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    select the incorrect statement. contamination is simply the presence of a substance where it should not be or at concentrations above the background. pollution is contamination that results in or can result in adverse biological effects on resident communities. pollutant is the substance that alters the composition of the natural atmosphere. sources are the places to which pollutants get absorbed or converted/transformed in some other constituents/forms.

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    get select the incorrect statement. contamination is simply the presence of a substance where it should not be or at concentrations above the background. pollution is contamination that results in or can result in adverse biological effects on resident communities. pollutant is the substance that alters the composition of the natural atmosphere. sources are the places to which pollutants get absorbed or converted/transformed in some other constituents/forms. from screen.

    Determining when contamination is pollution

    Contamination is simply the presence of a substance where it should not be or at concentrations above background. Pollution is contamination that results in or can result in adverse biological effects to resident communities. All pollutants are contaminants, but not all contaminants are pollutants. …

    . 2007 May;33(4):492-501.

    doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2006.09.001. Epub 2006 Oct 6.

    Determining when contamination is pollution - weight of evidence determinations for sediments and effluents

    Peter M Chapman  1 Affiliations

    Affiliation

    1 Golder Associates, 195 Pemberton Avenue, North Vancouver, BC, Canada V7P 2R4. pmchapman@golder.com

    PMID: 17027966

    DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2006.09.001

    Determining when contamination is pollution - weight of evidence determinations for sediments and effluents

    Peter M Chapman. Environ Int. 2007 May.

    . 2007 May;33(4):492-501.

    doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2006.09.001. Epub 2006 Oct 6.

    Author

    Peter M Chapman  1

    Affiliation

    1 Golder Associates, 195 Pemberton Avenue, North Vancouver, BC, Canada V7P 2R4. pmchapman@golder.com

    PMID: 17027966

    DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2006.09.001

    Abstract

    Contamination is simply the presence of a substance where it should not be or at concentrations above background. Pollution is contamination that results in or can result in adverse biological effects to resident communities. All pollutants are contaminants, but not all contaminants are pollutants. Differentiating pollution from contamination cannot be done solely on the basis of chemical analyses because such analyses provide no information on bioavailability or on toxicity. Effects-based measures such as laboratory or field toxicity tests and measures of the status of resident, exposed communities provide key information, but cannot be used independently to determine pollution status. Laboratory studies can be predictive, but are rarely realistic. Measures of resident communities include innate natural variability and cannot easily distinguish between adaptation to contamination (a genetic process) and acclimation (a physiological process that may decrease energy reserves, possibly reducing such critical population-level parameters as reproduction). Finally, contaminant effects may not only be direct but also indirect; predicting such effects requires knowledge of the system under study as well as appropriate use of lines of evidence (LOE) such as toxicity tests directed to key species. Consequently, in sediments, effluents or other inputs/environmental compartments, determining when contamination is or may in future become pollution, requires a weight of evidence (WOE) assessment using different LOE appropriate to the situation under investigation. WOE investigations provide two different types of information: definitive conclusions regarding pollution; or, information as to what additional, investigative studies are necessary for definitive conclusions. Effectively, a WOE assessment comprises an initial screening-level ecological risk assessment (ERA), which may be followed by a detailed-level ERA if key uncertainties need to be resolved.

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    MeSH terms

    Substances

    MeSH terms Substances LinkOut - more resources

    Full Text Sources

    Elsevier Science

    स्रोत : pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    Pollution

    Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. These harmful materials are called pollutants.

    RESOURCE LIBRARY

    ARTICLE

    Pollution

    Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. These harmful materials are called pollutants.

    GRADES 5 - 8 SUBJECTS

    Biology, Earth Science, Ecology, Geography, Health

    PHOTOGRAPH

    Landfill

    Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. Landfills collect garbage and other land pollution in a central location. Many places are running out of space for landfills.

    PHOTOGRAPH BY DENNIS FINLEY

    1/14

    Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. These harmful materials are called pollutants. Pollutants can be natural, such as volcanic ash. They can also be created by human activity, such as trash or runoff produced by factories. Pollutants damage the quality of air, water, and land.

    Many things that are useful to people produce pollution. Cars spew pollutants from their exhaust pipes. Burning coal to create electricity pollutes the air. Industries and homes generate garbage and sewage that can pollute the land and water. Pesticides—chemical poisons used to kill weeds and insects—seep into waterways and harm wildlife.

    All living things—from one-celled microbes to blue whales—depend on Earth’s supply of air and water. When these resources are polluted, all forms of life are threatened.

    Pollution is a global problem. Although urban areas are usually more polluted than the countryside, pollution can spread to remote places where no people live. For example, pesticides and other chemicals have been found in the Antarctic ice sheet. In the middle of the northern Pacific Ocean, a huge collection of microscopic plastic particles forms what is known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.

    Air and water currents carry pollution. Ocean currents and migrating fish carry marine pollutants far and wide. Winds can pick up radioactive material accidentally released from a nuclear reactor and scatter it around the world. Smoke from a factory in one country drifts into another country.

    In the past, visitors to Big Bend National Park in the U.S. state of Texas could see 290 kilometers (180 miles) across the vast landscape. Now, coal-burning power plants in Texas and the neighboring state of Chihuahua, Mexico have spewed so much pollution into the air that visitors to Big Bend can sometimes see only 50 kilometers (30 miles).

    The three major types of pollution are air pollution, water pollution, and land pollution.

    Air Pollution

    Sometimes, air pollution is visible. A person can see dark smoke pour from the exhaust pipes of large trucks or factories, for example. More often, however, air pollution is invisible.

    Polluted air can be dangerous, even if the pollutants are invisible. It can make people’s eyes burn and make them have difficulty breathing. It can also increase the risk of lung cancer.

    Sometimes, air pollution kills quickly. In 1984, an accident at a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, released a deadly gas into the air. At least 8,000 people died within days. Hundreds of thousands more were permanently injured.

    Natural disasters can also cause air pollution to increase quickly. When volcanoes erupt, they eject volcanic ash and gases into the atmosphere. Volcanic ash can discolor the sky for months. After the eruption of the Indonesian volcano of Krakatoa in 1883, ash darkened the sky around the world. The dimmer sky caused fewer crops to be harvested as far away as Europe and North America. For years, meteorologists tracked what was known as the “equatorial smoke stream.” In fact, this smoke stream was a jet stream, a wind high in Earth’s atmosphere that Krakatoa’s air pollution made visible.

    Volcanic gases, such as sulfur dioxide, can kill nearby residents and make the soil infertile for years. Mount Vesuvius, a volcano in Italy, famously erupted in 79, killing hundreds of residents of the nearby towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Most victims of Vesuvius were not killed by lava or landslides caused by the eruption. They were choked, or asphyxiated, by deadly volcanic gases.

    In 1986, a toxic cloud developed over Lake Nyos, Cameroon. Lake Nyos sits in the crater of a volcano. Though the volcano did not erupt, it did eject volcanic gases into the lake. The heated gases passed through the water of the lake and collected as a cloud that descended the slopes of the volcano and into nearby valleys. As the toxic cloud moved across the landscape, it killed birds and other organisms in their natural habitat. This air pollution also killed thousands of cattle and as many as 1,700 people.

    Most air pollution is not natural, however. It comes from burning fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas. When gasoline is burned to power cars and trucks, it produces carbon monoxide, a colorless, odorless gas. The gas is harmful in high concentrations, or amounts. City traffic produces highly concentrated carbon monoxide.

    Cars and factories produce other common pollutants, including nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrocarbons. These chemicals react with sunlight to produce smog, a thick fog or haze of air pollution. The smog is so thick in Linfen, China, that people can seldom see the sun. Smog can be brown or grayish blue, depending on which pollutants are in it.

    स्रोत : education.nationalgeographic.org

    Air pollution

    Air pollution kills an estimated seven million people worldwide every year. WHO data shows that 9 out of 10 people breathe air containing high levels of pollutants. WHO is working with countries to monitor air pollution and improve air quality.

    @=img=@#=img=# ©

    Air pollution

    Overview More

    Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere.

    Household combustion devices, motor vehicles, industrial facilities and forest fires are common sources of air pollution. Pollutants of major public health concern include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Outdoor and indoor air pollution cause respiratory and other diseases and are important sources of morbidity and mortality.

    WHO data show that almost all of the global population (99%) breathe air that exceeds WHO guideline limits and contains high levels of pollutants, with low- and middle-income countries suffering from the highest exposures.

    Air quality is closely linked to the earth’s climate and ecosystems globally. Many of the drivers of air pollution (i.e. combustion of fossil fuels) are also sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Policies to reduce air pollution, therefore, offer a win-win strategy for both climate and health, lowering the burden of disease attributable to air pollution, as well as contributing to the near- and long-term mitigation of climate change.

    From smog hanging over cities to smoke inside the home, air pollution poses a major threat to health and climate.

    Ambient (outdoor) air pollution in both cities and rural areas is causing fine particulate matter which result in strokes, heart diseases, lung cancer, acute and chronic respiratory diseases.

    Additionally, around 2.4 billion people are exposed to dangerous levels of household air pollution, while using polluting open fires or simple stoves for cooking fuelled by kerosene, biomass (wood, animal dung and crop waste) and coal.

    The combined effects of ambient air pollution and household air pollution is associated with 7 million premature deaths annually.

    Sources of air pollution are multiple and context specific. The major outdoor pollution sources include residential energy for cooking and heating, vehicles, power generation, agriculture/waste incineration, and industry. Policies and investments that support sustainable land use, cleaner household energy and transport, energy-efficient housing, power generation, industry, and better municipal waste management can effectively reduce key sources of ambient air pollution.

    WHO promotes interventions and initiatives for healthy sectoral policies (including energy, transport, housing, urban development and electrification of health-care facilities), addressing key risks to health from air pollution indoors and outdoors, and contributing to achieving health co-benefits from climate change mitigation policies.

    WHO provides technical support to WHO’s Member States in the development of normative guidance, tools and provision of authoritative advice on health issues related to air pollution and its sources.

    WHO monitors and reports on global trends and changes in health outcomes associated with actions taken to address air pollution at the national, regional and global levels.

    WHO has also developed and implemented a strategy for raising awareness on the risk of air pollution, as well as available solutions that can be implemented to mitigate the risks of exposure to air pollution. Through digital outreach and partnerships, WHO has helped enrich the value proposition of addressing air pollution for health and environment ministries, city governments and other stakeholders from sectors with significant emissions.

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