain double bonds and alkynes contain triple bonds. Therefore the main difference between saturated and unsaturated compounds is that saturated compounds have only carbon-carbon single bonds whereas unsaturated compounds have carbon-carbon double bonds and triple bonds.

    Key Areas Covered

    1. What are Saturated Compounds

    – Definition, Explanation with Examples

    2. What are Unsaturated Compounds

    – Definition, Explanation with Examples

    3. What is the Difference Between Saturated and Unsaturated Compounds

    – Comparison of Key Differences

    Key Terms: Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne, Aromatic, Fatty Acids, Hybridization, Saturated Compounds, Unsaturated Compounds

    What are Saturated Compounds

    Saturated compounds are organic compounds that have only carbon-carbon single bonds. Aliphatic alkanes and cycloalkanes are saturated compounds. These compounds can be straight chains, can have side groups, and can be branched structures or cyclic structures, but without double bonds or triple bonds.

    Saturated compounds are very unreactive and more stable than unsaturated compounds. These compounds have low melting points and boiling points relative to their molar mass. All carbon atoms in C-C bonds are sp3 hybridized atoms in saturated compounds. The simplest alkane is methane. It has one carbon atom bonded to four carbon atoms. There are no double bonds or triple bonds between atoms. The simplest cycloalkane is cyclopropane. It has three carbon atoms bonded to each other, forming a ring structure. Each carbon atom is bonded to two hydrogen atoms; hence there are no double bonds or triple bonds in this structure as well.

    Figure 1: Chemical Structure is Cyclopropane

    In saturated compounds, more hydrogen atoms are bonded to carbon atoms when compared to unsaturated compounds having the same number of carbon atoms. Apart from alkanes, there can be alcohols such as butanol having only C-C bonds and one C-OH bond. But no unsaturation is present. Saturated fatty acids are also considered as saturated compounds when compared to unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have saturated fatty acid chains that have no double bonds or triple bonds.

    What are Unsaturated Compounds

    Unsaturated compounds are organic compounds containing at least one double bond or a triple bond between the carbon atoms. These bonds can be either conjugated or not. Conjugated refers to the presence of chemical bonds in a compound that are reversibly combined with another. The major unsaturated compounds are alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic compounds.

    Alkenes are organic compounds having at least one double bond. A double bond consists of a sigma bond and a pi bond. A sigma bond is a type of chemical bond that is formed due to the head-on overlapping between atomic orbitals. A pi bond is formed due to overlapping of p orbitals. The carbon atoms having double bonds in alkene are sp2 hybridized.

    Alkynes are compounds that are composed of at least one triple bond. A triple bond is composed of a sigma bond and two pi bonds. The carbon atoms having triple bonds in alkynes are sp hybridized. An aromatic compound is an unsaturated compound composed of double bonds and single bonds that are arranged in an alternating pattern.

    Figure 2: Alkynes have Triple Bonds

    Unsaturated compounds are very reactive due to the presence of double bonds and triple bonds. The hydrogen atoms per carbon atom are less than that in saturated compounds. Therefore they are unstable. Unsaturated compounds are able to undergo polymerization. The polymerization of unsaturated compounds makes saturated polymers.

    Difference Between Saturated and Unsaturated Compounds

    Definition

    Saturated Compounds: Saturated compounds are organic compounds that have only carbon-carbon single bonds.Unsaturated Compounds: Unsaturated compounds are organic compounds containing at least one double bond or triple bond between carbon atoms.

    Chemical Bonding

    Saturated Compounds: Saturated compounds have only single bonds between carbon atoms.Unsaturated Compounds: Unsaturated compounds have at least one double bond or triple bond between two carbon atoms.

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