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    How Does a Compression Refrigeration System Work?

    Vapor compression refrigeration systems are commonly used in industrial facilities to create environments conducive to the perseveration and safe storage of…

    How Does a Compression Refrigeration System Work?

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    Process Solutions, Inc.

    Post published: July 1, 2020 Post category: Informational

    Vapor compression refrigeration systems are commonly used in industrial facilities to create environments conducive to the perseveration and safe storage of products. In this guide, we will go over how a compression refrigeration system works, and the four main components used to create the refrigeration cycle.

    The Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle

    The compression refrigeration cycle consists of circulating a liquid refrigerant through four stages of a closed system. As the refrigerant circulates through the system, it is alternately compressed and expanded, changing its state from a liquid to a vapor. As the refrigerant changes state, heat is absorbed and expelled by the system, lowering the temperature of the conditioned space.

    Stage 1: Compression

    In the first stage of the refrigeration cycle, refrigerant enters a compressor as a low-pressure vapor. The compressor compresses the refrigerant to a high-pressure vapor, causing it to become superheated. Once the refrigerant is compressed and heated, it leaves the compressor and enters the next stage of the cycle.

    TIP:

    There are several styles of compressors that can be used in the refrigeration cycle, including scroll, screw, centrifugal, or reciprocating compressors.

    Stage 2: Condensation

    After leaving the compressor, the hot vapor refrigerant enters the next stage of the cycle, condensation. During the condensation stage, the refrigerant enters a condenser and flows through a series of S-shaped tubes. As the hot vapor flows through the condenser, cool air is blown across the tubes by a fan.

    Because the air being blown across the tubes is cooler than the refrigerant, heat transfers from the tubing to the cooler air. This heat transfer causes the hot vapor refrigerant to reach its saturated temperature, which then changes its state to a high-pressure liquid. Once the refrigerant is in a high-pressure liquid state, it is ready to leave the condenser and move on to the metering and expansion stage of the cycle.

    Stage 3: Metering and Expansion

    The third stage of how compression refrigeration systems work consists of the high-pressure liquid refrigerant entering a metering device or expansion valve. The metering device works to maintain high-pressure on the inlet side, while also expanding the liquid refrigerant and lowering the pressure on the outlet side. During the process of expansion, the temperature of the liquid refrigerant is also reduced.

    Stage 4: Evaporation

    In a cool, low-pressure liquid state, the refrigerant is now ready to enter the evaporation stage, which is where the heat is finally removed from the space being conditioned.

    In the evaporation stage, the cool liquid refrigerant leaves the metering device and enters coiled tubes in an evaporator. Fans are then used to blow warm air from the conditioned space across the evaporator coils. The cooler refrigerant in the evaporator coils begins absorbing the heat out of the warmer air, reducing the temperature in the conditioned space

    Meanwhile, as the refrigerant absorbs heat from the air, it begins to boil and changes to a low-pressure vapor. The low-pressure vapor is then pulled back into the compressor, and the cycle starts over.

    About Process Solutions, Inc.

    Located near Seattle, Washington, Process Solutions has over 30 years of experience providing high quality and reliable control systems. With over 100 engineers and technicians on staff and an output of over 3,000 industrial control panels per year, Process Solutions is the Northwest largest control systems integrator. In addition to custom control panel design, build and commissioning, Process Solutions’ control systems services include PLC and HMI programming, robot system integration, energy management and industrial refrigeration control systems, SCADA software, and DAQuery machine monitoring software.

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    [Solved] In a Vapour Compression Refrigeration System, refrigerant ex

    Explanation: In a vapour compression refrigeration system refrigerant enters in a liquid state in the evaporator and it absorbs heat then becomes vapour than

    Home Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Refrigeration Cycles and Devices Vapour Compression (V-C) Cycle

    Question

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    In a Vapour Compression Refrigeration System, refrigerant exists in the liquid state between the _________.

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    UPRVUNL JE ME 25 Oct 2021 Official Paper (Shift 2)

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    Exit of Evaporator and inlet of compressor

    Exit of Condenser and inlet of exapansion valve

    Exit of Compressor and inlet of condenser

    Exit of exapansion valve and inlet of Condenser

    Answer (Detailed Solution Below)

    Option 2 : Exit of Condenser and inlet of exapansion valve

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    Explanation:

    In a vapour compression refrigeration system refrigerant enters in a liquid state in the evaporator and it absorbs heat then becomes vapour than with the help of a compressor and condenser vapour refrigerant comes back to a liquid state.

    The vapour-compression cycle is a process used to extract heat from a box or a room that underlies most refrigeration and air conditioning techniques. It consists of four separate stages:

    Compression (1-2) Isentropic Compression

    Condensation (2-3) Heat rejection at constant pressure

    Expansion (3-4) Constant enthalpy expansion

    Evaporation (4-1) Constant pressure heat addition

    Compressor:  In this device, the temperature of the refrigerant increases at constant entropy. It shows work input to the refrigerator. The condition of the refrigerant is dry saturated vapour before entering the compressor.

    Condenser:  In this device, the heat is rejected at constant pressure. The vapour refrigerant is converted into a liquid refrigerant. Hence the refrigerant is in the liquid state at the exit of the Condenser and inlet of the expansion valve. The maximum temperature of the cycle is at Condenser.

    Expansion Valve: This device removes pressure from the liquid refrigerant to allow expansion or change of state from a liquid to a vapour in the evaporator. It is a constant enthalpy process.

    Evaporator: In this device, the liquid refrigerant is expanded and evaporated. It acts as a heat exchanger that transfers heat from the substance being cooled to a boiling temperature. It shows the refrigeration effect (Cooling effect) The minimum temperature of the cycle is at the Evaporator.

    Important Points

    Among all four devices, the Condenser operated at high pressure.

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    More Vapour Compression (V-C) Cycle Questions

    Q1. In a vapour compression refrigeration cycle, the refrigerant enters the compressor in saturated vapour state at evaporator pressure, with specific enthalpy equal to 250 kJ/kg. The exit of the compressor is superheated at condenser pressure with specific enthalpy equal to 300 kJ/kg. At the condenser exit, the refrigerant is throttled to the evaporator pressure. The coefficient of performance (COP) of the cycle is 3. If the specific enthalpy of the saturated liquid at evaporator pressure is 50 kJ/kg, then the dryness fraction of the refrigerant at entry to evaporator is ________.Q2. Household refrigerators operate onQ3. One ton of refrigeration is equal toQ4. Wet compression in vapour compression cycle meansQ5. The component of vapour compression refrigeration system which raises the temperature and pressure of vapour is known as:Q6. If heat rejected by the refrigerant in condenser is 175 kJ/kg and heat absorbed by the refrigerant in evaporator of vapour compression is 125 kJ/kg, COP (Coefficient of Perfomance) of the refrigeration system is:Q7. In a Vapour Compression Refrigeration System, refrigerant exists in the liquid state between the _________.Q8. In an ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, ______ is the process during which heat is rejected to the environment.Q9. In an actual vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, refrigerant at the compressor inlet is ________Q10. The suction volume requirement of refrigerant per ton of refrigeration effect for a vapour Compression system is: (where q0 is refrigerating effect per unit mass, v1 is the specific volume of vapour at suction and TR is ton of refrigeration effect)

    More Refrigeration Cycles and Devices Questions

    Q1. If Q1 is the heat transfer between hot temperature source and machine, and Q2 is the heat transfer between cold temperature source and machine, then for heat pump, the COP will be equal to

    स्रोत : testbook.com

    Vapor Compression System

    The Vapor Compression System is nearly 200 years old, but it does not seem ready to leave the scene. Learn about the compression cycle in ARANER.

    The Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle, Step By Step

    CATEGORY REFRIGERATION

    MOST RECENT DISTRICT COOLING DISTRICT HEATING TURBINE INLET AIR COOLING THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION

    BLOG > THE VAPOR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE, STEP BY STEP

    5 min

    The Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle is nearly 200 years old, but it does not seem ready to leave the scene any time soon. While some people have viewed this method as environmentally harmful and inefficient, the cycle is still applicable in the industrial sphere. Natural gas plants, petroleum refineries, and petrochemical plan­­­­­­­ts and most of the food and beverage processes are some of the industrial plants that utilize vapor compression refrigeration systems. What is its defining feature of these systems? The simplest explanation of this system is a heat engine working in reverse, technically referred to as reverse Carnot engine. In other words, it is the transfer of heat from a cold reservoir to a hot one. Clausius Statement of the Second Law of thermodynamics states: “It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle and produces no effect other than the transfer of heat from a lower-temperature body to a higher-temperature body”. Since the vapor compression cycle is against the Second Law of Thermodynamics, some work is necessary for the transfer to take place.

    Why Do We Use The Term “Compression”?

    The Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle involves four components: compressor, condenser, expansion valve/throttle valve and evaporator. It is a compression process, whose aim is to raise the refrigerant pressure, as it flows from an evaporator. The high-pressure refrigerant flows through a condenser/heat exchanger before attaining the initial low pressure and going back to the evaporator. A more detailed explanation of the steps is as explained below.

    Step 1: Compression

    The refrigerant (for example R-717) enters the compressor at low temperature and low pressure. It is in a gaseous state. Here, compression takes place to raise the temperature and refrigerant pressure. The refrigerant leaves the compressor and enters to the condenser. Since this process requires work, an electric motor may be used. Compressors themselves can be scroll, screw, centrifugal or reciprocating types.

    Step 2: Condensation

    The condenser is essentially a heat exchanger. Heat is transferred from the refrigerant to a flow of water. This water goes to a cooling tower for cooling in the case of water-cooled condensation. Note that seawater and air-cooling methods may also play this role. As the refrigerant flows through the condenser, it is in a constant pressure. One cannot afford to ignore condenser safety and performance. Specifically, pressure control is paramount for safety and efficiency reasons.   There are several pressure-controlling devices to take care of this requirement

    Step 3: Throttling and Expansion

    When the refrigerant enters the throttling valve, it expands and releases pressure. Consequently, the temperature drops at this stage. Because of these changes, the refrigerant leaves the throttle valve as a liquid vapor mixture, typically in proportions of around 75 % and 25 % respectively. Throttling valves play two crucial roles in the vapor compression cycle. First, they maintain a pressure differential between low- and high-pressure sides. Second, they control the amount of liquid refrigerant entering the evaporator.

    Step 4: Evaporation

    At this stage of the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle, the refrigerant is at a lower temperature than its surroundings. Therefore, it evaporates and absorbs latent heat of vaporization. Heat extraction from the refrigerant happens at low pressure and temperature. Compressor suction effect helps maintain the low pressure. There are different evaporator versions in the market, but the major classifications are liquid cooling and air cooling, depending whether they cool liquid or air respectively.

    Fig 1: Schematic Representation of the Steps

    Problems in the Vapor Compression Cycle

    The Coefficient of Performance (COP) expresses the efficiency of this cycle. Knowing that the aim of the refrigerator is heat removal and that this process requires work, the COP of the cycle becomes: Where “h” is the enthalpy in the system. Some of the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle Problems that may affect this value are:

    Compressor Leakage/Failure

    The failure of an industrial refrigeration compressor can be expensive affair to the company and damaging to the manufacturer’s reputation. Often, manufacturers will tear down returned compressors in search faults. Over years of studies, some common reasons for compressor failure have been identified to include lubrication problems, overheating, slugging, flood back and contamination.

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