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    Which one of the following is used as a vector for cloning of genes into higher organisms?

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    Which one of the following is used as a vector for cloning of genes into higher organisms?




    Baculo virus


    Medium Open in App

    Updated on : 2022-09-05

    Solution Verified by Toppr

    Correct option is A)

    Correct Option: AExplanation:

    A retroviral vector is made up of proviral sequences that may accept the desired gene, allowing both to be incorporated into the target cells.

    The vector also includes viral and cellular gene promoters, such as the CMV promoter, to boost gene expression in the target cells.

    Retroviruses function differently - their RNA is reverse-transcribed into DNA, which is integrated into the host cell's genome, and then undergoes the usual transcription and translational processes to express the genes carried by the virus.

    Thus, Retrovirus is used as a vector for cloning of genes into higher organisms.

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    स्रोत : www.toppr.com

    Cloning vector

    Cloning vector

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Schematic representation of the pBR322 plasmid, one of the first plasmids widely used as a cloning vector.

    A cloning vector is a small piece of DNA that can be stably maintained in an organism, and into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted for cloning purposes.[1] The cloning vector may be DNA taken from a virus, the cell of a higher organism, or it may be the plasmid of a bacterium. The vector contains features that allow for the convenient insertion of a DNA fragment into the vector or its removal from the vector, for example through the presence of restriction sites. The vector and the foreign DNA may be treated with a restriction enzyme that cuts the DNA, and DNA fragments thus generated contain either blunt ends or overhangs known as sticky ends, and vector DNA and foreign DNA with compatible ends can then be joined by molecular ligation. After a DNA fragment has been cloned into a cloning vector, it may be further subcloned into another vector designed for more specific use.

    There are many types of cloning vectors, but the most commonly used ones are genetically engineered plasmids. Cloning is generally first performed using , and cloning vectors in include plasmids, bacteriophages (such as phage λ), cosmids, and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). Some DNA, however, cannot be stably maintained in , for example very large DNA fragments, and other organisms such as yeast may be used. Cloning vectors in yeast include yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs).

    Features of a cloning vector[edit]

    All commonly used cloning vectors in molecular biology have key features necessary for their function, such as a suitable cloning site and selectable marker. Others may have additional features specific to their use. For reason of ease and convenience, cloning is often performed using . Thus, the cloning vectors used often have elements necessary for their propagation and maintenance in , such as a functional origin of replication (ori). The ColE1 origin of replication is found in many plasmids. Some vectors also include elements that allow them to be maintained in another organism in addition to , and these vectors are called shuttle vector.

    Cloning site[edit]

    All cloning vectors have features that allow a gene to be conveniently inserted into the vector or removed from it. This may be a multiple cloning site (MCS) or polylinker, which contains many unique restriction sites. The restriction sites in the MCS are first cleaved by restriction enzymes, then a PCR-amplified target gene also digested with the same enzymes is ligated into the vectors using DNA ligase. The target DNA sequence can be inserted into the vector in a specific direction if so desired. The restriction sites may be further used for sub-cloning into another vector if necessary.[]

    Other cloning vectors may use topoisomerase instead of ligase and cloning may be done more rapidly without the need for restriction digest of the vector or insert. In this TOPO cloning method a linearized vector is activated by attaching topoisomerase I to its ends, and this "TOPO-activated" vector may then accept a PCR product by ligating both the 5' ends of the PCR product, releasing the topoisomerase and forming a circular vector in the process.[2] Another method of cloning without the use of DNA digest and ligase is by DNA recombination, for example as used in the Gateway cloning system.[3][4] The gene, once cloned into the cloning vector (called entry clone in this method), may be conveniently introduced into a variety of expression vectors by recombination.[5]

    Selectable marker[edit]

    A selectable marker is carried by the vector to allow the selection of positively transformed cells. Antibiotic resistance is often used as marker, an example being the beta-lactamase gene, which confers resistance to the penicillin group of beta-lactam antibiotics like ampicillin. Some vectors contain two selectable markers, for example the plasmid pACYC177 has both ampicillin and kanamycin resistance gene.[6] Shuttle vector which is designed to be maintained in two different organisms may also require two selectable markers, although some selectable markers such as resistance to zeocin and hygromycin B are effective in different cell types. Auxotrophic selection markers that allow an auxotrophic organism to grow in minimal growth medium may also be used; examples of these are and which are used with their corresponding auxotrophic strains of yeast.[7]

    Another kind of selectable marker allows for the positive selection of plasmid with cloned gene. This may involve the use of a gene lethal to the host cells, such as barnase,[8] Ccda,[9] and the parD/parE toxins.[10][11] This typically works by disrupting or removing the lethal gene during the cloning process, and unsuccessful clones where the lethal gene still remains intact would kill the host cells, therefore only successful clones are selected.

    Reporter gene[edit]

    Reporter genes are used in some cloning vectors to facilitate the screening of successful clones by using features of these genes that allow successful clone to be easily identified. Such features present in cloning vectors may be the α fragment for α complementation in blue-white selection, and/or marker gene or reporter genes in frame with and flanking the MCS to facilitate the production of fusion proteins. Examples of fusion partners that may be used for screening are the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and luciferase.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Which of the following vectors can be used for cloning genes in plants and animals respectively?

    Which of the following vectors can be used for cloning genes in plants and animals respectively?

    Byju's Answer Standard XII Biology Transformation Which of the ... Question

    Which of the following vectors can be used for cloning genes in plants and animals respectively?


    Lamda phage and Ti plasmid


    Lamda phage and retrovirous


    Ti plasmid and retrovirous


    Retrovirous and Ti plasmid

    Open in App Solution

    The correct option is C Ti plasmid and retrovirous

    The modified tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid of Agrobacterium

    tumifaciens is used to deliver genes of interest into a variety of plants.

    Similarly, disarmed retroviruses are now used to deliver desirable genes into animal cells.

    Lamda bacteriophages are used as vectors for delivering gene of interest in bacteria.

    Suggest Corrections 1


    Q. Read the given statements and select the correct option.

    Statement 1: The tumour inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid) acts as a cloning vector in recombinant DNA technology.

    Statements : The Ti plasmid which is used in the mechanisms of delivering genes to a cell remains pathogenic.

    Q. Assertion :The Ti plasmid of Agro bacterium tumefactions has been effectively used as a vector for gene transfer in plants. Reason: Ti plasmids carry sites for insertion of foreign gene intended to be transferred.Q. Ti plasmid is an ideal cloning vector forQ. Ti plasmid that is used for introducing genes in plants is obtained fromQ. State whether the following statements are true or false.

    1.A genetically modified Ti plasmid is non pathogenic but able to deliver desirable genes into plant cells.

    2.The Ti plasmid depends on the host cell for replicating itself and creating multiple copies.

    3.The foreign gene is inserted into the virulence/vir genes of Ti plasmid for transfer and integration into the plant cell.


    Process Of Recombinant DNA Technology

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    Standard XII Biology

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