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    the book which has been included in the list of ot books by the holy synod this year.


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    Which books were removed from the New Testament in AD 367 by Athanasius of Alexandria, in AD393 by the Council of Hippo and in AD397 by the Council of Carthage?

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    Which books were removed from the New Testament in AD 367 by Athanasius of Alexandria, in AD393 by the Council of Hippo and in AD397 by the Council of Carthage?

    IT IS MISLEADING to talk of books being "removed" from the New Testament; not until well into the fourth Century AD was there agreement on what the canon of the New Testament actually was. This came about after a long and gradual process, and was in the form of an accepted consensus rather than a formal statement. In fact, no Ecumenical Council ever made a definitive pronouncement on the subject, reflecting the fact that this was one issue in the early church which was singularly free of controversy. Before this time, various lists of books had been in circulation in different areas. From these we can identify five principal "fringe" books later omitted from the canon proper. They are: the Didache (or Teaching of the Twelve Apostles), the Shepherd of Hermas, the Apocalypse of Peter, the Epistle of Barnabas and the Epistle of Clement. Their eventual exclusion was not because they were regarded as heretical, but because they either lacked apostolic authorship or were thought to be too shallow in spiritual content. Athanasius, in his Easter Letter of AD367, set out his list of books which were to be regarded as Scripture. His is the earliest extant list which corresponds with the canon of the New Testament as we now know it. In addition, he states that the Didache and the Shepherd, while not to be regarded on this level, were still worthy of study by catechumens. The respect Athanasius commanded was such that his list was accepted in Rome in AD383, and adopted by the Council of Carthage in AD397. The Council of Hippo in AD393 was more concerned with the status of the Old Testament Apocrypha, and appears not to have discussed the canon of the New Testament at any length. The Athanasian canon thus came to be gradually accepted throughout the church. M. R. James, of ghost story fame, published a translation of all the significant post-apostolic writings in 1924, which is still in print

    Alan M. Linfield, Tring, Herts.

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    Deuterocanonical books

    Deuterocanonical books

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    The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") are books and passages considered by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, and the Assyrian Church of the East to be canonical books of the Old Testament, but which Protestant denominations regard as apocrypha. They date from 300 BC to 100 AD, mostly from 200 BC to 70 AD, before the definite separation of the Christian church from Judaism.[1][2][3] While the New Testament never directly quotes from or names these books, the apostles most frequently used and quoted the Septuagint, which includes them. Some say there is a correspondence of thought,[4][5] and others see texts from these books being paraphrased, referred, or alluded to many times in the New Testament, depending in large measure on what is counted as a reference.[6]

    Although there is no scholarly consensus as to when the Hebrew Bible canon was fixed, some scholars hold that the Hebrew canon was established well before the 1st century AD – even as early as the 4th century BC,[7] or by the Hasmonean dynasty (140–40 BC).[8]

    The Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which the early Christian church used as its Old Testament, included all of the deuterocanonical books. The term distinguished these books from both the protocanonical books (the books of the Hebrew canon) and the biblical apocrypha (books of Jewish origin that were sometimes read in Christian churches as scripture but which were not regarded as canonical).[9]

    The Council of Rome (382 AD) defined a list of books of scripture as canonical. It included most of the deuterocanonical books.[10]


    1 Hebrew Bible canon

    2 Protestant Canon

    3 List of deuterocanonicals

    3.1 Dates of composition

    4 Historical background

    4.1 Dead Sea scrolls

    4.2 Influence of the Septuagint

    4.3 Influence of early authors

    4.4 Synods

    4.5 Influence of Jerome

    4.6 Masoretic Text

    5 In the Catholic Church

    5.1 Baruch 5.2 Esdras

    6 In Eastern Orthodoxy

    7 Ethiopian Miaphysitism

    8 In Christian Churches having their origins in the Reformation

    8.1 Anabaptist Churches

    8.2 Anglican Communion

    8.3 Lutheran Churches

    8.4 Methodist Churches and Moravian Churches

    8.5 Presbyterian Churches

    8.6 Reformed Churches

    9 New Testament deuterocanonicals

    10 Notes 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

    Hebrew Bible canon[edit]

    Main article: Development of the Hebrew Bible canon

    The canon of modern Rabbinic Judaism excludes the deuterocanonical books. It is commonly said that Judaism officially excluded the deuterocanonicals and the additional Greek texts listed here from their scripture in the Council of Jamnia (c. 70–90 CE), but this claim is disputed.[11] Mainstream rabbinic Judaism is believed to have further codified the Hebrew Canon (Tanakh) in the early centuries of CE, although we can only be certain that such a consensus had emerged by 7–10th centuries.

    Protestant Canon[edit]

    The early Christian church largely relied upon the Septuagint in the canonization of the Christian Bible. However, in the 16th century, Martin Luther argued that many of the received texts of the New Testament lacked the authority of the Gospels, and therefore proposed removing a number of books from the New Testament, including Hebrews, James, Jude, and Revelation. While this proposal was never widely accepted among Protestants, he did nonetheless succeed in removing the Deuterocanonical books, which had previously been deprecated by Jewish scholars.[12]

    List of deuterocanonicals[edit]

    The deuterocanonical texts held as canonical for the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church are:[13]

    Tobit Judith Baruch Sirach 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees Wisdom

    Additions to Esther, Daniel, and Baruch:


    Fulfillment of Mordecai's Dream (Esther 10:4–13)

    Interpretation of Mordecai's Dream (Vulgate Esther 11)

    Conspiracy of the Two Eunuchs (Vulgate Esther 12)

    Letter of Aman and the Prayer of Mordecai to the Jews (Vulgate Esther 13)

    The Prayer of Esther (Vulgate Esther 14)

    Esther Comes into the King's Presence (Vulgate Esther 15)

    Letter of King Artaxerxes (Vulgate Esther 16)


    The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children (Septuagint Daniel 3:24–90)

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