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    Substances whose atoms have no free electrons, are calleda)electrolytesb)conductorsc)insulatorsd)semiconductors.Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

    Dec 24,2022 - Substances whose atoms have no free electrons, are calleda)electrolytesb)conductorsc)insulatorsd)semiconductors.Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer? | EduRev UPSC Question is disucussed on EduRev Study Group by 233 UPSC Students.

    UPSC Question  >  Substances whose atoms have no free electrons...

    Substances whose atoms have no free electrons, are called

    a) electrolytes b) conductors c) insulators d) semiconductors.

    Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

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    Substances whose atoms have no free electrons, are calleda)electrolytesb)conductorsc)insulatorsd)semiconductors.Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

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    Substances whose atoms have no free electrons, are calleda)electrolytesb)conductorsc)insulatorsd)semiconductors.Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer? for UPSC 2022 is part of UPSC preparation. The Question and answers have been prepared according to the UPSC exam syllabus. Information about Substances whose atoms have no free electrons, are calleda)electrolytesb)conductorsc)insulatorsd)semiconductors.Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer? covers all topics & solutions for UPSC 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Substances whose atoms have no free electrons, are calleda)electrolytesb)conductorsc)insulatorsd)semiconductors.Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?.

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    स्रोत : edurev.in

    Conductors, Insulators, and Electron Flow

    Read about Conductors, Insulators, and Electron Flow (Basic Concepts Of Electricity) in our free Electronics Textbook

    Basic Concepts Of Electricity

    Static Electricity

    Conductors, Insulators, and Electron Flow

    What Are Electric Circuits?

    Voltage and Current Resistance

    Voltage and Current in a Practical Circuit

    Conventional Versus Electron Flow

    Conductors, Insulators, and Electron Flow

    Conductors, Insulators, and Electron Flow Chapter 1 - Basic Concepts Of Electricity

    PDF Version

    The electrons of different types of atoms have different degrees of freedom to move around. With some types of materials, such as metals, the outermost electrons in the atoms are so loosely bound that they chaotically move in the space between the atoms of that material by nothing more than the influence of room-temperature heat energy. Because these virtually unbound electrons are free to leave their respective atoms and float around in the space between adjacent atoms, they are often called free electrons.

    Conductors vs Insulators

    In other types of materials such as glass, the atoms’ electrons have very little freedom to move around. While external forces such as physical rubbing can force some of these electrons to leave their respective atoms and transfer to the atoms of another material, they do not move between atoms within that material very easily.

    This relative mobility of electrons within a material is known as electric conductivity. Conductivity is determined by the types of atoms in a material (the number of protons in each atom’s nucleus determines its chemical identity) and how the atoms are linked together with one another. Materials with high electron mobility (many free electrons) are called conductors, while materials with low electron mobility (few or no free electrons) are called insulators. Here are a few common examples of conductors and insulators:

    Conductors

    silver copper gold aluminum iron steel brass bronze mercury graphite dirty water concrete

    Insulators

    glass rubber oil asphalt fiberglass porcelain ceramic quartz (dry) cotton (dry) paper (dry) wood plastic air diamond pure water

    It must be understood that not all conductive materials have the same level of conductivity, and not all insulators are equally resistant to electron motion. Electrical conductivity is analogous to the transparency of certain materials to light: materials that easily “conduct” light are called “transparent,” while those that don’t are called “opaque.” However, not all transparent materials are equally conductive to light. Window glass is better than most plastics, and certainly better than “clear” fiberglass. So it is with electrical conductors, some being better than others.

    For instance, silver is the best conductor in the “conductors” list, offering easier passage for electrons than any other material cited. Dirty water and concrete are also listed as conductors, but these materials are substantially less conductive than any metal.

    It should also be understood that some materials experience changes in their electrical properties under different conditions. Glass, for instance, is a very good insulator at room temperature but becomes a conductor when heated to a very high temperature. Gases such as air, normally insulating materials, also become conductive if heated to very high temperatures. Most metals become poorer conductors when heated, and better conductors when cooled. Many conductive materials become perfectly conductive (this is called superconductivity) at extremely low temperatures.

    Electron Flow / Electric Current

    While the normal motion of “free” electrons in a conductor is random, with no particular direction or speed, electrons can be influenced to move in a coordinated fashion through a conductive material. This uniform motion of electrons is what we call electricity or electric current. To be more precise, it could be called dynamic electricity in contrast to static electricity, which is an unmoving accumulation of electric charge. Just like water flowing through the emptiness of a pipe, electrons are able to move within the empty space within and between the atoms of a conductor. The conductor may appear to be solid to our eyes, but any material composed of atoms is mostly empty space! The liquid-flow analogy is so fitting that the motion of electrons through a conductor is often referred to as a “flow.”

    A noteworthy observation may be made here. As each electron moves uniformly through a conductor, it pushes on the one ahead of it, such that all the electrons move together as a group. The starting and stopping of electron flow through the length of a conductive path is virtually instantaneous from one end of a conductor to the other, even though the motion of each electron may be very slow. An approximate analogy is that of a tube filled end-to-end with marbles:

    The tube is full of marbles, just as a conductor is full of free electrons ready to be moved by an outside influence. If a single marble is suddenly inserted into this full tube on the left-hand side, another marble will immediately try to exit the tube on the right. Even though each marble only traveled a short distance, the transfer of motion through the tube is virtually instantaneous from the left end to the right end, no matter how long the tube is. With electricity, the overall effect from one end of a conductor to the other happens at the speed of light: a swift 186,000 miles per second!!! Each individual electron, though, travels through the conductor at a much slower pace.

    स्रोत : www.allaboutcircuits.com

    [Solved] Which of the following types of substance has no free electr

    The correct answer is option 2,i.e. Insulators. Current flows in the opposite direction in which direction free electrons of a substance flow.

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    Which of the following types of substance has no free electrons in it?

    Conductors Insulators Semiconductors Superconductors

    Answer (Detailed Solution Below)

    Option 2 : Insulators

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    The correct answer is option 2,i.e. Insulators.

    Current flows in the opposite direction in which direction free electrons of a substance flow. This phenomenon is known as the current electricity.

    A substance can be divided into the four types based on their conductivity of the electricity or you can say based on their free electron number present on their surface:

    Insulator: The substances that not allow the current to flow through them. They don't have any free electrons.

    example. - Cotton, Wood, Glass etc.

    Conductors: The substances that allow the current to flow through them are known as conductors. They have a large number of free electrons.

    eg:- Copper, Silver, Iron, Aluminium etc.

    Superconductors: This substance has zero resistance at a very low temperature. so electricity flows through them rapidly.

    ​ eg- Mercury below 4.2 K, Lead below 7.25 K are act like as superconductors. (K= kelvin)

    Semiconductors: Some substances that have electrical resistivity between those of conductors and insulators.

    eg.- Silicon and germanium.

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