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# the first law of thermodynamics incorporates the concept

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The first law of thermodynamic...

The first law of thermodynamics incorporates the concepts of

( 00 : 00 ) Text Solution Open Answer in App A

consrvation of energy

B

conservation of heat

C

conservation of work

D

eqivalence of heat and work. ## Related Videos 462816353 16 4.7 K 2:41

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First law of thermodynamics introduces concept of The first law of thermodynamics incorporates are concept

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(i) conservation of energy (ii) convervation of heat (iii) conservation of work (iv) equivalence of heat and work The first law of thermodynamics incorporates the concepts of

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a) Conservation of energy b) Conservation of heat c) Conservation of work d) Equivalence of heat and work 643051065 6 5.5 K 4:27

Zeroth law of thermodynamics gives _____ concept.

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## The first law of thermodynamics incorporates the concepts of (a) conservation of energy (b) conservation of heat

The first law of thermodynamics incorporates the concepts of (a) conservation of energy (b) ... work (d) equivalence of heat and work ## The first law of thermodynamics incorporates the concepts of (a) conservation of energy (b) conservation of heat

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## First law of thermodynamics ## First law of thermodynamics

The classical Carnot heat engine

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The first law of thermodynamics is a formulation of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic processes. It distinguishes in principle two forms of energy transfer, heat and thermodynamic work for a system of a constant amount of matter. The law also defines the internal energy of a system, an extensive property for taking account of the balance of energies in the system.

The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of any isolated system, which cannot exchange energy or matter, is constant. Energy can be transformed from one form to another, but can be neither created nor destroyed.

The first law for a thermodynamic process is often formulated as[nb 1]

{\displaystyle \Delta U=Q-W}

, where

{\displaystyle \Delta U}

denotes the change in the internal energy of a closed system (for which heat or work through the system boundary are possible, but matter transfer is not possible),

{\displaystyle Q}

denotes the quantity of energy supplied the system as heat, and

{\displaystyle W}

denotes the amount of thermodynamic work done the system its surroundings.

An equivalent statement is that perpetual motion machines of the first kind are impossible; work

{\displaystyle W}

done by a system on its surroundings requires that the system's internal energy

{\displaystyle U}

decrease or be consumed, so that the amount of internal energy lost by that work must be resupplied as heat

{\displaystyle Q}

by an external energy source or as work by an external machine acting on the system (so that

{\displaystyle U}

is recovered) to make the system work continuously.

The ideal isolated system, of which the entire universe is an example, is often only used as a model. Many systems in practical applications require the consideration of internal chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as transfers of matter into or out of the system. For such considerations, thermodynamics also defines the concept of open systems, closed systems, and other types.

## Contents

1 History

1.1 Original statements: the "thermodynamic approach"

1.2 Conceptual revision: the "mechanical approach"

2 Conceptually revised statement, according to the mechanical approach

3 Description

3.1 Cyclic processes

3.2 Sign conventions

4 Various statements of the law for closed systems

5 Evidence for the first law of thermodynamics for closed systems

5.3 General case for reversible processes

5.4 General case for irreversible processes

5.5 Overview of the weight of evidence for the law

6 State functional formulation for infinitesimal processes

7 Fluid dynamics

8 Spatially inhomogeneous systems

9 First law of thermodynamics for open systems

9.1 Internal energy for an open system

9.2 Process of transfer of matter between an open system and its surroundings

9.3 Open system with multiple contacts

9.3.1 Combination of first and second laws

9.4 Non-equilibrium transfers

## History

In the first half of the eighteenth century, French philosopher and mathematician Émilie du Châtelet made notable contributions to the emerging theoretical framework of energy by proposing a form of the law of conservation of energy that recognized the inclusion of kinetic energy. Empirical developments of the early ideas, in the century following, wrestled with contravening concepts such as the caloric theory of heat.

In 1840, Germain Hess stated a conservation law () for the during chemical transformations. This law was later recognized as a consequence of the first law of thermodynamics, but Hess's statement was not explicitly concerned with the relation between energy exchanges by heat and work.

In 1842, Julius Robert von Mayer made a statement that was expressed by Clifford Truesdell (1980) in the rendition "in a process at constant pressure, the heat used to produce expansion is universally interconvertible with work", but this is not a general statement of the first law.

The first full statements of the law came in 1850 from Rudolf Clausius, and from William Rankine. Some scholars consider Rankine's statement less distinct than that of Clausius.

### Original statements: the "thermodynamic approach"

The original 19th-century statements of the first law of thermodynamics appeared in a conceptual framework in which transfer of energy as heat was taken as a primitive notion, not defined or constructed by the theoretical development of the framework, but rather presupposed as prior to it and already accepted. The primitive notion of heat was taken as empirically established, especially through calorimetry regarded as a subject in its own right, prior to thermodynamics. Jointly primitive with this notion of heat were the notions of empirical temperature and thermal equilibrium. This framework also took as primitive the notion of transfer of energy as work. This framework did not presume a concept of energy in general, but regarded it as derived or synthesized from the prior notions of heat and work. By one author, this framework has been called the "thermodynamic" approach.

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