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    Ovule culture




    Fruit culturing

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    Indeed, parthenocarpy is a process tightly controlled by plant hormones, and parthenocarpic fruits can be obtained by the combined exogenous application of auxin, GA, and CK (Crane, 1964;

    From: Current Topics in Developmental Biology, 2019

    Related terms:

    CultivarAuxinDrosophilaCell MembraneEnzymesMutationProteinsDNAPhosphoproteins

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    T. TATLIOGLU, in Genetic Improvement of Vegetable Crops, 1993


    Parthenocarpy is the ability to develop fruits without pollination (apomixis excluded). According to Pike and Peterson,108 this character is controlled by an incompletely dominant gene Pc. De Ponti and Garretsen114 explained the inheritance of parthenocarpy by three independent, isomeric major genes with additive action, together with a non-allelic interaction of the homozygote – heterozygote type. Indications have been found for linkages between genes that govern parthenocarpy femaleness and the spined/hairy fruit character. De Ponti109 discussed the correlation between several selection criteria and the possibilities of preselection of young plants.

    Almost all slicing cucumber varieties cultivated in greenhouses in western Europe are parthenocarpic, and parthenocarpic pickling cucumber varieties are also on the market. In Germany the use of parthenocarpic varieties in production for the processing industry is a major part of the total cultivation area of pickling cucumber. Parthenocarpic fruit setting results in an earlier and much more regular production rhythm.167 Parthenocarpy circumvents the inhibitory effect of seed formation on subsequent fruit development. Parthenocarpy must be combined with constant femaleness, because the fruits formed after fertilization in genetic parthenocarpic varieties become misshapen, are of no economical value and lead to loss of production. It is possible to induce artificially parthenocarpic fruit set by treatment with morphactin (chlorfluorenol).125

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    Flowering and fruit set

    Manuel AgustíEduardo Primo-Millo, in The Genus Citrus, 2020

    11.6 Parthenocarpy

    As a general rule, in seedy citrus varieties, pollination is required at anthesis for a successful ovule fertilization as a previous step to the development of seeds. Normally, cell division and, consequently, ovary growth slow down during the anthesis, until the pollination and fertilization occurs. Afterwards, the development of the ovary reactivates to form the fruit and seeds. In these varieties, the lack of pollination causes the fruit set to fail, leading to the fall or premature abscission of the ovary.

    On the contrary, many varieties of Citrus species can naturally set fruits without seeds. This phenomenon, called parthenocarpy, is defined as the ability to produce fruits without fertilization of the ovules and, therefore, without seeds development. Parthenocarpy depends on a genetic factor that favors the maintenance of a relatively high hormone level in the ovary during the anthesis and immediately after it, regardless of pollination and fertilization. The hormonal nature of the stimulus that induces fruit set is confirmed by the fact that parthenocarpy can be artificially induced by the application of certain phytohormones.

    The most frequent cases of parthenocarpy in citrus fruits are found in:


    Self-incompatible varieties that are unable to produce seeds by self-pollination and which, in the absence of cross pollination, can develop fruits without seeds (facultative parthenocarpy). This is the case, for example, of some hybrid varieties of mandarin, such as Nova, Fortune, Nadorcott, Moncada, etc., or some highly parthenocarpic Clementines, such as Marisol. However, some other self-incompatible varieties with low parthenocarpic ability show low productivity, unless they are pollinated with compatible pollen, setting and developing a large proportion of seedy fruits. This is the case of some Clementine cultivars originated by bud mutations.


    Varieties with female gametic sterility, which are unable to produce seeds. This kind of sterility appears absolutely in the triploid varieties. It also occurs in other cultivars, such as Navel sweet orange, Satsuma mandarins, and Marsh seedless grapefruit, where a generalized degeneration of the embryo sacs occurs. In a few cases, some of them may develop seeds in a very small number.

    Parthenocarpy is of great importance in cultivated varieties of citrus cultivars for fresh consumption, since the market requires seedless fruits.

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    Crop Systems

    Y. Israeli, E. Lahav, in Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences (Second Edition), 2017

    Hybridization, Ploidy, and Development of Important Cultivar Groups

    Spontaneous mutations for sterility and parthenocarpy in M. acuminata are maintained by vegetative propagation, and spontaneous hybridization between cultiwilds of M. acuminata ssp. further increased variation within the AA diploids thus producing seedless edible fruit. Seldom, none reduced ovuli (2n gametes) may produce a triploid when fertilized with normal (1n) gamete. Intercrossing within the species, or outcrossing with M. balbisiana, resulted in the production of both AA and AB diploids and of triploid groups AAA, AAB, ABB to which most modern edible banana cultivars belong. A few exceptions are intercrosses between M. acuminata and Australimusa (T genome) or with M. schizocarpa (S genome).

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    Development of fruit without fertilization is called

    Development of fruit without fertilization is called


    Development of fruit without fertilization is called


    Development of fruit without fertilization is called

    A Cell division B Parthenocarpy C Parthenogenesis D Cell culture Open in App Solution

    The correct option is C Parthenocarpy

    Fruit formation without fertilisation results into seedless fruit. Parthenogenesis is development of new individual from unfertilised eggs. Parthenocarpy can be induced artificially using plant hormone auxin.

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    Q. Development of animal embryo from egg without fertilization is called asQ. The development of a sporophyte without fertilization from the vegetative cells of the gametophyte is called asQ.

    If an ovary develops into fruit without fertilization, it is called

    Q. When an ovary develops into a fruit without fertilization it is called as .............Q. When vegetative cell forms embryo without fertilization, it is called as

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